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Technical Paper

Strive for Zero Emissions Impact from Hybrids

2019-09-09
2019-24-0146
Since several decades, passenger cars and light duty vehicles (LDV) with spark-ignited engines reach full pollutant conversion during warm up conditions; the major challenge has been represented by the cold start and warming up strategies. The focus on technology developments of exhaust after treatment systems have been done in the thermal management in order to reach the warm up conditions as soon as possible. A new challenge is now represented by the Real Driving Emission (RDE) Regulation as this bring more various, and not any longer cycle defined, cold start conditions. On the other hand, once the full conversion has been reached, it would be beneficial for many Exhaust After Treatment System (EATS) components, e.g. for overall durability if the exhaust gas temperature could be lowered. To take significant further emission steps, approaching e.g. zero emission concepts, we investigate the use of Electrical Heating Catalyst (EHC) also including pre-heating.
Technical Paper

A Mild Hybrid SIDI Turbo Passenger Car Engine with Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery

2019-09-09
2019-24-0194
While striving for more fuel-efficient vehicles, all possible measures are considered to increase the efficiency of the combustion engine powertrain. 48V mild hybrid technology is one such measure, SIDI (Spark Ignited Direct Injection) engines with Miller technology are another, while recovering energy from the engine’s waste heat (WHR) is yet another option. In this paper, results will be published from an advanced engineering project at Volvo Cars including all of these components. An ethanol based Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) WHR-system was successfully built around a 4-cylinder, 2.0 litre SIDI-engine, including 48V mild hybrid technology, with vehicle packaging considered. A dedicated control system was also developed for the ORC system including communication between it and the engine. The ORC system uses the engine exhaust as the heat source, for which a purpose-built evaporator was designed and built to fit in the vehicle tunnel.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Quantification of Flow Uniformity Measurements in a Slotted Wall Wind Tunnel

2019-04-02
2019-01-0656
The need for a more complete understanding of the flow behavior in aerodynamic wind tunnels has increased as they have become vital tools not only for vehicle development, but also for vehicle certification. One important aspect of the behavior is the empty test section flow, which in a conventional tunnel should be as uniform as possible. In order to assess the uniformity and ensure consistent behavior over time, accurate measurements need to be performed regularly. Furthermore, the uncertainties and errors of the measurements need to be minimized in order to resolve small non-uniformities. In this work, the quantification of the measurement uncertainties from the full measurement chain of the new flow uniformity measurement rig for the Volvo Cars aerodynamic wind tunnel is presented. The simulation based method used to account for flow interference of the probe mount is also discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Wheel Design on the Aerodynamic Drag of Passenger Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0662
Approximately 25 % of a passenger vehicle’s aerodynamic drag comes directly or indirectly from its wheels, indicating that the rim geometry is highly relevant for increasing the vehicle’s overall energy efficiency. An extensive experimental study is presented where a parametric model of the rim design was developed, and statistical methods were employed to isolate the aerodynamic effects of certain geometric rim parameters. In addition to wind tunnel force measurements, this study employed the flowfield measurement techniques of wake surveys, wheelhouse pressure measurements, and base pressure measurements to investigate and explain the most important parameters’ effects on the flowfield. In addition, a numerical model of the vehicle with various rim geometries was developed and used to further elucidate the effects of certain geometric parameters on the flow field.
Technical Paper

Comparing Dynamic Programming Optimal Control Strategies for a Series Hybrid Drivetrain

2017-10-08
2017-01-2457
A two-state forward dynamic programming algorithm is evaluated in a series hybrid drive-train application with the objective to minimize fuel consumption when look-ahead information is available. The states in the new method are battery state-of-charge and engine speed. The new method is compared to one-state dynamic programming optimization methods where the requested generator power is found such that the fuel consumption is minimized and engine speed is given by the optimum power-speed efficiency line. The other method compared is to run the engine at a given operating point where the system efficiency is highest, finding the combination of engine run requests over the drive-cycle that minimizes the fuel consumption. The work has included the engine torque and generator power as control signals and is evaluated in a full vehicle-simulation model based on the Volvo Car Corporation VSIM tool.
Journal Article

