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Technical Paper

Onboard Cybersecurity Diagnostic System for Connected Vehicles

2021-09-21
2021-01-1249
Today’s advanced vehicles have high degree of interaction due to numerous sensors, actuators and also with complex communication within the control units. In order to hack a vehicle, it has to be within a certain range of communication. Here, we discuss the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) regulations for next generation BEV/HEV, its vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats that come with hacking. We propose three cybersecurity attack detection and defense methods: Cyber-Attack detection algorithm, Time-Based CAN Intrusion Detection Method and, Feistel Cipher Block Method. These control methods autonomously diagnose a cybersecurity problem in a vehicle’s onboard system using an OBD interface, such as OBD-II when a fault caused by a cyberattack is detected, All of this is achieved in an internal communication network structure. The results discussed here focus on the first detection method that is Cyber-Attack detection algorithm.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Auxiliary Battery Control - A Connected Approach

2021-09-21
2021-01-1248
As vehicles are getting electrified and more intelligent, the energy consumption of the auxiliary system increases rapidly. The auxiliary battery acts as the backbone of the system to support the proper operation of the vehicle. It is important to ensure the auxiliary battery has enough energy to meet the basic loads regardless the vehicle is in park or running. However, the existing methods only focus on auxiliary energy management when the vehicle is in a dynamic event. To fulfill the gap, we propose an intelligent strategy that detects the low state of charge (SOC) condition, temporarily turns down the auxiliary loads based on their priorities and charges the auxiliary battery at the maximum efficiency of the auxiliary power unit. In addition, the proposed strategy allows the vehicle to get the park duration update and make intelligent decisions on charging the auxiliary battery.
Technical Paper

Identification of Low-Frequency/Low SNR Automobile Noise Sources

2021-08-31
2021-01-1062
This paper presents experimental investigations of determining and analyzing low-frequency, low-SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) noise sources of an automobile by using a new technology known as Sound Viewer. Such a task is typically very difficult to do especially at low or even negative SNR. The underlying principles behind the Sound Viewer technology consists of a passive SODAR (Sonic Detection And Ranging) and HELS (Helmholtz Equation Least Squares) method. The former enables one to determine the precise locations of multiple sound sources in 3D space simultaneously over the entire frequency range consistent with a measurement microphone in non-ideal environment, where there are random background noise and unknown interfering signals. The latter enables one to reconstruct all acoustic quantities such as the acoustic pressure, acoustic intensity, time-averaged acoustic power, radiation patterns, etc.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Low-Frequency Motorcycle Noise Under Both Steady-State and Transient Operating Conditions

2021-08-31
2021-01-1108
This paper presents experimental investigations of diagnosing and analyzing the low-frequency, low- SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) noise sources of three motorcycles using a hybrid technology that consists of a passive SODAR (Sonic Detection And Ranging) and modified HELS (Helmholtz Equation Least Squares) methods. The former enables one to determine the precise locations of multiple sound sources in 3D space simultaneously over the entire frequency range that is consistent with a measurement microphone in non-ideal environment, where there are random background noise and unknown interfering signals. The latter enables one to reconstruct all acoustic quantities such as the acoustic pressure, acoustic intensity, time-averaged acoustic power, radiation patterns, and sound transmission paths through arbitrarily shaped vibrating structures.
Technical Paper

A Data-Based Modeling Approach for the Prediction of Front Impact (NCAP) Safety Performance of a Passenger Vehicle

2021-04-06
2021-01-0923
Designing a vehicle for superior crash safety performance in consumer rating tests such as US-NCAP is a compelling target in the design of passenger vehicles. In today’s context, there is also a high emphasis on making a vehicle as lightweight as possible which calls for an efficient design. In modern vehicle design, these objectives can only be achieved through Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) for which a detailed CAD (Computer-Aided Design) model of a vehicle is a pre-requisite. In the absence of the latter (i.e. a matured CAD model) at the initial and perhaps the most crucial phase of vehicle body design, a rational approach to design would be to resort to a knowledge-based methodology which can enable crash safety assessment of an assumed design using artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks.
Technical Paper

Aging Simulation of Electric Vehicle Battery Cell Using Experimental Data

2021-04-06
2021-01-0763
The adoption of lithium-ion batteries in vehicle electrification is fast growing due to high power and energy demand on hybrid and electric vehicles. However, the battery overall performance changes with time through the vehicle life. This paper investigates the electric vehicle battery cell aging under different usages. Battery cell experimental data including open circuit voltage and internal resistance is utilized to build a typical electric vehicle model in the AVL-Cruise platform. Four driving cycles (WLTP, UDDS, HWFET, and US06) with different ambient temperatures are simulated to acquire the battery cell terminal currents. These battery cell terminal current data are inputs to the MATLAB/Simulink battery aging model. Simulation results show that battery degrades quickly in high ambient temperatures. After 15,000 hours usage in 50 degrees Celsius ambient temperature, the usable cell capacity is reduced up to 25%.
Technical Paper

