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Journal Article

Towards Brand-Independent Architectures, Components and Systems for Next Generation Electrified Vehicles Optimised for the Infrastructure

E-mobility is a game changer for the automotive domain. It promises significant reduction in terms of complexity and in terms of local emissions. With falling prices and recent technological advances, the second generation of electric vehicles (EVs) that is now in production makes electromobility an affordable and viable option for more and more transport mission (people, freight). Still, major challenges for large scale deployment remain. They include higher maturity with respect to performance (e.g., range, interaction with the grid), development efficiency (e.g., time-to-market), or production costs. Additionally, an important market transformation currently occurs with the co-development of automated driving functions, connectivity, mobility-as-a-service. New opportunities arise to customize road transportation systems toward application-driven, user-centric smart mobility solutions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Model Predictive Control for IPMSM Using High-Fidelity Electro-Thermal Model of Inverter for Electric Vehicle Applications

This paper presents a high-fidelity electro-thermal model of a half-bridge that consists of IGBTs and anti-parallel diodes. The model calculates and estimates the half-bridge voltages, currents, switching and conduction losses considering the operating temperature and current conditions. Moreover, this model is suitable for varying switching frequency operation. The electro-thermal model can be used as an evaluation tool to analyze the performance of control strategies for traction inverter from efficiency, temperature and component stress point of view. In this paper performance of Direct Torque Model Predictive Control (DTMPC) of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) is evaluated in comparison with Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC) with sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PWM). The inverter model and the MPC are both implemented in C-Mex for rapid execution.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Ammonia in a Modern Spark-Ignition Engine

Ammonia is now recognized as a very serious asset in the context of the hydrogen energy economy, thanks to its non-carbon nature, competitive energy density and very mature production, storage and transport processes. If produced from renewable sources, its use as a direct combustion fuel could participate to the flexibility in the power sector as well as help mitigating fossil fuel use in certain sectors, such as long-haul shipping. However, ammonia presents unfavorable combustion properties, requiring further investigation of its combustion characteristics in practical systems. In the present study, a modern single-cylinder spark-ignition engine is fueled with gaseous ammonia/air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and intake pressures. The results are compared with methane/air and previous ammonia/hydrogen/air measurements, where hydrogen is used as combustion promoter. In-cylinder pressure and exhaust concentrations of selected species are measured and analyzed.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an Ammonia-Fueled SI Engine with Hydrogen Enrichment

While the optimization of the internal combustion engine (ICE) remains a very important topic, alternative fuels are also expected to play a significant role in the reduction of CO2 emissions. High energy densities and handling ease are their main advantages amongst other energy carriers. Ammonia (NH3) additionally contains no carbon and has a worldwide existing transport and storage infrastructure. It could be produced directly from renewable electricity, water and air, and is thus currently considered as a smart energy carrier and combustion fuel. However, ammonia presents a low combustion intensity and the risk of elevated nitrogen-based emissions, thus rendering in-depth investigation of its suitability as an ICE fuel necessary. In the present study, a recent single-cylinder spark-ignition engine is fueled with gaseous ammonia/hydrogen/air mixtures at various hydrogen fractions, equivalence ratios and intake pressures.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the PIONA and oxygenate composition of unconventional fuels with the Pseudo-Component Property Estimation (PCPE) method. Application to an Automotive Shredder Residues-derived gasoline

To check if an unconventional fuel can be burned in an engine, monitoring the stability in terms of composition is mandatory. When the composition of a conventional fuel cannot be measured for practical reason, it can be approximated using the API (American Petroleum Institute) relations (Riazi-Daubert) linking the hydrocarbon group fractions with well-chosen properties. These relations cover only the paraffin (coupling iso and normal), naphthene and aromatic (PNA) groups as they were developed for conventional fuels presenting neglected amounts of olefins and oxygenates. Olefins and oxygenates can be present in unconventional fuels. This paper presents a methodology applicable to any unconventional fuel to build a model to estimate the n-paraffin, iso-paraffin, olefin, naphthene, aromatic and oxygenate (PIONAOx) composition. The current model was demonstrated for an automotive shredder residues (ASR)-derived gasoline-like fuel (GLF).
Technical Paper

