Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0167
In this work, we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a light-duty direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the SNL single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric modeling of the engine, were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Resonant Capacitive Coupling WPT-Based Method to Power and Monitor Seat Belt Buckle Switch Status in Removable and Interchangeable Seats

2019-04-02
2019-01-0465
In this study, we present an intelligent and wireless subsystem for powering and communicating with three sets of seat belt buckle sensors that are each installed on removable and interchangeable automobile seating. As automobile intelligence systems advance, a logical step is for the driver’s dashboard to display seat belt buckle indicators for rear seating in addition to the front seating. The problem encountered is that removable and interchangeable automobile seating outfitted with wired power and data links are inherently less reliable than rigidly fixed seating, as there is a risk of damage to the detachable power and data connectors throughout end-user seating removal/re-installation cycles.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR, Swirl, and Cylinder Deactivation on Exhaust Temperatures of a Throttled Light-Duty Diesel Engine under Idle Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0544
This study extends a previous study on the effects of intake throttling and post-injection on light-duty Diesel engine exhaust temperatures and emissions, and includes the effects of EGR, in-cylinder swirl air motion, and cylinder deactivation. The baseline injection strategy was adapted from a 2014 Chevrolet Cruze having an engine similar to the light-duty GM engine used for this study. While the engine was fixed to a motoring engine dynamometer, the dynamometer was not active for the study, as the engine was operated under idle conditions. The desired idle speed was controlled using a feedback loop in the control algorithm to vary the duration of the main injection event. Three methods were investigated. In the first method, the engine was operated fully warmed up, firing all four cylinders.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive NOx Emission Control for a Biodiesel Engine Coupled with a Abstract

2019-04-02
2019-01-0734
The applications of biodiesel fuels to Diesel engines have attracted much attention in the past two decades, mainly due to its renewability, biodegradability, and reduced carbon emissions. However, biodiesel-powered engines tend to produce higher NOx emissions than Diesel engines. As the NOx emission regulations for the Diesel engines have been significantly tightened in the past two decades, the NOx emission control for biodiesel engines remains a great challenge. To deal with excessive NOx emissions from biodiesel engines, urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, which have been widely utilized in NOx emission control for Diesel-powered ground vehicles, need to be exploited as well. Urea-based SCR systems are well-known for the tradeoff between NOx reduction efficiency and ammonia slip. The application of biodiesel fuel to SCR systems can significantly change the exhaust condition and thus make SCR design and control even more challenging.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0204
Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System (CLASS)

2019-04-02
2019-01-1122
The Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System is a composite rear suspension knuckle/tieblade consisting of UD prepreg (epoxy resin), SMC (vinylester resin) carbon fibre and a steel insert to reduce the weight of the component by 35% and reduce Co2. The compression moulding manufacturing process and CAE optimisation are unique and ground-breaking for this product and are designed to allow high volume manufacture of approx. 30,000 vehicles per year. The manufacturing techniques employed allow for multi-material construction within a five minute cycle time to make the process viable for volume manufacture. The complexities of the design lie in the areas of manufacturing, CAE prediction and highly specialised design methods. It is a well-known fact that the performance of a composite part is primarily determined by the way it is manufactured.
Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1794
Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.
Technical Paper

On Simulating Sloshing in Vehicle Dynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-1110
We present an approach in which we use simulation to capture the two-way coupling between the dynamics of a vehicle and that of a fluid that sloshes in a tank attached to the vehicle. The simulation is carried out in and builds on support provided by two modules: Chrono::FSI (Fluid-Solid Interaction) and Chrono::Vehicle. The dynamics of the fluid phase is governed by the mass and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations, which are discretized in space via a Lagrangian approach called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. The vehicle dynamics is the solution of a set of differential algebraic equations of motion. All equations are discretized in time via a half-implicit symplectic Euler method. This solution approach is general - it allows for fully three dimensional (3D) motion and nonlinear transients. We demonstrate the solution in conjunction with the simulation of a vehicle model that performs a constant radius turn and double lane change maneuver.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Electrode Erosion for Prediction of Spark Plug Lifetime

2018-04-03
2018-01-0175
A high-fidelity arc plasma simulation tool has been developed that can model arc physics coupled with electrode erosion. The arc physics is modelled using an equilibrium, resistive magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model. Solid electrodes are modelled using an immersed boundary method that allows for the electrodes to deform dynamically without modifying the original mesh or the underlying governing equations. First, a partial validation of the arc physics is performed by comparing arc stretch in cross-flow with experimental results across a 1.1 mm spark gap. Subsequently, the ability to model arc physics in a coupled manner with ablating electrodes is demonstrated in 2D using a 0.7 mm electrode gap with iron electrodes. The objective of this work is to illustrate modeling of coupled arc physics with eroding electrodes; a capability that will be extended for the realistic prediction of spark plug lifetimes in future work.
Technical Paper

