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Technical Paper

Energy-Efficient and Context-Aware Computing in Software-Defined Vehicles for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)

The rise of Software-Defined Vehicles (SDV) has rapidly advanced the development of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), Autonomous Vehicle (AV), and Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) technology. While AVs need power to compute data from perception to controls, BEVs need the efficiency to optimize their electric driving range and stand out compared to traditional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles. AVs possess certain shortcomings in the current world, but SAE Level 2+ (L2+) Automated Vehicles are the focus of all major Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). The most common form of an SDV today is the amalgamation of AV and BEV technology on the same platform which is prominently available in most OEM’s lineups. As the compute and sensing architectures for L2+ automated vehicles lean towards a computationally expensive centralized design, it may hamper the most important purchasing factor of a BEV, the electric driving range.
Technical Paper

A Naturalistic Driving Study for Lane Change Detection and Personalization

Driver Assistance and Autonomous Driving features are becoming nearly ubiquitous in new vehicles. The intent of the Driver Assistant features is to assist the driver in making safer decisions. The intent of Autonomous Driving features is to execute vehicle maneuvers, without human intervention, in a safe manner. The overall goal of Driver Assistance and Autonomous Driving features is to reduce accidents, injuries, and deaths with a comforting driving experience. However, different drivers can react differently to advanced automated driving technology. It is therefore important to consider and improve the adaptability of these advances based on driver behavior. In this paper, a human-centric approach is adopted to provide an enriching driving experience. We perform data analysis of the naturalistic behavior of drivers when performing lane change maneuvers by extracting features from extensive Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) data of over 5,400,000 data files.
Technical Paper

Energy Modeling of Deceleration Strategies for Electric Vehicles

Rapid adoption of battery electric vehicles means improving the energy consumption and energy efficiency of these new vehicles is a top priority. One method of accomplishing this is regenerative braking, which converts kinetic energy to electrical energy stored in the battery pack while the vehicle is decelerating. Coasting is an alternative strategy that minimizes energy consumption by decelerating the vehicle using only road load. A battery electric vehicle model is refined to assess regenerative braking, coasting, and other deceleration strategies. A road load model based on public test data calculates tractive effort requirements based on speed and acceleration. Bidirectional Willans lines are the basis of a powertrain model simulating battery energy consumption. Vehicle tractive and powertrain power are modeled backward from prescribed linear velocity curves, and the coasting trajectory is forward modeled given zero tractive power.
Technical Paper

Interconnected Roll Stability Control System for Semitrucks with Double Trailers

This paper provides a simulation analysis of a novel interconnected roll stability control (RSC) system for improving the roll stability of semitrucks with double trailers. Different from conventional RSC systems where each trailer’s RSC module operates independently, the studied interconnected RSC system allows the two trailers’ RSC systems to communicate with each other. As such, if one trailer’s RSC activates, the other one is also activated to assist in further scrubbing speed or intervening sooner. Simulations are performed using a multi-body vehicle dynamics model that is developed in TruckSim® and coupled with the RSC model established in Simulink®. The dynamic model is validated using track test data. The simulation results for a ramp steer maneuver (RSM) and sine-with-dwell (SWD) maneuver indicate that the proposed RSC system reduces lateral acceleration and rollover index for both trailers, decreasing the likelihood of wheel tip-up and vehicle rollover.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Hybrid Vehicle Energy Management Strategy

An energy management strategy for a prototype P4 parallel hybrid Chevrolet Blazer is developed for the EcoCAR Mobility Challenge. The objective of the energy management strategy is to reduce energy consumption while maintaining the drive quality targets of a conventional vehicle. A comprehensive model of the hybrid powertrain and vehicle physics is constructed to aid in the development of the control strategy. To improve fuel efficiency, a Willans line model is developed for the conventional powertrain and used to develop a rule-based torque split strategy. The strategy maximizes high efficiency engine operation while reducing round trip losses. Calibratable parameters for the torque split operating regions allow for battery state of charge management. Torque request and filtering algorithms are also developed to ensure the hybrid powertrain can smoothly and reliably meet driver demand.
Journal Article

Unified Net Willans Line Model for Estimating the Energy Consumption of Battery Electric Vehicles

Due to increased urgency regarding environmental concerns within the transportation industry, sustainable solutions for combating climate change are in high demand. One solution is a widespread transition from internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to battery electric vehicles (BEVs). To facilitate this transition, reliable energy consumption modeling is desired for providing quick, high-level estimations for a BEV without requiring extensive vehicle and computational resources. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to create a simple, yet reliable vehicle model, that can estimate the energy consumption of most electric vehicles on the market by using parameter normalization techniques. These vehicle parameters include the vehicle test weight and performance to obtain a unified net Willans line to describe the input/output power using a linear relationship.
Technical Paper

5G Network Connectivity Automated Test and Verification for Autonomous Vehicles Using UAVs