Ammonia-Hydrogen Blends in Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition Engine

Ammonia and hydrogen can be produced from water, air and excess renewable electricity (Power-to-fuel) and are therefore a promising alternative in the transition from fossil fuel energy to cleaner energy sources. An Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) engine is therefore being studied to use both fuels under a variable blending ratio for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production. Due to the high auto-ignition resistance of ammonia, hydrogen is required to promote and stabilize the HCCI combustion. Therefore the research objective is to investigate the HCCI combustion of varying hydrogen-ammonia blending ratios in a 16:1 compression ratio engine. A specific focus is put on maximizing the ammonia proportion as well as minimizing the NOx emissions that could arise from the nitrogen contained in the ammonia. A single-cylinder, constant speed, HCCI engine has been used with an intake pressure varied from 1 to 1.5 bar and with intake temperatures ranging from 428 to 473 K.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Unmanned Reconnaissance Aircraft for Low-Speed and STOL Operations

This paper presents a novel UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) designed for excellent low speed operations and VTOL performance. This aerial vehicle concept has been designed for maximizing the advantages by of the ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle) propulsion system, which has been studied in a European commission under 7th framework programme. This UAS concept has been named MURALS (acronym of Multifunctional Unmanned Reconnaissance Aircraft for Low-speed and STOL operation). It has been studied as a joint activity of the members of the project as an evolution of a former concept, which has been developed during 80s and 90s by Aeritalia and Capuani. It has been adapted to host an ACHEON based propulsion system. In a first embodiment, the aircraft according to the invention has a not conventional shape with a single fuselage and its primary objective is to minimize the variation of the pitching moment allowing low speed operations.
Technical Paper

Experimental Identification of the Detachment Point on the ACHEON Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle

Thrust vectoring is an interesting propulsion solution in aeronautic applications due to its fast response, improving aircraft's performance for take-off, landing and flight, and enabling Short/Vertical Take-Off and Landing (S/VTOL). In this context, an attempt to design a radically new concept of thrust vectoring nozzle is in current development. This novel nozzle, called ACHEON, bases the jet deviation control on the interaction of two primary jets of different velocities, where the one with higher velocity entrains the one with lower velocity. Two cylindrical walls are positioned after the two air jets mixing. If the inlet conditions are not symmetric, the Coanda effect on the walls forces the resulting air jet to divert from the symmetry axis. This paper shows the experimental pressure distribution along the Coanda wall for different inlet.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Implementation Study of ACHEON Thrust and Vector Electrical Propulsion on a STOL Light Utility Aircraft

One of the best airplanes ever realized by the European Aircraft industry was the Dornier Do 28D Skyservant, an extraordinary STOL light utility aircraft with the capability to carry up to 13 passengers. It has been a simple and rugged aircraft capable also of operating under arduous conditions and very easy and simple maintenance. The architecture of this airplane, which has operated actively for more than 20 years, is very interesting analyzing the implementation of a new propulsion system because of the unusual incorporation of two engines, as well as the two main landing gear shock struts of the faired main landing gear attached to short pylons on either side of the forward fuselage. This unconventional design allows an easy implementation of different propulsion units, such as the history of different experimental versions allowed.
Journal Article

Structural Analysis of an Engine Chassis for a Disc-Shaped Airship with Thrust Vector Control