Multi-dimensional Modeling of Non-equilibrium Plasma for Automotive Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0198
While spark-ignition (SI) engine technology is aggressively moving towards challenging (dilute and boosted) combustion regimes, advanced ignition technologies generating non-equilibrium types of plasma are being considered by the automotive industry as a potential replacement for the conventional spark-plug technology. However, there are currently no models that can describe the low-temperature plasma (LTP) ignition process in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that are typically used in the multi-dimensional engine modeling community. A key question for the engine modelers that are trying to describe the non-equilibrium ignition physics concerns the plasma characteristics. A key challenge is also represented by the plasma formation timescale (nanoseconds) that can hardly be resolved within a full engine cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicles in the Cyberspace: Accelerating Testing via Computer Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1078
We present an approach in which an open-source software infrastructure is used for testing the behavior of autonomous vehicles through computer simulation. This software infrastructure is called CAVE, from Connected Autonomous Vehicle Emulator. As a software platform that allows rapid, low-cost and risk-free testing of novel designs, methods and software components, CAVE accelerates and democratizes research and development activities in the field of autonomous navigation.
Journal Article

Simulation of Arc Quenching in Hermetically Sealed Electric Vehicle Relays

2018-04-03
2018-01-0765
The goal of this work is to investigate arc quenching in electric vehicle relays using high-fidelity computational modeling. Rapid arc quenching is an essential quality of state-of-the-art high-voltage mechanical relays in electric vehicles. As a relay begins to break electrical contact, strong arcing can occur. This delays the process of sending a signal to the primary circuit breaker to isolate the load from a sudden current surge. The strength and duration of the arc have a significant impact on the safety of electric vehicles as well as on relay contactor erosion/lifetime. A thermal plasma modeling tool is used to estimate switch-off time in an arc relay using hydrogen and air as working gases. The response of arc dynamics and switch-off time to the gas composition, external magnetic field strength, and chamber pressure is studied. It was observed that a hermetically sealed chamber filled with hydrogen is significantly more efficient than air at quenching the arc.
Journal Article

Divided Exhaust Period Implementation in a Light-Duty Turbocharged Dual-Fuel RCCI Engine for Improved Fuel Economy and Aftertreatment Thermal Management: A Simulation Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-0256
Although turbocharging can extend the high load limit of low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), the low exhaust enthalpy prevalent in these strategies necessitates the use of high exhaust pressures for improving turbocharger efficiency, causing high pumping losses and poor fuel economy. To mitigate these pumping losses, the divided exhaust period (DEP) concept is proposed. In this concept, the exhaust gas is directed to two separate manifolds: the blowdown manifold which is connected to the turbocharger and the scavenging manifold that bypasses the turbocharger. By separately actuating the exhaust valves using variable valve actuation, the exhaust flow is split between two manifolds, thereby reducing the overall engine backpressure and lowering pumping losses. In this paper, results from zero-dimensional and one-dimensional simulations of a multicylinder RCCI light-duty engine equipped with DEP are presented.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Linear, Non-Linear and Generalized RNG-Based k-epsilon Models for Turbulent Diesel Engine Flows

2017-03-28
2017-01-0561
In this work, linear, non-linear and a generalized renormalization group (RNG) two-equation RANS turbulence models of the k-epsilon form were compared for the prediction of turbulent compressible flows in diesel engines. The object-oriented, multidimensional parallel code FRESCO, developed at the University of Wisconsin, was used to test the alternative models versus the standard k-epsilon model. Test cases featured the academic backward facing step and the impinging gas jet in a quiescent chamber. Diesel engine flows featured high-pressure spray injection in a constant volume vessel from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), as well as intake flows in a high-swirl diesel engine. For the engine intake flows, a model of the Sandia National Laboratories 1.9L light-duty single cylinder optical engine was used.
Technical Paper