Performance Studies and Correlation between Vehicle- and Rapid- Aged Commercial Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

2017-03-28
2017-01-0940
Even though substantial improvements have been made for the lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst in recent years, the durability still remains problematic because of the sulfur poisoning and sintering of the precious metals at high operating temperatures. Hence, commercial LNT catalysts were aged and tested in order to investigate their performance and activity degradation compared to the fresh catalyst, and establish a proper correlation between the aging methods used. The target of this study is to provide useful information for regeneration strategies and optimize the catalyst management for better performance and durability. With this goal in mind, two different aging procedures were implemented in this investigation. A catalyst was vehicle-aged in the vehicle chassis dynamometer for 100000 km, thus exposed to real conditions. Whereas, an accelerated aging method was used by subjecting a fresh LNT catalyst at 800 °C for 24 hours in an oven under controlled conditions.
Journal Article

Investigating the Limits of Charge Motion and Combustion Duration in a High-Tumble Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2245
This paper describes the experimental study of a tumble-flap mounted in the intake port of a single-cylinder spark-ignited gasoline engine. The research question addressed was whether an optimal tumble level could be found for the combustion system under investigation. Indicated fuel consumption was measured for a number of part-load operating points with the tumble-flap either open or closed. The experimental results were subjected to an energy balance analysis to understand which portion of the fuel energy was converted to work and how much was lost by incomplete combustion, heat losses to walls and to the exhaust gases, as well as to pumping losses. Closing the tumble-flap resulted in reduced fuel consumption only in a small area of the operating map: only at low-speed, low-load operation, a benefit could be obtained.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Natural Gas Engine for CO2 reduction

2016-04-05
2016-01-0875
With alternative fuels having moved more into market in light of their reduction of emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, the spark ignited internal combustion engine design has only been affected to small extent. The development of combustion engines running on natural gas or Biogas have been focused to maintain driveability on gasoline, creating a multi fuel platform which does not fully utilise the alternative fuels’ potential. However, optimising these concepts on a fundamental level for gas operation shows a great potential to increase the level of utilisation and effectiveness of the engine and thereby meeting the emissions legislation. The project described in this paper has focused on optimising a combustion concept for CNG combustion on a single cylinder research engine. The ICE’s efficiency at full load and the fuels characteristics, including its knock resistance, is of primary interest - together with part load performance and overall fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Semi-Empirical CFD Transient Simulation of Engine Air Filtration Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-1368
To improve fuel efficiency and facilitate handling of the vehicle in a dense city environment, it should be as small as possible given its intended application. This downsizing trend impacts the size of the engine bay, where the air filter box has to be packed in a reduced space, still without increased pressure drop, reduced load capacity nor lower filtering efficiency. Due to its flexibility and reduced cost, CFD simulations play an important role in the optimization process of the filter design. Even though the air-flow through the filter box changes as the dust load increases, the current modeling framework seldom account for such time dependence. Volvo Car Corporation presents an industrial affordable model to solve the time-dependent dust load on filter elements and calculate the corresponding flow behavior over the life time of the air filter box.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Rear-End Flow Structures on a Sedan Car

2016-04-05
2016-01-1606
The aerodynamic drag, fuel consumption and hence CO2 emissions, of a road vehicle depend strongly on its flow structures and the pressure drag generated. The rear end flow which is an area of complex three-dimensional flow structures, contributes to the wake development and the overall aerodynamic performance of the vehicle. This paper seeks to provide improved insight into this flow region to better inform future drag reduction strategies. Using experimental and numerical techniques, two vehicle shapes have been studied; a 30% scale model of a Volvo S60 representing a 2003MY vehicle and a full scale 2010MY S60. First the surface topology of the rear end (rear window and trunk deck) of both configurations is analysed, using paint to visualise the skin friction pattern. By means of critical points, the pattern is characterized and changes are identified studying the location and type of the occurring singularities.
Technical Paper

