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Journal Article

Application of a Method for the Estimation of Transmissivity of Transparent Surfaces to Exterior Lighting Applications

The paper derives a practical method for analysing transmission rates for light passing through transparent media like outer lenses of head lamps and tail lamps. It is shown that only two geometric parameters are needed to do the analysis, as are the angle of incidence measured to the surface normal and the surface normal itself. The surface is needed to be described mathematically - whether analytical (CAD) or discretised (FE or CFD), but no thickness is necessary. Two fields of application will be shown. The first one is the estimation of light performance or module position of head lamps in the early design process. A second one addresses the optimal time to doing outdoor weathering tests with respect to maximal impact of solar irradiation.
Technical Paper

Virtual Investigation of Real Fuels by Means of 3D-CFD Engine Simulations

The reduction of both harmful emissions (CO, HC, NOx, etc.) and gases responsible for greenhouse effects (especially CO2) are mandatory aspects to be considered in the development process of any kind of propulsion concept. Focusing on ICEs, the main development topics are today not only the reduction of harmful emissions, increase of thermodynamic efficiency, etc. but also the decarbonization of fuels which offers the highest potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Accordingly, the development of future ICEs will be closely linked to the development of CO2 neutral fuels (e.g. biofuels and e-fuels) as they will be part of a common development process. This implies an increase in development complexity, which needs the support of engine simulations. In this work, the virtual modeling of real fuel behavior is addressed to improve current simulation capabilities in studying how a specific composition can affect the engine performance.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Pre-Chamber Combustion Systems for Lean Burn Gas Engines

The current trend in automobiles is towards electrical vehicles, but for the most part these vehicles still require an internal combustion engine to provide additional range and flexibility. These engines are under stringent emissions regulations, in particular, for the reduction of CO2. Gas engines which run lean burn combustion systems provide a viable route to these emission reductions, however designing these engines to provide sustainable and controlled combustion under lean conditions at λ=2.0 is challenging. To address this challenge, it is possible to use a scavenged Pre-Chamber Ignition (PCI) system which can deliver favorable conditions for ignition close to the spark plug. The lean charge in the main combustion chamber is then ignited by flame jets emanating from the pre-chamber nozzles. Accurate prediction of flame kernel development and propagation is essential for the analysis of PCI systems.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions

Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels.
Technical Paper

Steering Feedback Perception of Average Drivers

Electromechanical steering systems (EPS) provide assisting steering force through an electric motor, often paired with a screw drive. The combination of an electric motor and a screw drive lead to high inertia and thus to a reduced feedback of tire force behavior at the steering wheel. This force behavior contains information about driving conditions and road surface. However, the electric motor can be used to actively enhance and manipulate steering feedback. This article describes the driver perception of modified steering feedback. The presented data is collected carrying out a driving simulator study with average drivers as test subjects. In this study the driver experiences a modified steering feedback at a change of road friction coefficient. Based on the test subjects ratings the perception, acceptance and controllability of the presented steering feedback modifications are assessed.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder LIF Imaging, IR-Absorption Point Measurements, and a CFD Simulation to Evaluate Mixture Formation in a CNG-Fueled Engine

Two optical techniques were developed and combined with a CFD simulation to obtain spatio-temporally resolved information on air/fuel mixing in the cylinder of a methane-fueled, fired, optically accessible engine. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of anisole (methoxybenzene), vaporized in trace amounts into the gaseous fuel upstream of the injector, was captured by a two-camera system, providing one instantaneous image of the air/fuel ratio per cycle. Broadband infrared (IR) absorption by the methane fuel itself was measured in a small probe volume via a spark-plug integrated sensor, yielding time-resolved quasi-point information at kHz-rates. The simulation was based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model in a finite volume discretization scheme and included the port-fuel injection event. Commercial CFD software was used to perform engine simulations close to the experimental conditions.
Journal Article

The Thermodynamics of Exhaust Gas Condensation

Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
Journal Article

Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of the Mixing Process in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Using Scale-Resolving Simulations

Since the mechanisms leading to cyclic combustion variabilities in direct injection gasoline engines are still poorly understood, advanced computational studies are necessary to be able to predict, analyze and optimize the complete engine process from aerodynamics to mixing, ignition, combustion and heat transfer. In this work the Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) turbulence model is used in combination with a parameterized lagrangian spray model for the purpose of predicting transient in-cylinder cold flow, injection and mixture formation in a gasoline engine. An existing CFD model based on FLUENT v15.0 [1] has been extended with a spray description using the FLUENT Discrete Phase Model (DPM). This article will first discuss the validation of the in-cylinder cold flow model using experimental data measured within an optically accessible engine by High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV).
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Steering Rack Force Behaviour and Identification of Feedback Information

Electric power steering systems (EPS) are characterized by high inertia and therefore by a considerably damped transmission behaviour. While this is desirable for comfort-oriented designs, EPS do not provide enough feedback of the driving conditions, especially for drivers with a sporty driving style. The systematic actuation of the electric motor of an EPS makes it possible to specifically increment the intensity of the response. In this context, the road-sided induced forces of the tie rod and the steering rack force provide all the information for the steering system’s response. Former concepts differentiate between use and disturbance information by defining frequency ranges. Since these ranges overlap strongly, this differentiation does not segment distinctively. The presented article describes a method to identify useful information in the feedback path of the steering system depending on the driving situation.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Adjoint Optimization of Intake Port Geometry

