Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Architecture Selection for EcoCAR 3 Competition

2015-04-14
2015-01-1228
This paper presents the work performed by the Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 3 student design competition team in its preparation for the hybrid electric vehicle architecture selection process. This process is recognized as one of the most pivotal steps in the EcoCAR 3 competition. With a key lesson learned from participation in EcoCAR 2 on “truly learning how to learn,” the team held additional training sessions on architecture selection tools and exercises with the goal of improving both fundamental and procedural skills. The work conducted represents a combination of the architecture feasibility study and final selection process in terms of content and procedure, respectively. At the end of this study the team was able to identify four potentially viable hybrid powertrain architectures, and thoroughly analyze the performance and packaging feasibility of various component options.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous In-Cylinder Surface Temperature Measurements with Thermocouple, Laser-induced Phosphorescence, and Dual Wavelength Infrared Diagnostic Techniques in an Optical Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1658
As engine efficiency targets continue to rise, additional improvements must consider reduction of heat transfer losses. The development of advanced heat transfer models and realistic boundary conditions for simulation based engine design both require accurate in-cylinder wall temperature measurements. A novel dual wavelength infrared diagnostic has been developed to measure in-cylinder surface temperatures with high temporal resolution. The diagnostic has the capability to measure low amplitude, high frequency temperature variations, such as those occurring during the gas exchange process. The dual wavelength ratio method has the benefit of correcting for background scattering reflections and the emission from the optical window itself. The assumption that background effects are relatively constant during an engine cycle is shown to be valid over a range of intake conditions during motoring.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Understanding of a Multi-Sensing Piezo Fuel Injector Signal and Its Applications in Diagnosis

2014-10-13
2014-01-2590
Electronic controls in internal combustion engines require an in-cylinder combustion sensor to produce a feedback signal to the ECU (Engine Control Unit). Recent research indicated that the ion current sensor has many advantages over the pressure transducer, related mainly to lower cost. Modified glow plugs in diesel engines, and fuel injectors in both gasoline and diesel engines can be utilized as ion current sensors without the addition any part or drilling holes in the cylinder head needed for the pressure transducer. Multi sensing fuel injector (MSFI) system is a new technique which instruments the fuel injector with an electric circuit to perform multiple sensing tasks including functioning as an ion sensor in addition to its primary task of delivering the fuel into the cylinder. It is necessary to fundamentally understand MSFI system.
Journal Article

A New Technique to Determine the Burning Velocity in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1176
Many approaches have been taken to determine the burning velocity in internal combustion engines. Experimentally, the burning velocity has been determined in optically accessible gasoline engines by tracking the propagation of the flame front from the spark plug to the end of the combustion chamber. These experiments are costly as they require special imaging techniques and major modifications in the engine structure. Another approach to determine the burning velocity is from 3D CFD simulation models. These models require basic information about the mechanisms of combustion which are not available for distillate fuels in addition to many assumptions that have to be made to determine the burning velocity. Such models take long periods of computational time for execution and have to be calibrated and validated through experimentation.
Technical Paper

Frontal Impact Responsesof Generic Steel Front Bumper Crush Can Assemblies

2014-04-01
2014-01-0550
The present investigation details an experimental procedure for frontal impact responses of a generic steel front bumper crush can (FBCC) assembly subjected to a rigid full and 40% offset impact. There is a paucity of studies focusing on component level tests with FBCCs, and of those, speeds carried out are of slower velocities. Predominant studies in literature pertain to full vehicle testing. Component level studies have importance as vehicles aim to decrease weight. As materials, such as carbon fiber or aluminum, are applied to vehicle structures, computer aided models are required to evaluate performance. A novel component level test procedure is valuable to aid in CAE correlation. All the tests were conducted using a sled-on-sled testing method. Several high-speed cameras, an IR (Infrared) thermal camera, and a number of accelerometers were utilized to study impact performance of the FBCC samples.
Technical Paper

