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Technical Paper

Willans Line Bidirectional Power Flow Model for Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles

A new and unique electric vehicle powertrain model based on bidirectional power flow for propel and regenerative brake power capture is developed and applied to production battery electric vehicles. The model is based on a Willans line model to relate power input from the battery and power output to tractive effort, with one set of parameters (marginal efficiency and an offset loss) for the bidirectional power flow through the powertrain. An electric accessory load is included for the propel, brake and idle phases of vehicle operation. In addition, regenerative brake energy capture is limited with a regen fraction (where the balance goes to friction braking), a power limit, and a low speed cutoff limit. The purpose of the model is to predict energy consumption and range using only tractive effort based on EPA published road load and test mass (test car list data) and vehicle powertrain parameters derived from EPA reported unadjusted UDDS and HWFET energy consumption.
Technical Paper

ESS Design Process Overview and Key Outcomes of Year Two of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Design and Implementation of a Series-Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech has achieved the Year 2 goal of producing a 65% functional mule vehicle suitable for testing and refinement, while maintaining the series-parallel plug-in hybrid architecture developed during Year 1. Even so, further design and expert consultations necessitated an extensive redesign of the rear powertrain and front auxiliary systems packaging. The revised rear powertrain consists of the planned Rear Traction Motor (RTM), coupled to a single-speed transmission. New information, such as the dimensions of the high voltage (HV) air conditioning compressor and the P2 motor inverter, required the repackaging of the hybrid components in the engine bay. The P2 motor/generator was incorporated into the vehicle after spreading the engine and transmission to allow for the required space.