The significance and the number of vehicle safety features enabled via connectivity continue to increase. OnStar, with its automatic airbag notification, was one of the first vehicle safety features that demonstrate the enhanced safety benefits of connectivity. Vehicle connectivity benefits have grown to include remote software updates, data analytics to aid with preventative maintenance and even to theft prevention and recovery. All of these services require available and reliable connectivity. However, except for the airbag notification, none have strict latency requirements. For example, software updates can generally be postponed till reliable connectivity is available. Data required for prognostic use cases can be stored and transmitted at a later time. A new set of use cases are emerging that do demand continuous, reliable and low latency connectivity. For example, remote control of autonomous vehicles may be required in unique situations.
Technical Paper

Development of a Willans Line Rule-Based Hybrid Energy Management Strategy

The pre-prototype development of a simulated rule-based hybrid energy management strategy for a 2019 Chevrolet Blazer RS converted parallel P4 full hybrid is presented. A vehicle simulation model is developed using component bench data and validated using EPA-reported dynamometer fuel economy test data. A combined Willans line model is proposed for the engine and transmission, with hybrid control rules based on efficiency-derived engine power thresholds. Algorithms are proposed for battery state of charge (SOC) management including engine loading and one pedal strategies, with battery SOC maintained within 20% to 80% safe limits and charge balanced behavior achieved. The simulated rule-based hybrid control strategy for the hybrid vehicle has an energy consumption reduction of 20% for the Hot 505, 3.6% for the HwFET, and 12% for the US06 compared to the stock vehicle.
Journal Article

Willans Line Bidirectional Power Flow Model for Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles

A new and unique electric vehicle powertrain model based on bidirectional power flow for propel and regenerative brake power capture is developed and applied to production battery electric vehicles. The model is based on a Willans line model to relate power input from the battery and power output to tractive effort, with one set of parameters (marginal efficiency and an offset loss) for the bidirectional power flow through the powertrain. An electric accessory load is included for the propel, brake and idle phases of vehicle operation. In addition, regenerative brake energy capture is limited with a regen fraction (where the balance goes to friction braking), a power limit, and a low-speed cutoff limit. The purpose of the model is to predict energy consumption and range using only tractive effort based on EPA published road load and test mass (test car list data) and vehicle powertrain parameters derived from EPA reported unadjusted UDDS and HWFET energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development. All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events.
Technical Paper

EcoRouting Strategy Using Variable Acceleration Rate Synthesis Methodology

This paper focuses on the analysis of an EcoRouting system with minimum and maximum number of conditional stops. The effect on energy consumption with the presence and absence of road-grade information along a route is also studied. An EcoRouting system has been developed that takes in map information and converts it to a graph of nodes containing route information such as speed limits, stop lights, stop signs and road grade. A variable acceleration rate synthesis methodology is also introduced in this paper that takes into consideration distance, acceleration, cruise speed and jerk rate as inputs to simulate driver behavior on a given route. A simulation study is conducted in the town of Blacksburg, Virginia, USA to analyze the effects of EcoRouting in different driving conditions and to examine the effects of road grade and stop lights on energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Tire-Road Contact Forces: A Comparison between Artificial Neural Network and Observed Theory Approaches

One of the principal goals of modern vehicle control systems is to ensure passenger safety during dangerous maneuvers. Their effectiveness relies on providing appropriate parameter inputs. Tire-road contact forces are among the most important because they provide helpful information that could be used to mitigate vehicle instabilities. Unfortunately, measuring these forces requires expensive instrumentation and is not suitable for commercial vehicles. Thus, accurately estimating them is a crucial task. In this work, two estimation approaches are compared, an observer method and a neural network learning technique. Both predict the lateral and longitudinal tire-road contact forces. The observer approach takes into account system nonlinearities and estimates the stochastic states by using an extended Kalman filter technique to perform data fusion based on the popular bicycle model.
Technical Paper

An Artificial Neural Network Model to Predict Tread Pattern-Related Tire Noise

Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) is a dominant source for passenger cars and trucks above 40 km/h and 70 km/h, respectively. TPIN is mainly generated from the interaction between the tire and the pavement. In this paper, twenty-two passenger car radial (PCR) tires of the same size (16 in. radius) but with different tread patterns were tested on a non-porous asphalt pavement. For each tire, the noise data were collected using an on-board sound intensity (OBSI) system at five speeds in the range from 45 to 65 mph (from 72 to 105 km/h). The OBSI system used an optical sensor to record a once-per-revolution signal to monitor the vehicle speed. This signal was also used to perform order tracking analysis to break down the total tire noise into two components: tread pattern-related noise and non-tread pattern-related noise.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Bench Testing of a GM 5.3L V8 Engine