Temperature Control of Water with Heating, Cooling and Mixing in a Process with Recycle Loop

2014-04-01
2014-01-0652
A hot and cold water mixing process with a steam condenser and a chilled water heat exchanger is set up for an engine EGR fouling test. The test rig has water recycled in the loop of a pump, heat exchangers, a three-way mixing valve, and a test EGR unit. The target unit temperature is controlled by a heating, cooling and mixing process with individual valves regulating the flow-rate of saturated steam, chilled water and mixing ratio. The challenges in control design are the dead-time, interaction, nonlinearity and multivariable characteristics of heat exchangers, plus the flow recycle in the system. A systems method is applied to extract a simple linear model for control design. The method avoids the nonlinearity and interaction among different temperatures at inlet, outlet and flow-rate. The test data proves the effectiveness of systems analysis and modeling methodology. As a result, the first-order linear model facilitates the controller design.
Journal Article

On-Board Fuel Identification using Artificial Neural Networks

2014-04-01
2014-01-1345
On-board fuel identification is important to ensure engine safe operation, similar power output, fuel economy and emissions levels when different fuels are used. Real-time detection of physical and chemical properties of the fuel requires the development of identifying techniques based on a simple, non-intrusive sensor. The measured crankshaft speed signal is already available on series engine and can be utilized to estimate at least one of the essential combustion parameters such as peak pressure and its location, rate of cylinder pressure rise and start of combustion, which are an indicative of the ignition properties of the fuel. Using a dynamic model of the crankshaft numerous methods have been previously developed to identify the fuel type but all with limited applications in terms of number of cylinders and computational resources for real time control.
Journal Article

In-Cylinder Wall Temperature Influence on Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions During Transitional Period in an Optical Engine Using a Laser-Induced Phosphorescence Technique

2014-04-01
2014-01-1373
Emissions of Unburned Hydrocarbons (UHC) from diesel engines are a particular concern during the starting process, when after-treatment devices are typically below optimal operating temperatures. Drivability in the subsequent warm-up phase is also impaired by large cyclic fluctuations in mean effective pressure (MEP). This paper discusses in-cylinder wall temperature influence on unburned hydrocarbon emissions and combustion stability during the starting and warm-up process in an optical engine. A laser-induced phosphorescence technique is used for quantitative measurements of in-cylinder wall temperatures just prior to start of injection (SOI), which are correlated to engine out UHC emission mole fractions and combustion phasing during starting sequences over a range of charge densities, at a fixed fueling rate. Squish zone cylinder wall temperature shows significant influence on engine out UHC emissions during the warm-up process.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Pediatric Thorax Finite Element Model under Dynamic Loading Condition and Analysis of Injury

2013-04-08
2013-01-0456
Previously, a 10-year-old (YO) pediatric thorax finite element model (FEM) was developed and verified against child chest stiffness data measured from clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the CPR experiments were performed at relatively low speeds, with a maximum loading rate of 250 mm/s. Studies showed that the biomechanical responses of human thorax exhibited rate sensitive characteristics. As such, the studies of dynamic responses of the pediatric thorax FEM are needed. Experimental pediatric cadaver data in frontal pendulum impacts and diagonal belt dynamic loading tests were used for dynamic validation. Thoracic force-deflection curves between test and simulation were compared. Strains predicted by the FEM and the injuries observed in the cadaver tests were also compared for injury assessment and analysis. This study helped to further improve the 10 YO pediatric thorax FEM.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Injury Criteria for the Prediction of Commotio Cordis from Lacrosse Ball Impacts

