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Technical Paper

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains.
Technical Paper

Virtual Investigation of Real Fuels by Means of 3D-CFD Engine Simulations

The reduction of both harmful emissions (CO, HC, NOx, etc.) and gases responsible for greenhouse effects (especially CO2) are mandatory aspects to be considered in the development process of any kind of propulsion concept. Focusing on ICEs, the main development topics are today not only the reduction of harmful emissions, increase of thermodynamic efficiency, etc. but also the decarbonization of fuels which offers the highest potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Accordingly, the development of future ICEs will be closely linked to the development of CO2 neutral fuels (e.g. biofuels and e-fuels) as they will be part of a common development process. This implies an increase in development complexity, which needs the support of engine simulations. In this work, the virtual modeling of real fuel behavior is addressed to improve current simulation capabilities in studying how a specific composition can affect the engine performance.
Technical Paper

SI Engine Combustion and Knock Modelling Using Detailed Fuel Surrogate Models and Tabulated Chemistry

In the context of today’s and future legislative requirements for NOx and soot particle emissions as well as today’s market trends for further efficiency gains in gasoline engines, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models need to further improve their intrinsic predictive capability to fulfill OEM needs towards the future. Improving fuel chemistry modelling, knock predictions and the modelling of the interaction between the chemistry and turbulent flow are three key challenges to improve the predictivity of CFD simulations of Spark-Ignited (SI) engines. The Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) combustion modelling approach addresses these challenges. By using chemistry pre-tabulation technologies, today’s most detailed fuel chemistry models can be included in the CFD simulation. This allows a much more refined description of auto-ignition delays for knock as well as radical concentrations which feed into emission models, at comparable or even reduced overall CFD run-time.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Pre-Chamber Combustion Systems for Lean Burn Gas Engines

The current trend in automobiles is towards electrical vehicles, but for the most part these vehicles still require an internal combustion engine to provide additional range and flexibility. These engines are under stringent emissions regulations, in particular, for the reduction of CO2. Gas engines which run lean burn combustion systems provide a viable route to these emission reductions, however designing these engines to provide sustainable and controlled combustion under lean conditions at λ=2.0 is challenging. To address this challenge, it is possible to use a scavenged Pre-Chamber Ignition (PCI) system which can deliver favorable conditions for ignition close to the spark plug. The lean charge in the main combustion chamber is then ignited by flame jets emanating from the pre-chamber nozzles. Accurate prediction of flame kernel development and propagation is essential for the analysis of PCI systems.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions

Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels.
Technical Paper

Steering Feedback Perception of Average Drivers

Electromechanical steering systems (EPS) provide assisting steering force through an electric motor, often paired with a screw drive. The combination of an electric motor and a screw drive lead to high inertia and thus to a reduced feedback of tire force behavior at the steering wheel. This force behavior contains information about driving conditions and road surface. However, the electric motor can be used to actively enhance and manipulate steering feedback. This article describes the driver perception of modified steering feedback. The presented data is collected carrying out a driving simulator study with average drivers as test subjects. In this study the driver experiences a modified steering feedback at a change of road friction coefficient. Based on the test subjects ratings the perception, acceptance and controllability of the presented steering feedback modifications are assessed.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder LIF Imaging, IR-Absorption Point Measurements, and a CFD Simulation to Evaluate Mixture Formation in a CNG-Fueled Engine

Two optical techniques were developed and combined with a CFD simulation to obtain spatio-temporally resolved information on air/fuel mixing in the cylinder of a methane-fueled, fired, optically accessible engine. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of anisole (methoxybenzene), vaporized in trace amounts into the gaseous fuel upstream of the injector, was captured by a two-camera system, providing one instantaneous image of the air/fuel ratio per cycle. Broadband infrared (IR) absorption by the methane fuel itself was measured in a small probe volume via a spark-plug integrated sensor, yielding time-resolved quasi-point information at kHz-rates. The simulation was based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model in a finite volume discretization scheme and included the port-fuel injection event. Commercial CFD software was used to perform engine simulations close to the experimental conditions.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Combustion and Emission Processes in Diesel Engines Based on a Tabulated Chemistry Approach

Turbulent combustion modeling in a RANS or LES context imposes the challenge of closing the chemical reaction rate on the sub-grid level. Such turbulent models have as their two main ingredients sources from chemical reactions and turbulence-chemistry interaction. The various combustion models then differ mainly by how the chemistry is calculated (level of detail, canonical flame model) and on the other hand how turbulence is assumed to affect the reaction rate on the sub-grid level (TCI - turbulence-chemistry interaction). In this work, an advanced combustion model based on tabulated chemistry is applied for 3D CFD (computational fluid dynamics) modeling of Diesel engine cases. The combustion model is based on the FGM (Flamelet Generated Manifold) chemistry reduction technique. The underlying chemistry tabulation process uses auto-ignition trajectories of homogeneous fuel/air mixtures, which are computed with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Development of a High Performance and Fuel Efficient TGDI Engine Guided by CFD Simulation and Test

A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
Journal Article

The Thermodynamics of Exhaust Gas Condensation

Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
Journal Article

Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of the Mixing Process in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Using Scale-Resolving Simulations

