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Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Novel Thermal Barrier Coatings in a Single Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0062
The objective of this investigation was to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC) for internal combustion engines. There is a need for further reduction of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity and the negative effects on heat loss and combustion phasing of surface roughness and permeable porosity, typical for plasma sprayed coatings, should be minimized. Four measures for improvement of TBC properties were evaluated: i) modification of the coating's microstructure by using a novel suspension plasma spraying method, ii) application of gadolinium-zirconate, a novel ceramic material with low thermal conductivity, iii) polishing of the coating to achieve low surface roughness, and iv) sealing of the porous coating surface with a polysilazane. Six coating variants with different combinations of the selected measures were applied on the piston crown and evaluated in a single cylinder light duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Interaction between Fuel Jets and Prevailing Combustion During Closely-Coupled Injections in an Optical LD Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0551
Two imaging techniques are used to investigate the interaction between developed combustion from earlier injections and partially oxidized fuel (POF) of a subsequent injection. The latter is visualized by using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High speed imaging captures the natural luminescence (NL) of the prevailing combustion. Three different fuel injection strategies are studied. One strategy consists of two pilot injections, with modest separations after each, followed by single main and post injections. Both of the other two strategies have three pilots followed by single main and post injections. The separations after the second and third pilots are several times shorter than in the reference case (making them closely-coupled). The closely-coupled cases have more linear heat release rates (HRR) which lead to much lower combustion noise levels.
Technical Paper

Development of the Combustion System for Volvo Cars Euro6d VEA Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0713
The demands for a future diesel engine in terms of emission compliance, CO2 emissions, performance and cost effectiveness set new requirements for the development process of the combustion system. This paper focuses on the development of the next generation Volvo Cars diesel combustion system, which should comply with Euro 6d including Real Driving Emissions (RDE), with emphasis on the novel methods applied throughout the process. The foundation of a high performing combustion system is formed by first determining the requirements for the system, after which the key factors that affect system performance are selected, such as the charge motion, combustion chamber geometry and injector nozzle geometry. Based on the requirements, a robust charge motion with desired flow characteristics is defined. A new automated CFD optimization process for combustion chamber geometry and spray target is developed.
Journal Article

Investigating the Limits of Charge Motion and Combustion Duration in a High-Tumble Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2245
This paper describes the experimental study of a tumble-flap mounted in the intake port of a single-cylinder spark-ignited gasoline engine. The research question addressed was whether an optimal tumble level could be found for the combustion system under investigation. Indicated fuel consumption was measured for a number of part-load operating points with the tumble-flap either open or closed. The experimental results were subjected to an energy balance analysis to understand which portion of the fuel energy was converted to work and how much was lost by incomplete combustion, heat losses to walls and to the exhaust gases, as well as to pumping losses. Closing the tumble-flap resulted in reduced fuel consumption only in a small area of the operating map: only at low-speed, low-load operation, a benefit could be obtained.
Technical Paper

Experimental Comparison of Heat Losses in Stepped-Bowl and Re-Entrant Combustion Chambers in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0732
Heat loss is one of the greatest energy losses in engines. More than half of the heat is lost to cooling media and exhaust losses, and they thus dominate the internal combustion engine energy balance. Complex processes affect heat loss to the cylinder walls, including gas motion, spray-wall interaction and turbulence levels. The aim of this work was to experimentally compare the heat transfer characteristics of a stepped-bowl piston geometry to a conventional re-entrant diesel bowl studied previously and here used as the baseline geometry. The stepped-bowl geometry features a low surface-to-volume ratio compared to the baseline bowl, which is considered beneficial for low heat losses. Speed, load, injection pressure, swirl level, EGR rate and air/fuel ratio (λ) were varied in a multi-cylinder light duty engine operated in conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Natural Gas Engine for CO2 reduction

2016-04-05
2016-01-0875
With alternative fuels having moved more into market in light of their reduction of emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, the spark ignited internal combustion engine design has only been affected to small extent. The development of combustion engines running on natural gas or Biogas have been focused to maintain driveability on gasoline, creating a multi fuel platform which does not fully utilise the alternative fuels’ potential. However, optimising these concepts on a fundamental level for gas operation shows a great potential to increase the level of utilisation and effectiveness of the engine and thereby meeting the emissions legislation. The project described in this paper has focused on optimising a combustion concept for CNG combustion on a single cylinder research engine. The ICE’s efficiency at full load and the fuels characteristics, including its knock resistance, is of primary interest - together with part load performance and overall fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Surface Flow Visualization on a Full-Scale Passenger Car with Quantitative Tuft Image Processing

2016-04-05
2016-01-1582
Flow visualization techniques are widely used in aerodynamics to investigate the surface trace pattern. In this experimental investigation, the surface flow pattern over the rear end of a full-scale passenger car is studied using tufts. The movement of the tufts is recorded with a DSLR still camera, which continuously takes pictures. A novel and efficient tuft image processing algorithm has been developed to extract the tuft orientations in each image. This allows the extraction of the mean tuft angle and other such statistics. From the extracted tuft angles, streamline plots are created to identify points of interest, such as saddle points as well as separation and reattachment lines. Furthermore, the information about the tuft orientation in each time step allows studying steady and unsteady flow phenomena. Hence, the tuft image processing algorithm provides more detailed information about the surface flow than the traditional tuft method.
Technical Paper