2011-11-07
2011-22-0010
Commotio Cordis (CC) is the second leading cause of mortality in youth sports. Impacts occurring directly over the left ventricle (LV) during a vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle can cause ventricular fibrillation (VF), which results in CC. In order to better understand the pathophysiology of CC, and develop a mechanical model for CC, appropriate injury criteria need to be developed. This effort consisted of impacts to seventeen juvenile porcine specimens (mass 21-45 kg). Impacts were delivered over the cardiac silhouette during the venerable period of the cardiac cycle. Four impact speeds were used: 13.4, 17.9, 22.4, and 26.8 m/s. The impactor was a lacrosse ball on an aluminum shaft instrumented with an accelerometer (mass 188 g - 215 g). The impacts were recorded using high-speed video. LV pressure was measured with a catheter. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the predictive ability of ten injury criteria.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Internal flow and Spray of Multihole DI Gasoline Spray using X-ray Imaging and CFD

2011-08-30
2011-01-1881
Multi-hole DI injectors are being adopted in the advanced downsized DISI ICE powertrain in the automotive industry worldwide because of their robustness and cost-performance. Although their injector design and spray resembles those of DI diesel injectors, there are many basic but distinct differences due to different injection pressure and fuel properties, the sac design, lower L/D aspect ratios in the nozzle hole, closer spray-to-spray angle and hense interactions. This paper used Phase-Contrast X ray techniques to visualize the spray near a 3-hole DI gasoline research model injector exit and compared to the visible light visualization and the internal flow predictions using with multi-dimensional multi-phase CFD simulations. The results show that strong interactions of the vortex strings, cavitation, and turbulence in and near the nozzles make the multi-phase turbulent flow very complicated and dominate the near nozzle breakup mechanisms quite unlike those of diesel injections.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Effect of Spot-Weld/Bolt Joint Distribution on the Sound Radiation from Panel Structures

2011-05-17
2011-01-1723
It is well known that sound radiation from a rectangular panel can be significantly affected by its boundary condition. However, most of the existing investigations are primarily focused on sound radiation from plates with simply supported boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to study the effect on sound radiation of the boundary supporting conditions generally specified in the form of discrete and/or distributed restraining springs. This will have practical implications. For example, in automotive NVH design, it is of interest to understand how the sound radiation from a body panel can be affected by the number and distribution of spot-welds. It is demonstrated through numerical examples that the distribution of spot-welds can be tuned or optimized, like other conventional design parameters, to achieve maximum sound reduction.
Technical Paper

Charge Motion Benefits of Valve Deactivation to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Emissions in a GDi, VVA Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1221
Requirements for reduced fuel consumption with simultaneous reductions in regulated emissions require more efficient operation of Spark Ignited (SI) engines. An advanced valvetrain coupled with Gasoline Direct injection (GDi) provide an opportunity to simultaneously reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Work on a flex fuel GDi engine has identified significant potential to reduce throttling by using Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) strategies to control knock and load. High loads were problematic when operating on gasoline for particulate emissions, and low loads were not able to fully minimize throttling due to poor charge motion for the EIVC strategy. The use of valve deactivation was successful at reducing high load particulate emissions without a significant airflow penalty below 3000 RPM. Valve deactivation did increase the knocking tendency for knock limited fuels, due to increased heat transfer that increased charge temperature.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Recirculated Gases on Ignition Delay During Cold Starting of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0838
Simulations using CFD and chemical kinetics models have been applied to gain a better understanding of the effect of the recirculated gases on the autoignition process during cold starting of a direct injection diesel engine. The cranking gases recirculated (CGR) contain fuel vapor and partial oxidation products which affect the autoignition process in different ways. Some hydrocarbons (HCs) species enhance the reaction rates and reduce ignition delay. Meanwhile other HCs species and the partial oxidation products of the autoignition process have an opposing effect. The simulation covered a wide range of the hydrocarbons and aldehydes concentrations and their effect on the ignition delay in a 1.2L Ford DIATA 4-cylinders, water cooled, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. The simulated opposing effects of HCs and HCHO on the ignition delay are validated by experimental results at room temperature.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Near-Field Spray and Internal Flow of Single-Hole and Multi-Hole Sac Nozzles using Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging and CFD