This paper presents a structural analysis of an engine chassis for a disc-shaped airship demonstrator. The objective was to verify such design solutions for application in the European Union's MAAT (Multibody Advanced Airship for Transport) project. In many airship designs, the engines are attached to the airship frame, located inside the balloon, in order to allow for thrust vector control. These airships have aerodynamic control surfaces to improve maneuverability. For the demonstrator, three engines are considered, with a non-rigid internal structure for their attachment. The engines are located on a horizontal plane (the symmetry plane of the balloon), with two lateral engines and one in front of the balloon. The chassis installation allows the engines to be attached either directly to the exterior envelope by using Kevlar connections, or to the central structural pipe. This chassis design has a simple construction, compared to typical structures addressed in the literature.
Technical Paper

Increasing Aeronautic Electric Propulsion Performances by Cogeneration and Heat Recovery

Emissions from aviation have become a focus of increasing interest in recent years. The growth of civil aviation is faster than nearly all other economic sectors. Increased demand has led to a higher growth rate in fossil fuels consumption by the aviation sector. Despite more fuel-efficient and less polluting turbofan and turboprop engines, the growth of air travel contributes to increase pollution attributable to aviation. Aircraft are currently the only human-made in situ generators of emissions in the upper troposphere and in the stratosphere. The depletion of the stratosphere's ozone layer by CFCs and related chemicals has underscored the importance of anticipating other potential insults to the ozone layer. Different possible solutions have been advanced to reduce the environmental impact of aviation, such as electrification of ground operations, optimization of airline timetables and airspace usage, limitation of cruise altitude and increased use of turboprop aircrafts.
Journal Article

Towards the Use of Eulerian Field PDF Methods for Combustion Modeling in IC Engines

Detailed chemistry and turbulence-chemistry interaction need to be properly taken into account for a realistic combustion simulation of IC engines where advanced combustion modes, multiple injections and stratified combustion involve a wide range of combustion regimes and require a proper description of several phenomena such as auto-ignition, flame stabilization, diffusive combustion and lean premixed flame propagation. To this end, different approaches are applied and the most used ones rely on the well-stirred reactor or flamelet assumption. However, well-mixed models do not describe correctly flame structure, while unsteady flamelet models cannot easily predict premixed flame propagation and triple flames. A possible alternative for them is represented by transported probability density functions (PDF) methods, which have been applied widely and effectively for modeling turbulent reacting flows under a wide range of combustion regimes.
Journal Article

Propulsion of Photovoltaic Cruiser-Feeder Airships Dimensioning by Constructal Design for Efficiency Method

The European project MAAT (Multi-body Advanced Airship for Transport) is producing the design of a transportation system for transport of people and goods, based on the cruiser feeder concept. This project defined novel airship concepts capable of handling safer than in the past hydrogen as a buoyant gas. In particular, it has explored novel variable shape airship concepts, which presents also intrinsic energetic advantages. It has recently conduced to the definition of an innovative design method based on the constructal principle, which applies to large transport vehicles and allows performing an effective energetic optimization and an effective optimization for the specific mission.
Technical Paper

MAAT Cruiser/Feeder Airship: Connection and Passenger Exchange Modes

In the general framework of the EU FP7 MAAT project, a novel green air transport architecture is under development. The paper presents the possible architectures for the cabin connections and the transfer modalities for people, crew and freight, for to the European project MAAT. Different architectures have been evaluated setting out to cover the structural and propulsive needs and to enable the transport modes between the Cruiser and the Feeders. The different possibilities are discussed conceptually, by considering the advantages and disadvantages of the presented configurations. The bases for future detailed design and research are established, as through such conceptual study the main parameters are identified and found to affect the general design of both airships and their operability. The aim of this paper is to specify the necessary elements, which are necessary to perform the docking operation by taking into account the prescribed Feeder-Cruiser geometries.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling of Coanda Effect

This paper presents a theoretical model of Coanda attachment mechanisms and laws of the Coanda effect. In this paper, it has been considered a very conventional setup in order to define by a theoretical analysis a mathematical model of the Coanda adhesion. It has been produced a complete mathematical model which could allow simple engineering calculations through an effective solutions of the differential equations of the system. A parametric model has defined as a function of main cinematic and geometric parameters. The final model relates to three fundamental parameters: outlet section, Coanda surfaces radius and inlet velocities. Turbulent and laminar models have defined. Validation through a large CDF campaign has produced in a regime of stream velocities from 5 to 40 m/s with good results.
Journal Article