Interior Sound of Today's Electric Cars: Tonal Content, Levels and Frequency Distribution

2015-06-15
2015-01-2367
When it comes to the acoustic properties of electric cars, the powertrain noise differs dramatically compared to traditional vehicles with internal combustion engines. The low frequency firing orders, mechanical and combustion noise are exchanged with a more high frequency whining signature due to electromagnetic forces and gear meshing, lower in level but subject to annoyance. Previous studies have highlighted these differences and also investigated relevant perception criteria in terms of psycho-acoustic metrics. However, investigations of differences between different kinds of electric and hybrid electric cars are still rare. The purpose of this paper was to present the distribution of tonal components in today's hybrid/electric vehicles. More specifically, the number of prominent orders, their maximum levels and frequency separation were analyzed for the most critical driving conditions. The study is based upon measurements made on 13 electrified cars on the market.
Journal Article

A Compact Silencer for the Control of Compressor Noise

2014-06-30
2014-01-2060
Current trends for IC-engines are driving the development of more efficient engines with higher specific power. This is true for both light and heavy duty vehicles and has led to an increased use of super-charging. The super-charging can be both in the form of a single or multi-stage turbo-charger driven by exhaust gases, or via a directly driven compressor. In both cases a possible noise problem can be a strong Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) typically in the kHz range and above the plane wave range. In this paper a novel type of compact dissipative silencer developed especially to handle this type of problem is described and optimized. The silencer is based on a combination of a micro-perforated (MPP) tube backed by a locally reacting cavity. The combined impedance of micro-perforate and cavity is chosen to match the theoretical optimum known as the Cremer impedance at the mid-frequency in the frequency range of interest.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Influence of Tyre Geometry on the Aerodynamics of Passenger Cars

2013-04-08
2013-01-0955
It is well known that wheels are responsible for a significant amount of the total aerodynamic drag of passenger vehicles. Tyres, and mostly rims, have been the subject of research in the automotive industry for the past years, but their effect and interaction with each other and with the car exterior is still not completely understood. This paper focuses on the use of CFD to study the effects of tyre geometry (tyre profile and tyre tread) on road vehicle aerodynamics. Whenever possible, results of the numerical computations are compared with experiments. More than sixty configurations were simulated. These simulations combined different tyre profiles, treads, rim designs and spoke orientation on two car types: a sedan and a sports wagon. Two tyre geometries were obtained directly from the tyre manufacturer, while a third geometry was obtained from our database and represents a generic tyre which covers different profiles of a given tyre size.
Technical Paper

Acoustic One-Dimensional Compressor Model for Integration in a Gas-Dynamic Code

2012-04-16
2012-01-0834
An acoustic one-dimensional compressor model has been developed. This model is based on compressor map information and it is able to predict how the pressure waves are transmitted and reflected by the compressor. This is later on necessary to predict radiated noise at the intake orifice. The fluid-dynamic behavior of the compressor has been reproduced by simplifying the real geometry in zero-dimensional and one-dimensional elements with acoustic purposes. These elements are responsible for attenuating or reflecting the pressure pulses generated by the engine. In order to compensate the effect of these elements in the mean flow variables, the model uses a corrected compressor map. Despite of the fact that the compressor model was developed originally as a part of the OpenWAM™ software, it can be exported to other commercial wave action models. An example is provided of exporting the described model to GT-Power™.
Journal Article

The Effect of Tumble Flow on Efficiency for a Direct Injected Turbocharged Downsized Gasoline Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0054
Direct gasoline injection combined with turbo charging and down sizing is a cost effective concept to meet future requirements for emission reduction as well as increased efficiency for passenger cars. It is well known that turbulence induced by in-cylinder air motion can influence efficiency. In this study, the intake-generated flow field was varied for a direct injected turbo charged concept, with the intent to evaluate if further increase in tumble potentially could lead to higher efficiency compared to the baseline. A single cylinder head with flow separating walls in the intake ports and different restriction plates was used to allow different levels of tumble to be experimentally evaluated in a single cylinder engine. The different levels of tumble were quantified by flow rig experiments.
Journal Article

A Study on Acoustical Time-Domain Two-Ports Based on Digital Filters with Application to Automotive Air Intake Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1522
Analysis of pressure pulsations in ducts is an active research field within the automotive industry. The fluid dynamics and the wave transmission properties of internal combustion (IC) engine intake and exhaust systems contribute to the energy efficiency of the engines and are hence important for the final amount of CO₂ that is emitted from the vehicles. Sound waves, originating from the pressure pulses caused by the in- and outflow at the engine valves, are transmitted through the intake and exhaust system and are an important cause of noise pollution from road traffic at low speeds. Reliable prediction methods are of major importance to enable effective optimization of gas exchange systems. The use of nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) gas dynamics simulation software packages is widespread within the automotive industry. These time-domain codes are mainly used to predict engine performance parameters such as output torque and power but can also give estimates of radiated orifice noise.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