2011-04-12
2011-01-0681
It is well know that the internal flow field and nozzle geometry affected the spray behavior, but without high-speed microscopic visualization, it is difficult to characterize the spray structure in details. Single-hole diesel injectors have been used in fundamental spray research, while most direct-injection engines use multi-hole nozzle to tailor to the combustion chamber geometry. Recent engine trends also use smaller orifice and higher injection pressure. This paper discussed the quasi-steady near-nozzle diesel spray structures of an axisymmetric single-hole nozzle and a symmetric two-hole nozzle configuration, with a nominal nozzle size of 130 μm, and an attempt to correlate the observed structure to the internal flow structure using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation. The test conditions include variation of injection pressure from 30 to 100 MPa, using both diesel and biodiesel fuels, under atmospheric condition.
Technical Paper

A Practical Time-Domain Approach to Controller Design and Calibration for Applications in Automotive Industry

2011-04-12
2011-01-0693
This paper summarizes a systematic approach to control of nonlinear automotive systems exposed to fast transients. This approach is based on a combined application of hardware characterization, which inverts nonlinearities, and conventional Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative (PID) control. The approach renders the closed-loop system dynamics more transparent and simplifies the controller design and calibration for applications in automotive industry. The authors have found this approach effective in presenting and teaching PID controller design and calibration guidelines to automotive engineering audience, who at times may not have formal training in controls but need to understand the development and calibration process of simple controllers.
Technical Paper

Development of an FE Model of the Rat Head Subjected to Air Shock Loading

2010-11-03
2010-22-0011
As early as the 1950's, Gurdjian and colleagues (Gurdjian et al., 1955) observed that brain injuries could occur by direct pressure loading without any global head accelerations. This pressure-induced injury mechanism was "forgotten" for some time and is being rekindled due to the many mild traumatic brain injuries attributed to blast overpressure. The aim of the current study was to develop a finite element (FE) model to predict the biomechanical response of rat brain under a shock tube environment. The rat head model, including more than 530,000 hexahedral elements with a typical element size of 100 to 300 microns was developed based on a previous rat brain model for simulating a blunt controlled cortical impact. An FE model, which represents gas flow in a 0.305-m diameter shock tube, was formulated to provide input (incident) blast overpressures to the rat model. It used an Eulerian approach and the predicted pressures were verified with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Identification Algorithms for Battery Models under Noisy Measurements

2010-11-02
2010-01-1768
This paper aims to develop some enhanced identification algorithms for real time characterization of battery dynamics. The core of such a system is advanced system identification techniques that provide fast tracking capability to update battery cell's individual models in real-time operation. Due to inevitable measurement noises on voltage and current observations, the identification algorithms must perform under both input and output noises, leading to more challenging issues than standard identification problems. It is shown that typical battery models may not be identifiable, unique battery model features require modified input/output expressions, and standard least-squares identification methods will encounter identification bias. This paper devises modified model structure and algorithms to resolve these issues. System identifiabihty, algorithm convergence, identification bias, and bias correction mechanisms are established.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel and its Blends on Particulate Emissions from HSDI Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0798
The effect of biodiesel on the Particulate emissions is gaining significant attention particularly with the drive for the use of alternative fuels. The particulate matter (PM), especially having a diameter less than 50 nm called the Nanoparticles or Nucleation mode particles (NMPs), has been raising concerns about its effect on human health. To better understand the effect of biodiesel and its blends on particulate emissions, steady state tests were conducted on a small-bore single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection research diesel engine. The engine was fueled with Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD or B-00), a blend of 20% soy-derived biodiesel and 80% ULSD on volumetric basis (B-20), B-40, B-60, B-80 and 100% soy-derived biodiesel (B-100), equipped with a common rail injection system, EGR and swirl control systems at a load of 5 bar IMEP and constant engine speed of 1500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0877
By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
X