Chassis Lightweight Hole Placement with Weldline Evaluation

2021-01-07
2020-01-5217
Vehicle weight-driven design comes amid rising higher fuel efficiency standards and must meet the criteria—pass proving ground (PG) test events that are equivalent to customer usage. Computer-aided engineering (CAE) fatigue analysis for PG is a successful push behind to digitally simulate vehicle durability performance with high fidelity. The need for vehicle weight reduction often arises in the vehicle development final phases when CAE methods, time, and tangible cost-effective opportunities are limited or nonexistent. In this research, a new CAE methodology is developed to identify opportunities for lightweight hole placement in the chassis structure and deliver a cost-effective lightweight solution with no additional impact on fatigue life. The successful application of this new methodology exhibits the effectiveness of the truck frame, which is the key chassis structure to support the body, suspension, and powertrain.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Aldehyde and Methane Emissions from Hydrous Ethanol and Gasoline Fueled SI Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2047
Use of ethanol as gasoline replacement can contribute to the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon oxide (CO) emissions. Depending on ethanol production, significant reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is possible. Concentration of certain species, such as unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde in the engine-out emissions are known to rise when ratio of ethanol to gasoline increases in the fuel. This research explores on hydrous ethanol fueled port-fuel injection (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engine emissions that contribute to photochemical formation of ozone, or so-called ozone precursors and the precursor of peroxyacetyl nitrates (PANs). The results are compared to engine operation on gasoline. Concentration obtained by FTIR gas analyzer, and mass-specific emissions of formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (MeCHO) and methane (CH4) under two engine speed, four load and two spark advance settings are analyzed and presented.
Technical Paper

Smart Spark Plug for Proper Combustion Timing in Gasoline Engines and Detection of Misfire and Knock

2020-04-14
2020-01-0790
Internal combustion engines are required to achieve production goals of better fuel economy, improved fuel economy and reduced emissions in order to meet the current and future stringent standards. To achieve these goals, it is essential to control the combustion process using an in-cylinder combustion sensor and a system that produces a feedback signal to the ECU. This paper presents a system based on combustion ionization that includes a newly developed smart spark plug capable of sensing the whole combustion process. A unique feature of the smart spark plug system is its ability to sense the early stages of combustion and produce a complete ion current signal that accurately identifies and can be used for the control of the start of combustion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Longitudinal Control for Automated Vehicles through Vehicle-in-the-Loop Testing

2020-04-14
2020-01-0714
Automated driving functionalities delivered through Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) have been adopted more and more frequently in consumer vehicles. The development and implementation of such functionalities pose new challenges in safety and functional testing and the associated validations, due primarily to their high demands on facility and infrastructure. This paper presents a rather unique Vehicle-in-the-Loop (VIL) test setup and methodology compared those previously reported, by combining the advantages of the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and traditional chassis dynamometer test cell in place of on-road testing, with a multi-agent real-time simulator for the rest of test environment.
Technical Paper

Strategies to Gain the Loss in Power in a Military Diesel Engine Using JP-8 Instead of ULSD

2020-04-14
2020-01-0804
The Department of Defense (DOD) has adopted the use of JP-8 under the “single battlefield fuel” policy. Fuel properties of JP-8 which are different from ULSD include cetane number, density, heating value and compressibility (Bulk modulus). While JP8 has advantages compared to ULSD, related to storage, combustion and lower soot emissions, its use cause a drop in the peak power in some military diesel engines. The engines that has loss in power use the Hydraulically actuated Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI) fuel system. The paper explains in details the operation of HEUI including fuel delivery into the injector and its compression to the high injection pressure before its delivery in the combustion chamber. The effect of fuel compressibility on the volume of the fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber is explained in details.
Technical Paper

Application of Multivariate Control Chart Techniques to Identifying Nonconforming Pallets in Automotive Assembly Plants

2020-04-14
2020-01-0477
The Hotelling multivariate control chart and the sample generalized variance |S| are used to monitor the mean and dispersion of vehicle build vision data including the pallet information to identify the non-conforming pallets that are used in body shops of FCA US LLC assembly plants. An iterative procedure and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) are used to rank the non-conforming or bad pallets in the order of severity. The Hotelling multivariate T2 test statistic along with Mason-Tracy-Young (MYT) signal decomposition method is used to identify the features that are affected by the bad pallets. These algorithms were implemented in the Advanced Pallet Analysis module of the FCA US software Body Shop Analysis Toolbox (BSAT). The identified bad pallets are visualized in a scatter plot with a different color for each of the top bad pallets. The run chart of an affected feature confirms the bad pallet by highlighting data points from the bad pallet.
Technical Paper

Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Modeling with Experiments for Battery Pack Design

2020-04-14
2020-01-1185
Lithium-ion polymer battery has been widely used for vehicle onboard electric energy storage ranging from 12V SLI (Starting, Lighting, and Ignition), 48V mild hybrid electric, to 300V battery electric vehicle. Formulation on cell parameters acquired from minimum numbers of experiments, the modeling and simulation could be an effective approach in predicting battery performance, thermal effectiveness, and degradation. This paper describes the modeling, simulation, and validation of Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt-Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2) based cell with 3.6V nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity. Constant current 20A, 40A, 60A, and 80A discharge tests are conducted in the computer-controlled cycler and temperature chamber. Discharging voltage curves and cell surface temperature distributions are recorded in each discharging test. A three-dimensional cell model is constructed in the COMSOL multi-physics platform based on the cell parameters.
Technical Paper