2009-06-15
2009-01-1785
Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

Development of the Euro 5 Combustion System for Volvo Cars' 2.4.I Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1450
The development of a new combustion system for a light-duty diesel engine is presented. The soot-NOx trade-off is significantly improved with maintained or improved efficiency. This is accomplished only by altering the combustion chamber geometry, and thereby the in-cylinder flow. The bowl geometry is developed in CFD and validated in single cylinder tests. Tests and simulations align remarkably well. Under identical conditions in the engine the new combustion chamber decreases smoke by 11-27%, NOx by 2-11%, and maintains efficiency as compared to the baseline geometry. The injector nozzle is matched to the new bowl using design of experiments (DoE). By this method transfer functions are obtained that can be used to optimize the system using analytical tools. The emissions show a complex dependence on the nozzle geometry. The emission dependence on nozzle geometry varies greatly over the engine operating range.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Different Combustion Strategies for SI Engines in a Multi-Mode Combustion Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0426
Future pressures to reduce the fuel consumption of passenger cars may require the exploitation of alternative combustion strategies for gasoline engines to replace, or use in combination with the conventional stoichiometric spark ignition (SSI) strategy. Possible options include homogeneous lean charge spark ignition (HLCSI), stratified charge spark ignition (SCSI) and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), all of which are intended to reduce pumping and thermal losses. In the work presented here four different combustion strategies were evaluated using the same engine: SSI, HLCSI, SCSI and HCCI. HLCSI was achieved by early injection and operating the engine lean, close to its stability limits. SCSI was achieved using the spray-guided technique with a centrally placed multi-hole injector and spark-plug. HCCI was achieved using a negative valve overlap to trap hot residuals and thus generate auto-ignition temperatures at the end of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Detailed Heat Release Analyses with Regard to Combustion of RME and Oxygenated Fuels in an HSDI Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0627
Experiments on a modern DI Diesel engine were carried out: The engine was fuelled with standard Diesel fuel, RME and a mixture of 85% standard Diesel fuel, 5% RME and 10% higher alcohols under low load conditions (4 bar IMEP). During these experiments, different external EGR levels were applied while the injection timing was chosen in a way to keep the location of 50% heat release constant. Emission analysis results were in accordance with widely known correlations: Increasing EGR rates lowered NOx emissions. This is explained by a decrease of global air-fuel ratio entailing longer ignition delay. Local gas-fuel ratio increases during ignition delay and local combustion temperature is lowered. Exhaust gas analysis indicated further a strong increase of CO, PM and unburned HC emissions at high EGR levels. This resulted in lower combustion efficiency. PM emissions however, decreased above 50% EGR which was also in accordance with previously reported results.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Sensing in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

2007-01-23
2007-01-0009
Ion current sensors have high potential utility for obtaining feedback signals directly from the combustion chamber in internal combustion engines. This paper describes experiments performed in a single-cylinder optical engine operated in HCCI mode with negative valve overlap to explore this potential. A high-speed CCD camera was used to visualize the combustion progress in the cylinder, and the photographs obtained were compared with the ion current signals. The optical data indicate that the ions responsible for the chemiluminescence from the HCCI combustion have to be in contact with the sensing electrode for an ion current to start flowing through the measurement circuit. This also means that there will be an offset between the time at which 50% of the fuel mass has burned and 50% of the ion current peak value is reached, which is readily explained by the results presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

Galvanic Corrosion of Die Cast Magnesium Exposed on Vehicles and in Accelerated Laboratory Tests

2006-04-03
2006-01-0255
Galvanic corrosion between die cast AZ91D and AM60B and different fastener systems has been evaluated by exposure on trucks and in accelerated laboratory tests. The exposure time on the trucks was 3 years, corresponding to a mileage of about 300000 km. Samples were retracted and evaluated after 1 and 2 years exposure. Similar samples were also exposed to the Volvo Indoor Corrosion Test and the General Motors GM9540P-cycle B test. The correlation between the field data and the laboratory tests was evaluated, as was the sharp difference in the performance of the fastener systems in the two accelerated laboratory tests.
Technical Paper

Designing Based on Thermal Loads

2005-05-10
2005-01-2051
When designing components, systems and fluid characteristics, thermal loads gathered over the life cycle of an automobile are of great interest. Ageing and deterioration based on the temperature/time distribution that a component or fluid is exposed to, affects the functionality and/or durability of electronics, polymers and lubricants. Optimal design in terms of quality and cost are two of the most governing parameters at Volvo Cars at present. To meet this need, designing terms of life cycles from a thermal perspective has been developed during recent years. This paper presents a methodology for designing components and choosing system solutions from life span thermal loads in Volvo Car's vehicles. The fundamental ideas behind the method, design criteria and examples of usage are discussed from a holistic point of view.
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