Study of EGR and Turbocharger Combinations and Their Influence on Diesel Engine’s Efficiency and Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0676
An experimental study of EGR and turbocharging concepts has been performed on an experimental 2.0-litre 4-cylinder turbocharged Euro6 light-duty diesel engine. The purpose of the study was to investigate the emissions and fuel consumption trade-off for different concept combinations. The impact of low-pressure and high-pressure EGR was studied in terms of engine-out emissions and fuel consumption. Moreover, the influence of single-stage and two-stage turbocharging was investigated in combination with the EGR systems, and how the engine efficiency could be further improved after engine calibration optimization. During low load engine operation where throttling may be required to achieve the desired low-pressure EGR rate, the difference in fuel consumption impact was studied for exhaust throttling and intake throttling, respectively. The cooling impact on high-pressure EGR was compared in terms of emissions and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Energy Used for Vehicle Interior Climate

2016-04-05
2016-01-0250
In recent years fuel consumption of passenger vehicles has received increasing attention by customers, the automotive industry, regulatory agencies and academia. However, some areas which affect the fuel consumption have received relatively small interest. One of these areas is the total energy used for vehicle interior climate which can have a large effect on real-world fuel consumption. Realistic combinations of energy saving measures were evaluated regarding the total energy use for vehicle interior climate using a one dimensional (1D) simulation model. The 1D simulation model included sub models of the passenger compartment, the air-handling unit, the Air Conditioning (AC) system, engine and engine cooling system. A test cycle representative for real-world conditions was developed. The test cycle included tests in cold, intermediate and warm conditions and the results were weighted with the estimated use in each condition.
Technical Paper

Transient Responses of Various Ammonia Formation Catalyst Configurations for Passive SCR in Lean-Burning Gasoline Engines under Various Real Engine Conditions.

2016-04-05
2016-01-0935
Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3. This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.
Journal Article

Simulation of Energy Used for Vehicle Interior Climate

2015-12-01
2015-01-9116
In recent years fuel consumption of passenger vehicles has received increasing attention by customers, the automotive industry, regulatory agencies and academia. However, some areas which affect the fuel consumption have received relatively small interest. One of these areas is the total energy used for vehicle interior climate which can have a large effect on real-world fuel consumption. Although there are several methods described in the literature for analyzing fuel consumption for parts of the climate control system, especially the Air-Condition (AC) system, the total fuel consumption including the vehicle interior climate has often been ignored, both in complete vehicle testing and simulation. The purpose of this research was to develop a model that predicts the total energy use for the vehicle interior climate. To predict the total energy use the model included sub models of the passenger compartment, the air-handling unit, the AC, the engine cooling system and the engine.
Technical Paper

A High Resolution 3D Complete Engine Heat Balance Model

2015-09-06
2015-24-2533
The focus on engine thermal management is rapidly increasing due to the significant effect of heat losses on fuel consumption, engine performance and emissions. This work presents a time resolved, high resolution 3D engine heat balance model, including all relevant components. Notably, the model calculates the conjugated heat transfer between the solid engine components, the coolant and the oil. Both coolant and oil circuits are simultaneously resolved with a CFD solver in the same finite volume model as the entire engine solid parts. The model includes external convection and radiation. The necessary boundary conditions of the thermodynamic cycle (gas side) are mapped from a calibrated 1D gas exchange model of the same engine. The boundary conditions for the coolant and at the oil circuits are estimated with 1D models of the systems. The model is calibrated and verified with measurement data from the same engine as modeled.
Journal Article

