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Technical Paper

Acidic Condensation in HP EGR Systems Cooled at Low Temperature Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

2010-05-05
2010-01-1530
In order to further reduce NOx emissions in increasing HP EGR cooler performance, several OEMs have decided to use a secondary cooling loop dedicated to bring cold water (around 35°C) to the HP EGR heat exchanger. Nevertheless, strongly cooled EGR gases can condensate in the cooler-producing acidic liquids which can corrode some parts in the loop. It is therefore necessary to define EGR components compatible with such kind of environment and constraints. Testing was performed on a 2.0-liter EU4 diesel engine, using a large panel of current fuels including neat biodiesels from soybean, rapeseed or palm, as well as low and high sulfur petroleum-based diesels. In order to cover all existing cycle conditions, the HP EGR is cooled from 20°C to 90°C independently from the engine coolant circuit.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Polypropylene Based Compounds for Radiator Tank Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-1526
The current market uses Nylon66 or PA66 based compounds for radiator end tank applications. This study will focus on investigating the feasibility of using Polypropylene based compound material for radiator tank application. Interest in Polypropylene (PP) exists due to various material property advantages as well as cost and weight reduction opportunities. Study will involve 3 different grades of Polypropylene (PP). The Finite Element (FE) simulations and corresponding product testing will investigate the feasibility range for such compounds in radiator tank applications. Validated Finite Element (FE) model will be used to compute the Stress, Strain and Deflection magnitudes in the radiator using specific grade of Polypropylene. Various iterations will be computed to fully understand the effect of temperature on specific grades and its impact on the feasible application range.
Technical Paper

A Controllable Water Cooled Charge Air Cooler (WCCAC) for Diesel Trucks

2004-10-26
2004-01-2614
Water-cooled charge air cooling is being considered as part of various technology solutions in response to 2007 US, 2010 US, EU4 and EU5 emissions standards. As manufacturers determine appropriate engine and vehicle solutions to meet the upcoming emissions standards, charge air cooling requirements are increasing due to higher turbocharger outlet temperatures and pressures, higher EGR rates, and requests for intake manifold temperature control to manage combustion and exhaust temperatures. Valeo and EMP have collaborated on the development and testing of a water cooled charge air cooler (WCCAC), controlled by a 12 volt brushless motor coolant pump. The system design addresses material temperature limitations of air-air aluminum CAC's and has the potential to simplify the packaging of the air induction system.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fan System Electric Power on the Heat Performance of Engine Cooling Module

2003-03-03
2003-01-0275
This study describes the influence of fan system electric power on the heat performance of engine cooling module versus vehicle speeds, from idle to maximum speed. Depending on the fan system electric power from 60 to 800 watts, for example, and even if the fan is switched on, their behaviors are different versus vehicle speeds. The 70 watts fan has its influence on the heat performance of engine cooling module until medium vehicle speeds but the high electric fan system power has its influence up to maximum speed. This study will focus on this phenomena, particularly, the difference between fan on and off is function of vehicle speeds. A simple simulation model [1] and [2] will be used to explain this phenomena. Also presented in this paper is the heat performance of cooling radiator and cooling module on the several vehicles tested in the climatic wind tunnel according to the cooling specifications.
Technical Paper

Influence of Front End Vehicle, Fan and Shroud on the Heat Performance of A/C Condenser and Cooling Radiator

2002-03-04
2002-01-1206
This study is the continuation of our study published in reference 1 concerning the cooling radiator performance on the vehicle. In addition to the last paper, two main parameters will be shown: the air velocity through the A/C condenser and its heat performance. They will be studied and presented, particularly,: The influence of the cooling radiator (geometry and performance), The influence of size and position of A/C condenser to the cooling radiator, The influence of the electric fan (size, power and performance, fan on or fan off), The influence of fan shroud (without fan shroud, with full fan shroud or with partial fan shroud), The influence of vehicle (pressure coefficient, grill, size of air inlet, under-hood, size of under-hood air outlet, etc).
Technical Paper

Economical Engine Cooling System

2001-05-14
2001-01-1708
The previous study presented during the last VTMS 4 showed the following results, for all engine cooling system and depending on the vehicles: Cost reduction by - 10 to -15%, Weight reduction by -15 to - 21%, Coolant volume reduction by -25% Fuel consumption by -3%, Thermal comfort improvement. Despite of these good results, most of car manufacturers hesitated to use this new concept due to this technological breakthrough of engine cooling system because of expensive durability studies. In this paper the electric fan has been simply suppressed and replaced by the heating blower allowing to cool the engine at idle and at low vehicle speed. By suppressing the electric cooling fan, the advantages of this new economical engine cooling system become: cost reduction up to - 30%, weight reduction up to - 30%.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Cooling Thermal Management System on a Dual Voltage 42V-14V Minivan