Since the mechanisms leading to cyclic combustion variabilities in direct injection gasoline engines are still poorly understood, advanced computational studies are necessary to be able to predict, analyze and optimize the complete engine process from aerodynamics to mixing, ignition, combustion and heat transfer. In this work the Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) turbulence model is used in combination with a parameterized lagrangian spray model for the purpose of predicting transient in-cylinder cold flow, injection and mixture formation in a gasoline engine. An existing CFD model based on FLUENT v15.0 [1] has been extended with a spray description using the FLUENT Discrete Phase Model (DPM). This article will first discuss the validation of the in-cylinder cold flow model using experimental data measured within an optically accessible engine by High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV).
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Steering Rack Force Behaviour and Identification of Feedback Information

Electric power steering systems (EPS) are characterized by high inertia and therefore by a considerably damped transmission behaviour. While this is desirable for comfort-oriented designs, EPS do not provide enough feedback of the driving conditions, especially for drivers with a sporty driving style. The systematic actuation of the electric motor of an EPS makes it possible to specifically increment the intensity of the response. In this context, the road-sided induced forces of the tie rod and the steering rack force provide all the information for the steering system’s response. Former concepts differentiate between use and disturbance information by defining frequency ranges. Since these ranges overlap strongly, this differentiation does not segment distinctively. The presented article describes a method to identify useful information in the feedback path of the steering system depending on the driving situation.
Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Technical Paper

About Describing the Knocking Combustion in Gasoline and Gas Engines by CFD Methods

Spark ignited engines are today operated more and more often under high load conditions, where one reason can be identified in the necessity of increasing the efficiency and hence reducing fuel consumption and specific CO2 emissions. Since the gasoline engine operation is inherently limited by knocking at high loads, strategies must be identified, which allow reliable identification and simulation of the appearance of this undesirable type of combustion. A new numerical model for the description of those kinds of pre-flame reactions in a CFD framework is discussed in this paper. Despite emphasis is put here on the auto-ignition effects, it will also be explained that the model is capable of supporting the engine development process in all combustion and emission related aspects.
Technical Paper

Objective Driveability Development of Motorcycles with AVL-DRIVE

Originally developed for the automotive market, a fully automatic real-time measurement tool AVL-DRIVE is commercially available for analyzing and scoring vehicle drive quality, also known as “Driveability”. This system from AVL uses its own transducers, calibrated to the sensitivity and response of the human body to measure the forces felt by the driver, such as acceleration, shock, surging, vibration, noise, etc. Simultaneously, the vehicle operating conditions are measured, (throttle grip angle, engine speed, gear, vehicle speed, temperature, etc.). Because the software is pre-programmed with the scores from a multitude of different vehicles in each vehicle class via neural networks and fuzzy logic formula, a quality score with reference to similar competitor vehicles is instantly given. This tool is already successfully implemented in the market for years to investigate such driveability parameters for passenger cars.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Technical Paper

Single Cylinder 25kW Range Extender as Alternative to a Rotary Engine Maintaining High Compactness and NVH Performance

Due to the restricted capacity of today's battery systems and therefore limited operating range of electric vehicles (EV), several solutions for recharging the energy storage during driving already have been published and still are the subject of extensive development programs. One example is the Range Extender (RE), which is a combination of an internal combustion engine (ICE) with a generator unit, which serves the purpose of a power back-up in case of a battery with low state of charge (SOC), without any direct connection to the drivetrain. For this kind of RE-application, different boundary conditions are very important. Especially in EVs topics like packaging space and NVH behavior play a main role. To fulfill these important characteristics, AVL has developed a Wankel-RE unit in which the generator is driven directly from the eccentric shaft of the rotary-piston ICE.
Technical Paper

Technology Features and Development Methods for Spark Ignited Powertrain to Meet 2020 CO2 Emission Targets

For achieving the forthcoming CO2 emission targets of 95g/km by 2020 and for the years beyond, comprehensive activities for powertrain technology as well as development methodology has to be utilized. It will by far not be enough to add a few single technology features to achieve the desired result. More and more the success will result from comprehensive combining of synergetic utilization of complementary effects. This will be the powertrain perfectly matched to the vehicle, including the energy source, and all together integrated by means of advanced development tools and methodology.
Journal Article

A Study on Operation Fluid Consumption for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application using both, EGR and SCR

This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
Technical Paper

Multi-Component Modeling of Diesel Fuel for Injection and Combustion Simulation

Accurate simulation tools are needed for rapid and cost effective engine development in order to meet ever tighter pollutant regulations for future internal combustion engines. The formation of pollutants such as soot and NOx in Diesel engines is strongly influenced by local concentration of the reactants and local temperature in the combustion chamber. Therefore it is of great importance to model accurately the physics of the injection process, combustion and emission formation. It is common practice to approximate Diesel fuel as a single compound fuel for the simulation of the injection and combustion process. This is in many cases sufficient to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder pressure and heat release in the combustion chamber. The prediction of soot and NOx formation depends however on locally component resolved quantities related to the fuel liquid and gas phase as well as local temperature.