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is currently modeling and bench testing powertrain components for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The custom powertrain is being implemented in a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro for the EcoCAR 3 competition. The engine, a General Motors (GM) L83 5.3L V8 with Active Fuel Management (AFM) from a 2014 Silverado, is of particular importance for vehicle integration and functionality. The engine is one of two torque producing components in the powertrain. AFM allows the engine to deactivate four of the eight cylinders which is essential to meet competition goals to reduce petroleum energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. In-vehicle testing is performed with a 2014 Silverado on a closed course to understand the criteria to activate AFM. Parameters required for AFM activation are monitored by recording vehicle CAN bus traffic.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy Development for Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Fuzzy Control Logic

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is currently developing a control strategy for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The hybrid powertrain is being implemented in a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro for the EcoCAR 3 competition. Fuzzy rule sets determine the torque split between the motor and the engine using the accelerator pedal position, vehicle speed and state of charge (SOC) as the input variables. The torque producing components are a 280 kW V8 L83 engine with active fuel management (AFM) and a post-transmission (P3) 100 kW custom motor. The vehicle operates in charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes. In CD mode, the model drives as an electric vehicle (EV) and depletes the battery pack till a lower state of charge threshold is reached. Then CS operation begins, and driver demand is supplied by the engine operating in V8 or AFM modes with supplemental or loading torque from the P3 motor.
Technical Paper

A Simulation-Based Study on the Improvement of Semi-Truck Roll Stability in Roundabouts

This paper studies the effect of different longitudinal load conditions, roundabout cross-sectional geometry, and different semi-truck pneumatic suspension systems on roll stability in roundabouts, which have become more and more popular in urban settings. Roundabouts are commonly designed in their size and form to accommodate articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) by evaluating such affects as off-tracking. However, the effect of the roadway geometry in roundabouts on the roll dynamics of semi-tractors and trailers are equally important, along with their entry and exit configuration. , Because the effect of the roundabout on the dynamics of trucks is further removed from the immediate issues considered by roadway planner, at times they are not given as much consideration as other roadway design factors.
Technical Paper

Optimized Design Procedure for Active Power Converters in Aircraft Electrical Power Systems

In modern aircraft power systems, active power converters are promising replacements for transformer rectifier units concerning efficiency and weight. To assess the benefits of active power converters, converter design and optimization should be carefully done under the operation requirements of aircraft applications: electromagnetic interference (EMI) standards, power quality standards, etc. Moreover, certain applications may have strict limits on other converter specifications: weight, size, converter loss, etc. This paper presents the methodology for performance optimization of different active power converters (active front-ends, isolated DC/DC converters and three-phase isolated converters) for aircraft applications. Key methods for power converter component (e.g. inductors, semiconductor devices, etc.) performance optimization and loss calculation are introduced along with the converter optimization procedure.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design and Weight Optimization of Aircraft Power Systems with High-Peak Pulsed Power Loads

The more electric aircraft (MEA) concept has gained popularity in recent years. As the main building blocks of advanced aircraft power systems, multi-converter power electronic systems have advantages in reliability, efficiency and weight reduction. The pulsed power load has been increasingly adopted--especially in military applications--and has demonstrated highly nonlinear characteristics. Consequently, more design effort needs to be placed on power conversion units and energy storage systems dealing with this challenging mission profile: when the load is on, a large amount of power is fed from the power supply system, and this is followed by periods of low power consumption, during which time the energy storage devices get charged. Thus, in order to maintain the weight advantage of MEA and to keep the normal functionality of the aircraft power system in the presence of a high-peak pulsed power load, this paper proposes a novel multidisciplinary weight optimization technique.
Technical Paper

Effects of Commercial Truck Configuration on Roll Stability in Roundabouts

This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of truck configurations on the roll stability of commercial trucks in roundabouts that are commonly used in urban settings with increasing frequency. The special geometric layout of roundabouts can increase the risk of rollover in high-CG vehicles, even at low speeds. Relatively few in-depth studies have been conducted on rollover stability of commercial trucks in roundabouts. This study uses a commercially available software, TruckSim®, to perform simulations on four truck configurations, including a single-unit truck, a WB-67 semi-truck, the combination of a tractor with double 28-ft trailers, and the combination of a tractor with double 40-ft trailers. A single-lane and multilane roundabout are modeled, both with a truck apron. Three travel movements through the roundabouts are considered, including right turn, through-movement, and left turn.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Optimization Framework for Nonconventional Aircraft Configurations in PACELAB APD

1 Most traditional methods and equations for estimating the structural and nonstructural weights and aerodynamics used at the aircraft conceptual design phase are empirical relations developed for conventional tube-and-wing aircraft. In a computation-heavy design process, such as Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) simplicity of calculation is paramount, and for conventional configurations the aforementioned approaches work well enough for conceptual design. But, for non-traditional designs such as strut-braced winged aircraft, empirical data is generally not available and the usual methods can no longer apply. One solution to this is a movement toward generalized physics-based methods that can apply equally well to conventional or non-traditional configurations.