2001-05-14
2001-01-1742
Today the worldwide convergence towards stricter fuel consumption and emission regulations is pushing carmakers and suppliers into new fields of innovation. Valeo Engine Cooling, VEC, is contributing towards these goals by applying its thermal management system expertise in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions by using an advanced engine cooling system that incorporated variable speed PWM fans, an electric water pump and an electric water control valve. The paper discusses the benefits in terms of engine cooling, fuel economy and emissions over the FTP drive cycle. The paper gives some examples of advanced engine cooling strategies based on a virtual, predictive metal temperature sensor that is used to actuate the electrical water pump at the desired flow rate. The electrical balance between the 42V pump and fans has also been optimized to reduce the vehicle electrical power consumption and to keep the coolant temperature close to 110°C.
Technical Paper

Automatic Control of Electronic Actuators for an Optimized Engine Cooling Thermal Management

2001-05-14
2001-01-1758
The main objectives of new technologies for internal-combustion engine are lower consumption, pollutant reduction and comfort passenger increase. To reach these objectives, we have adopted for engine thermal management two strategies: quicker rise temperature during the cold start and higher engine temperature for part load. To satisfy these criteria, we have modified the classic cooling loop. An electric water pump, an electric water valve and variable speed fan system are the new actuators automatically controlled by electronic calculator. This concept allows to obtain a warm-up time reduced by 50% and 2 to 3% fuel economy on the European cycle.
Technical Paper

Truck Airflow Management Influence on Cooling Module Performance - Experimental and Numerical Study

2000-03-06
2000-01-0969
The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for the cooling system optimization based on experimental and numerical studies. Experimental measurements of fan performance for several truck fans have been carried out in order to determine the representative fan curves. These fan curves have been used to numerically simulate the performance of a truck cooling module consisting of heat exchangers and fan. The cooling module performance optimization has been carried out considering different fans, fan pumping power and fan overdrive ratios. The fan shroud has great influence on the cooling air flow distribution across the exchangers. The test bench has potentials to test a charge air cooler and a radiator at the same time simulating different truck operating conditions. In order to investigate the influence of different shrouds on the performance, experimental measurements and numerical study have been done for several module configurations.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Cooling Loop for a Variable Speed Fan System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0576
A simulation approach is developed to define the control strategies of a new ‘intelligent’ component of the engine cooling system: the variable speed fan system. The paper describes the way each component of the cooling loop is characterized by geometric data or test results to create a one dimensional network of the cooling circuit. Then, comparison with experimental confirms the relevance of the models and their limits. At last, several types of control strategies are evaluated on a simplified driving cycle. This study finally determines the necessary tests to obtain a correct model, able to adapt control strategies for any vehicle.
Technical Paper

Rotor Stator Interactions in Engine Cooling Fan Systems

1999-03-01
1999-01-0580
For Valeo Engine Cooling, CFD now plays a key role as a design tool in the optimization of its fans as shown in [13] [6]. The next challenge has been to address installation effects found in the engine block compartment on the fan performances. A first step towards this goal has been to consider the interaction of the fan with the struts or the stators of its support. The potential gains of a stage configuration are first addressed by a dimensional analysis and a simplified radial equilibrium approach. The first CFD results achieved during the optimization of the rotor-stator system implemented on the new fan range are then presented. These are two-dimensional and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes predictions of steady state rotor-stator interaction with or without pitch change. Parametric studies on the stator stagger angle and shape have been performed.
Technical Paper

CFD Based Design for Automotive Engine Cooling Fan Systems

1998-02-23
980427
Cutting down fan system development costs, improving quality, and increasing fan efficiency is a challenge that is now being addressed by the engine cooling engineers. In order to attain such a compelling goal, a Virtual Prototyping approach has been adopted, mainly based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)[7]. For the development of the fans used in the engine cooling systems, CFD now plays a key role as a design tool as well as an optimization tool. Until recently, both complex geometries and low-speed aerodynamics inherent to latter systems have prevented numerical simulations to be part of the design or reblading processes. Since the advent of general purpose CFD softwares capable of adressing the issues pertinent to the engine cooling system fans, a CFD based development of a new standard fan range was initiated. This paper presents the CFD strategy adopted and the results obtained on the new fans.
Technical Paper

In Vehicle Cooling Module Performance Prediction - PC Program Features

1993-04-01
931074
This paper describes a PC based computer program, NSYSDES (new system design), that will rate a vehicle cooling module including up to five fluid to air components, a fan with shroud and vehicle ram air. It is intended for use by sales and applications engineers who need quick yet reliable ratings of proposed systems to respond to a sales quotation. Given complete package and component geometry specifications, component dimensionless surface friction and heat transfer characteristics and inlet conditions, this program will yield outlet temperatures and system air side pressure drop as primary results. Stressed are user entries and program options rather than in-depth technical descriptions.
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