Simulations of Spark-Plug Transient Plasma Breakdown in Automotive Internal Combustion Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0563
The arc breakdown phase in automotive spark-plugs is a sub-microsecond event that precedes the main spark event. This phase is typically characterized by strong non-equilibrium plasma phenomena with high voltage and currents. The nature of the initial breakdown phase has strong implications for the successful spark formation and the electrode erosion/lifetime. There are evidently very few studies that seek to characterize this phase in detail. The goal of this work is to investigate this non-equilibrium plasma arc breakdown phase, using high-fidelity computational modeling. We perform studies using the VizGlow non-equilibrium plasma modeling tool. During the early breakdown phase, the plasma forms thin filamentary streamers that provide the initial conductive channel across the gap. Once the streamers bridge the gap, the plasma begins to transition to a thermal arc.
Journal Article

A Model-Free Stability Control Design Scheme with Active Steering Actuator Sets

2016-04-05
2016-01-1655
This paper presents the application of a proposed fuzzy inference system as part of a stability control design scheme implemented with active steering actuator sets. The fuzzy inference system is used to detect the level of overseer/understeer at the high level and a speed-adaptive activation module determines whether an active front steering, active rear steering, or active 4 wheel steering is suited to improve vehicle handling stability. The resulting model-free system is capable of minimizing the amount of model calibration during the vehicle stability control development process as well as improving vehicle performance and stability over a wide range of vehicle and road conditions. A simulation study will be presented that evaluates the proposed scheme and compares the effectiveness of active front steer (AFS) and active rear steer (ARS) in enhancing the vehicle performance. Both time and frequency domain results are presented.
Journal Article

A Fuzzy Inference System for Understeer/Oversteer Detection Towards Model-Free Stability Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-1630
In this paper, a soft computing approach to a model-free vehicle stability control (VSC) algorithm is presented. The objective is to create a fuzzy inference system (FIS) that is robust enough to operate in a multitude of vehicle conditions (load, tire wear, alignment), and road conditions while at the same time providing optimal vehicle stability by detecting and minimizing loss of traction. In this approach, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is generated using previously collected data to train and optimize the performance of the fuzzy logic VSC algorithm. This paper outlines the FIS detection algorithm and its benefits over a model-based approach. The performance of the FIS-based VSC is evaluated via a co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim model of the vehicle under various road and load conditions. The results showed that the proposed algorithm is capable of accurately indicating unstable vehicle behavior for two different types of vehicles (SUV and Sedan).
Technical Paper

Investigating Air Handling Requirements of High Load Low Speed Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0782
Past research has shown that reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion offers efficiency and NOx and soot advantages over conventional diesel combustion at mid load conditions. However, at high load and low speed conditions, the chemistry timescale of the fuel shortens and the engine timescale lengthens. This mismatch in timescales makes operation at high load and low speed conditions difficult. High levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to extend the chemistry timescales; however, this comes at the penalty of increased pumping losses. In the present study, targeting the high load - low speed regime, computational optimizations of RCCI combustion were performed at 20 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and 1300 rev/min. The two fuels used for the study were gasoline (low reactivity) and diesel (high reactivity).
Technical Paper

Prediction of Automotive Air-Handling System Flow Noise Sound Quality Using Sub-System Measurements

2015-06-15
2015-01-2273
This paper presents the methodology of predicting vehicle level automotive air-handling system air-rush noise sound quality (SQ) using the sub-system level measurement. Measurement setup in both vehicle level and sub-system levels are described. To assess the air-rush noise SQ, both 1/3 octave band sound pressure level (SPL) and overall Zwicker's loudness are used. The “Sound Quality Correlation Functions (SQCF)” between sub-system level and vehicle level are developed for the specified climate control modes and vehicle segment defined by J.D. Power & Associates, while the Zwicker's loudness is calculated using the un-weighted predicted 1/3 octave band SPL. The predicting models are demonstrated in very good agreement with the measured data. The methodology is applied to the development of sub-system SQ requirement for upfront delivery of the optimum design to meet global customer satisfaction
Technical Paper

Study of Stick-Slip Friction between Plunging Driveline

2015-06-15
2015-01-2171
Driveline plunge mechanism dynamics has a significant contribution to the driver's perceivable transient NVH error states and to the transmission shift quality. As it accounts for the pitch or roll movements of the front powerplant and rear drive unit, the plunging joints exhibit resisting force in the fore-aft direction under various driveline torque levels. This paper tackles the difficult task of quantifying the coefficient of static friction and the coefficient of dynamic friction in a simple to use metric as it performs in the vehicle. The comparison of the dynamic friction to the static friction allows for the detection of the occurrence of stick-slip in the slip mechanism; which enables for immediate determination of the performance of the design parameters such as spline geometry, mating parts fit and finish, and lubrication. It also provides a simple format to compare a variety of designs available to the automotive design engineer.
X