Detailed Kinetic Analysis of HCCI Combustion Using a New Multi-Zone Model and CFD Simulations

A new multi-zone model for the simulation of HCCI engine is here presented. The model includes laminar and turbulent diffusion and conduction exchange between the zones and the last improvements on the numerical aspects. Furthermore, a new strategy for the zone discretization is presented, which allows a better description of the near-wall zones. The aim of the work is to provide a fast and reliable model for carrying out chemical analysis with detailed kinetic schemes. A preliminary sensitivity analysis allows to verify that 10 zones are a convenient number for a good compromise between the computational effort and the description accuracy. The multi-zone predictions are then compared with the CFD ones to find the effective turbulence parameters, with the aim to describe the near-wall phenomena, both in a reactive and non-reactive cases.
Technical Paper

Engine Performances and Emissions of Second-Generation Biofuels in Spark Ignition Engines: The Case of Methyl and Ethyl Valerates

As an alternative to second generation ethanol, valeric esters can be produced from lignocellulose through levulinic acid. While some data on these fuels are available, only few experiments have been performed to analyze their combustion characteristics under engine conditions. Using a traditional spark ignition engine converted to mono-cylinder operation, we have investigated the engine performances and emissions of methyl and ethyl valerates. This paper compares the experimental results for pure valeric esters and for blends of 20% of esters in PRF95, with PRF95 as the reference fuel. The esters propagate faster than PRF95 which requires a slight change of ignition timing to optimise the work output. However, both the performances and the emissions are not significantly changed compared to the reference. Accordingly, methyl and ethyl valerate represent very good alternatives as biofuels for SI engines.
Journal Article

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Piezoelectric Flapping Wing Micro-Air-Vehicles Propulsion

The flapping flight is advantageous for its superior maneuverability and much more aerodynamically efficiency for the small size UAV when compared to the conventional steady-state aerodynamics solution. Especially, it is appropriate for the Micro-air-vehicle (MAV) propulsion system, where the flapping wings can generate the required thrust. This paper investigated such solution, based on the piezoelectric patches, which are attached to the flexible plates, in combination with an appropriate amplification mechanisms. The numerical and experimental flow analyses have been carried out for the piezoelectric flapping plate, in order to characterize the fluid structure interaction induced by the swinging movement of the oscillating plate.
Journal Article

Fire-safe Airship System Design

This paper presents the new Hydrogen Fire-safe Airship system that overcomes the limitations present in previous airships designs of that kind, when considering their functioning at advanced operative position. Hydrogen is considered to be more effective than helium because of its low-cost production by hydrolysis, which process is nicely driven only by the photovoltaic energy. This paper presents a novel architectural concept of the buoyant balloon designed to increase the fire related safety, when applying hydrogen as the buoyant gas. The proposed buoyant volume is designed as a multi-balloon structure with a naturally ventilated shape, to ensure that hydrogen cannot reach the dangerous concentration level in the central airship balloon. This concept is expected to be the start of a novel hydrogen airship type, to be much safer than preceding ones.
Technical Paper

Fast Road Area Detection Using Planefitting

The paper presents an integrated software tool for the hydroplaning simulation based on a weak coupled fluid-structure interaction model. The integrated modules are a flow solver FINE™/Hexa designed to solve the complex two-phase flow surrounding the tire numerically, based on unstructured hexahedral grids, the FEM solver MSC.Marc/MSC.Mentat which predicts the transients of the tire's structure, a coupling module for efficient and accurate transfer of the essential variables between the flow and FEM solvers and a deformation module which handles the CFD unstructured mesh to match the external surface of the tire. The accuracy of each module and the robustness of the integrated software are validated by the computational results obtained for rigid and deformable tires over a large range of speeds.