Willans Line Bidirectional Power Flow Model for Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles
A new and unique electric vehicle powertrain model based on bidirectional power flow for propel and regenerative brake power capture is developed and applied to production battery electric vehicles. The model is based on a Willans line model to relate power input from the battery and power output to tractive effort, with one set of parameters (marginal efficiency and an offset loss) for the bidirectional power flow through the powertrain. An electric accessory load is included for the propel, brake and idle phases of vehicle operation. In addition, regenerative brake energy capture is limited with a regen fraction (where the balance goes to friction braking), a power limit, and a low speed cutoff limit. The purpose of the model is to predict energy consumption and range using only tractive effort based on EPA published road load and test mass (test car list data) and vehicle powertrain parameters derived from EPA reported unadjusted UDDS and HWFET energy consumption.