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Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Automotive Steering Sheet Metal Yoke for High Strength and Rigidity Requirement

The increasing demand for light weighting products due to introduction of various standards and norms for controlling CO2 emissions and to meet the customer requirement of low cost with higher strength and rigidity of product in automotive industry, sheet metal manufacturing technique is adopted for automotive steering yoke for light commercial vehicle. Currently forged yokes are used for higher strength requirement, while sheet metal yokes are being used for small tonnage vehicle. The attempt has been made to improve overall strength and rigidity of the yoke produced by sheet metal operation using SAPH 440 steel with 6.5mm thickness for light commercial vehicle segments. The major challenge identified for this development was developing such a high strength and thickness material with consistency of dimension during forming process and meeting the torsional strength requirement of 500 Nm.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Process Parameters for Electro Discharge Machining of Al 7075-Al2O3 Nano Composite Using Different Electrode Materials

In the present study, an aluminium based nanocomposite, reinforced with 2 wt. % aluminium oxide (Al2O3) is developed through stir casting method. These hard ceramic particles also influence the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR) and surface finish (Ra) in an electro-discharge machining (EDM) process. In this work, EDM of Al 7075/2 wt. % Al2O3 nanocomposite is carried out using copper and brass electrodes using Taguchi L18 array. The percentage contribution of each process parameter on the response variables was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multi-response signal to noise ratio (MRSN) and the optimum combination levels for the input parameters was obtained using Taguchi’s parametric design. MRR and surface roughness are substantially improved when machining is performed at optimized conditions.
Technical Paper

Study of Surface Integrity and Effect of Laser Peening on Maraging Steel Produced by Lasercusing Technique

In additive manufacturing, lasercusing is the selective laser melting technique. Finely pulverized metal is melted using a high-energy fibre laser, by Island principle strategy produces mechanically and thermally stable metallic components with reduced thermal gradients, stresses & at high precision. Maraging steel 300 (18Ni-300) is an iron-nickel steel alloy often used in applications requires high fracture toughness and strength. It maintains dimensional changes at a minimal level, e.g. aircraft and aerospace industries for rocket motor castings and landing gear or tooling applications. Current research attempts to analyze the effect of laser shock peening on lasercused material. Surface roughness of the material was found to be increased by 8%, due to effect of laser shock pulse & ablative nature. Also 8% increase in macro hardness on the surface.
Technical Paper

Correlating the Experiment and Fluid Structure Interaction Results of a Suction Valve Model from a Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor

The present work is concentrated to study the effect of varying inlet pressures on the dynamics of the suction valve obtained from a hermetic reciprocating compressor. The effect of valve functioning on the efficiency of a compressor is highly acceptable. Rather than the delivery valve, the suction valve has a significant impact on the compressor efficiency. The reed valve in a hermetic compressor is a cantilever type arrangement. The valve operates due to the pressure difference between the suction muffler and the cylinder. The numerical analysis which includes Fluid-structure interaction is used in the present study. The flow and structural domain employed in the present study are modelled with Solidworks 15.0. The fluid structure interaction analysis is a combination of ANSYS Fluent and ANSYS structural. These two are coupled with a system coupling in ANSYS Workbench 16.0. The numerical results obtained from the simulation are validated with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Influence of Coating Thickness and Operating Parameters on the Tribological Characteristics of Inconel 625 Components Fabricated Using DMD

Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a rapid prototyping technique used to fabricate and repair metallic prototypes. It can be used in the production of complex geometries and unique parts. In functional automotive applications wear characteristics hold key importance. In the present study, an analysis on the influence of various parameters (coating thickness, load and temperature) on the wear characteristics of Direct Metal Deposited (DMD) Inconel 625 coating has been carried out using a Design of Experiments (DOE). ANOVA calculations were performed to find out which of these parameters showed significant influence on the wear properties. It was found that load was the most significant parameter influencing the wear characteristics .Similarly load was found to be most influencing parameter for co efficient of friction. The trend was found to follow when verified at 30 second, 3 minutes, 60 minutes and 120 minutes.
Technical Paper

Structural Analysis of Electric Vehicle Transmission - Mounts and Casing for Different Materials

The main objective of the study is to design and analyze casing and supports of a transmission system for an electric vehicle. The system comprises of motors as the power source, constant mesh gear box coupled with limited slip differential as the power transmitting source. The space occupied by the transmission system is a foremost constraint in designing the system. The wear and tear in the system is caused by the gear meshing process and transmission error which lead to failure of the transmission system. This internal excitation also produces a dynamic mesh force, which is transmitted to the casing and mounts through shafts and bearings. In order to overcome such issues in a transmission system, a gear box casing, differential mounts and motor mounts have been designed by the use of CAD-modeling software “SOLIDWORKS”. The designs were imported to FEA software “ANSYS” for carrying out static structural analysis.
Technical Paper

An Upper Bound Elemental Technique for Load Prediction of Axisymmetric Hot Forged Specimens

Forging is a metal forming process involving shaping of metal by the application of compressive forces using hammer or press. Forging load of equipment is an important function of forging process and the prediction of the same is essential for selection of appropriate equipment. In this study a hot forging material i.e. 42CrMo4 steel is selected which is used in automotive components like axle, crank shaft. Hot forging experiments at 750°C are carried out on cylindrical specimens of aspect ratio 0.75 and 1.5 with true height strain (ln (ho/hf)) of 0.6. Forging load for the experiments is calculated using slab and upper bound deformation models as well as Metal forming simulation using commercially available FEA software. The upper bound models with 30% deviation from the simulation results are found to be more accurate compared to the slab models.
Technical Paper

AlON A-Pillars: Enhancing Passenger Safety and Driver Visibility

With the ever increasing emphasis on vehicle occupant safety, the safety of pedestrians is getting obscured behind the A-pillars that are expanding in order to meet the federal roof crush standards. The serious issue of pillar blind spots poses threats to the pedestrians who easily disappear from driver's field of view. To recognize this blinding danger and design the car around the driver's eye, this paper proposes the implementation of Aluminum Oxynitride marked under name AlON by Surmet Corporation for fabrication of A-pillars that can allow more than 80% visibility through them. AlON is a polycrystalline ceramic with cubic spinel crystal structure and is composed of aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen. With hardness more than 85% than sapphire, its applications range from aerospace to defense purposes which qualify it in terms of strength and thus imply that it can be conveniently used as A-pillars in vehicles. Furthermore, it possesses characteristics of being bonded to metals as well.
Technical Paper

A Fastener Analysis Addressing Various Types of Misfit and Its Damage Life Calculations

In a fastening system when there is a small misalignment of the holes, the holes are enlarged to align the axes and a next size fastener is used to fit the joint. But when the misalignment is large then the enlargement need to be proportionally large. In this case a bushing is press fit onto the hole to handle the fastening. If we press fit a bushing, it generates residual stresses in the panel. These residual stresses reduce the damage life of the components on which the bushings were press fit. In the aircraft engine nacelle components the damage life is very critical in various failure conditions such as fan blade out condition, wind milling and bird strike. It increases the flight time in these events. Here four different case studies were considered to study the damage life of the aircraft components made of Aluminum or composite material.