Meeting the stringent efficiency demands of next generation direct injection engines requires not only optimization of the injection system and combustion chamber, but also an optimal in-cylinder swirling charge flow. This charge motion is largely determined by the shape of the intake port arm geometry and the valve position. In this paper, we outline an extensible methodology implemented in OPENFOAM® for multi-objective geometry optimization based on the continuous adjoint. The adjoint method has a large advantage over traditional optimization approaches in that its cost is not dependent upon the number of parameters being optimized. This characteristic can be used to treat every cell in the computational domain as a tunable parameter - effectively switching cells "on" or "off" depending on whether this action will help improve the objectives.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI/CAI on a Four-Cylinder Test Bench and Vehicle Engine - Results and Conclusions for the Next Investigation Steps

Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes.
Technical Paper

The Response of a Closed Loop Controlled Diesel Engine on Fuel Variation

An investigation was conducted to elucidate, how the latest turbocharged, direct injection Volkswagen diesel engine generation with cylinder pressure based closed loop control, to be launched in the US in 2008, reacts to fuel variability. A de-correlated fuels matrix was designed to bracket the range of US market fuel properties, which allowed a clear correlation of individual fuel properties with engine response. The test program consisting of steady state operating points showed that cylinder pressure based closed loop control successfully levels out the influence of fuel ignition quality, showing the effectiveness of this new technology for markets with a wide range of fuel qualities. However, it also showed that within the cetane range tested (39 to 55), despite the constant combustion mid-point, cetane number still has an influence on particulate and gaseous emissions. Volatility and energy density also influence the engine's behavior, but less strongly.
Technical Paper

A PDF-Based Model for Full Cycle Simulation of Direct Injected Engines

In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
Technical Paper

Study cases using the method of Statistical Energy Analyse SEA for airborne sound transmission in a vehicle body

The acoustics insulation on the car body is ones of the more important target in the NVH (Noise Vibration and Harshness) vehicle development process. The method of SEA is a validated statistical approach to solve airborne noise transmission problems. In the vehicle analysis above 300 Hz where material trim and leakage paths makes a important contribution in the vehicle interior acoustics shows the methodology its advantages over deterministic methods.
Technical Paper

Active Noise Cancellation at Powertrain Oil Pan

Under city driving conditions, the powertrain represents one of the major vehicle exterior noise sources. Especially at idle and during full load acceleration, the oil pan contributes significantly to the overall powertrain sound emission. The engine oilpan can be a significant contributor to the powertrain radiated sound levels. Passive optimization measures, such as structural optimization and acoustic shielding, can be limited by e.g. light-weight design, package and thermal constraints. Therefore, the potential of the Active Structure Acoustic Control (ASAC) method for noise reduction was investigated within the EU-sponsored project InMAR. The method has proven to have significant noise reduction potential with respect to oil pan vibration induced noise. The paper reports on activities within the InMAR project with regard to a passenger car oil pan application of an ASAC system based on piezo-ceramic foil technology.
Technical Paper

Locally Resolved Measurement of Gas-Phase Temperature and EGR-Ratio in an HCCI-Engine and Their Influence on Combustion Timing

Laser-based measurements of charge temperature and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are demonstrated. For this purpose, the rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy technique (CARS) was used. This technique allows temporally and locally resolved measurements in combustion environments through only two small line-of-sight optical accesses and the use of standard gasoline as a fuel. The investigated engine is a production-line four-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine with the valve strategy modified to realize HCCI-operation. CARS-measurements were performed in motored and fired operation and the results are compared to polytropic calculations. Studies of engine speed, load, valve timing, and injection pressure were conducted showing the strong influence of charge temperature on the combustion timing.
Technical Paper

Optimum Diesel Fuel for Future Clean Diesel Engines

Over the next decades to come, fossil fuel powered Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will still constitute the major powertrains for land transport. Therefore, their impact on the global and local pollution and on the use of natural resources should be minimized. To this end, an extensive fundamental and practical study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of simultaneously co-optimizing the system fuel-and-engine using diesel as an example. It will be clearly shown that the still unused co-optimizing of the system fuel-and-engine (including advanced exhaust after-treatment) as a single entity is a must for enabling cleaner future road transport by cleaner fuels since there are large, still unexploited potentials for improvements in road fuels which will provide major reductions in pollutant emissions both in vehicles already in the field and even more so in future dedicated vehicles.
Technical Paper

Brake Judder - Analysis of the Excitation and Transmission Mechanism within the Coupled System Brake, Chassis and Steering System

The prevention of any brake noise or brake-induced body vibrations is a key development target firmly integrated in the car development process. Emphasis is placed here on disc brake judder that is attributable to thickness variations in the disc. These deviations from the ideal plane surface can be caused either by wear and corrosion or by thermal stresses (changes within the microstructure of the disc material). They are termed “cold judder” and “thermal judder” respectively. During braking, possible vibration excitation passes through a wide frequency band due to the coupling between the judder frequency and the wheel rotational speed, and thus, resonant frequencies of many vehicle components can be excited. This includes wheel suspension components and the steering column. In this paper, it is reported on extensive investigations into the topic of “cold judder”.
Technical Paper

Application of Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) for NVH Analysis of a Passenger Car

The overall perception of a vehicle's quality is significantly influenced by its interior noise characteristics. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between “pleasant” and “dynamic” sound that fits the customer requirements with respect to vehicle brand and class [1]. Typically, a significant share of the interior vehicle noise is transferred through structure-borne paths. Hence, the powertrain mounting system plays an important role in designing the interior noise. This paper describes an application of the method of vehicle interior noise simulation (VINS) to achieve a characteristic interior sound. This approach is based on separate measurements (or calculations) of excitations and transfer functions and subsequent calculation of the interior noise in the time domain.