Structures of Flow Separation on a Passenger Car

2015-04-14
2015-01-1529
The phenomenon of three-dimensional flow separation is and has been in the focus of many researchers. An improved understanding of the physics and the driving forces is desired to be able to improve numerical simulations and to minimize aerodynamic drag over bluff bodies. To investigate the sources of separation one wants to understand what happens at the surface when the flow starts to detach and the upwelling of the streamlines becomes strong. This observation of a flow leaving the surface could be captured by investigating the limiting streamlines and surface parameters as pressure, vorticity or the shear stress. In this paper, numerical methods are used to investigate the surface pressure and flow patterns on a sedan passenger vehicle. Observed limiting streamlines are compared to the pressure distribution and their correlation is shown. For this investigation the region behind the antenna and behind the wheel arch, are pointed out and studied in detail.
Technical Paper

Thermal and Chemical Deactivation of Three-Way Catalysts: Comparison of Road-, Fuel-Cut and SAI- Aged Catalysts

2015-04-14
2015-01-1000
The objective of this study was to investigate which of the artificial aging cycles available in the automotive industry that causes major deactivation of three-way catalysts (TWCs) and can be used to obtain an aged catalyst similar to the road aged converter (160 000km). Standard bench cycle (SBC) aging with secondary air injection (SAI) covered aging with various mass flows - a flow from three cylinders into one catalyst system and a flow from three cylinders into two parallel connected catalysts. For rapid catalyst bench aging, secondary air injection is a very efficient tool to create exotherms. Furthermore, the effect on catalytic activity of SAI aging with poisons from oil and fuel dopants (P, Ca, Zn) was investigated. The catalysts were thoroughly characterized in light-off and oxygen storage capacity measurements, emission conversion as a function of lambda and load variation was determined.
Technical Paper

Wake and Unsteady Surface-Pressure Measurements on an SUV with Rear-End Extensions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1545
Previous research on both small-scale and full-scale vehicles shows that base extensions are an effective method to increase the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake size. These extensions decrease drag at zero yaw, but show an even larger improvement at small yaw angles. In this paper, rear extensions are investigated on an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel with focus on the wake flow and on the unsteady behavior of the surface pressures near the base perimeter. To increase the effect of the extensions on the wake flow, the investigated configurations have a closed upper- and lower grille (closed-cooling) and the underbody has been smoothed with additional panels. This paper aims to analyze differences in flow characteristics on the wake of an SUV at 0° and 2.5° yaw, caused by different sets of extensions attached to the base perimeter. Extensions with several lengths are investigated with and without a kick.
Journal Article

Measurements of Energy Used for Vehicle Interior Climate

2014-11-01
2014-01-9129
Fuel consumption of vehicles has received increased attention in recent years; however one neglected area that can have a large effect on this is the energy usage for the interior climate. This study aims to investigate the energy usage for the interior climate for different conditions by measurements on a complete vehicle. Twelve different NEDC tests in different temperatures and thermal states of the vehicle were completed in a climatic wind tunnel. Furthermore one temperature sweep from 43° to −18°C was also performed. The measurements focused on the heat flow of the air, from its sources, to its sink, i.e. compartment. In addition the electrical and mechanical loads of the climate system were included. The different sources of heating and cooling were, for the tested powertrain, waste heat from the engine, a fuel operated heater, heat pickup of the air, evaporator cooling and cooling from recirculation.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Base Wake on an SUV

2013-04-08
2013-01-0464
With the increase in fuel prices and the increasingly strict environmental legislations regarding CO₂ emissions, reduction of the total energy consumption of our society becomes more important. Passenger vehicles are partly responsible for this consumption due to their strong presence in the daily life of most people. Therefore reducing the impact of cars on the environment can assist in decreasing the overall energy consumption. Even though several fields have an impact on a passenger car's performance, this paper will focus on the aerodynamic part and more specifically, the wake behind a vehicle. By definition a car is a bluff body on which the air resistance is for the most part driven by pressure drag. This is caused by the wake these bodies create. Therefore analyzing the wake characteristics behind a vehicle is crucial if one would like to reduce drag.
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