Using Polygot Persistence with NoSQL Databases for Streaming Multimedia, Sensor, and Messaging Services in Autonomous Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0942
The explosion of big data has created challenges for both cloud-based systems and Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) in data collection and management. The same challenges are now being realized in developing databases for integrated sensors, streaming, real-time and on-demand services in AVs. With just one AV expecting to generate over 30 Terabytes of data a day, modern NoSQL databases provide opportunities to horizontally scale AV data seamlessly. NoSQL provides solutions designed to accommodate a wide variety of data models such as, key-value, document, column and graph databases. Key-value stores are by nature scalable, fast processing, and distribute horizontally. These databases are tasked with handling several data types including IoT, radar, lidar, ultra-sonic sensors, GPS, odometry, and sensor data while providing streaming and real-time services. NoSQL can store and utilize structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data necessary for multimedia storage needs.
Journal Article

A Preliminary Study on the Restraint System of Self-Driving Car

2020-04-14
2020-01-1333
Due to the variation of compartment design and occupant’s posture in self-driving cars, there is a new and major challenge for occupant protection. In particular, the studies on occupant restraint systems used in the self-driving car have been significantly delayed compared to the development of the autonomous technologies. In this paper, a numerical study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of three typical restraint systems on the driver protection in three different scenarios.
Technical Paper

Step by Step Conversion of ICE Motorcycle to a BEV Configuration

2020-04-14
2020-01-1436
With the mass movement toward electrification and renewable technologies, the scope of innovation of electrification has gone beyond the automotive industry into areas such as electric motorcycle applications. This paper provides a discussion of the methodology and complexities of converting an internal combustion motorcycle to an electric motorcycle. In developing this methodology, performance goals including, speed limits, range, weight, charge times, as well as riding styles will be examined and discussed. Based on the goals of this paper, parts capable of reaching the performance targets are selected accordingly. Documentation of the build process will be presented along with the constraints, pitfalls, and difficulties associated with the process of the project. The step-by-step process that is developed can be used as a guideline for future build and should be used as necessary.
Technical Paper

An Optimization Study of Occupant Restraint System for Different BMI Senior Women Protection in Frontal Impacts

2020-04-14
2020-01-0981
Accident statistics have shown that older and obese occupants are less adaptable to existing vehicle occupant restraint systems than ordinary middle-aged male occupants, and tend to have higher injury risk in vehicle crashes. However, the current research on injury mechanism of aging and obese occupants in vehicle frontal impacts is scarce. This paper focuses on the optimization design method of occupant restraint system parameters for specific body type characteristics. Three parameters, namely the force limit value of the force limiter in the seat belt, pretensioner preload of the seat belt and the proportionality coefficient of mass flow rate of the inflator were used for optimization. The objective was to minimize the injury risk probability subjected to constraints of occupant injury indicator values for various body regions as specified in US-NCAP frontal impact tests requirements.
Technical Paper

Response Ratio Development for Lateral Pendulum Impact with Porcine Thorax and Abdomen Surrogate Equivalents

2020-03-31
2019-22-0007
There has been recent progress over the past 10 years in research comparing 6-year-old thoracic and abdominal response of pediatric volunteers, pediatric post mortem human subjects (PMHS), animal surrogates, and 6-year-old ATDs. Although progress has been made to guide scaling laws of adult to pediatric thorax and abdomen data for use in ATD design and development of finite element models, further effort is needed, particularly with respect to lateral impacts. The objective of the current study was to use the impact response data of age equivalent swine from Yaek et al. (2018) to assess the validity of scaling laws used to develop lateral impact response corridors from adult porcine surrogate equivalents (PSE) to the 3-year-old, 6-year-old, and 10-year-old for the thorax and abdominal body regions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Accelerator Hardware for Autonomous Vehicles and Data Centers

2019-10-22
2019-01-2615
The development of Autonomous Vehicles (AV) has become a popular subject in academia and industry. Companies and cities are quickly realizing the opportunities that AVs can generate from Mobility as a Service to traffic safety. The challenges for the infrastructure to incorporate AVs as a viable transportation source are immense, from an outdated infrastructure to radical Smart-City designs. Historically, the transportation infrastructure has faced challenges from underfunding, economics, and much needed improvements. With the current infrastructure unable to support many of the services required by a fully connected network, a transformation will be necessary to meet growing mobility needs. The role of accelerating technology in data centers are key for production operations among industry leaders such as Amazon and Microsoft for real-time processing.
Technical Paper

Determining Vibro-Acoustic Characteristics and Structural Damping of an Elastic Monolithic Panel

2019-06-05
2019-01-1538
Evaluations of the dynamic and acoustic responses of panels, partitions, and walls are of concern across many industries, from building home appliances, planning meeting rooms, to designing airplanes and passenger cars. Over the past few decades, search efforts for developing new methodologies and technologies to enable NVH engineers to acquire and correlate dynamically the relationship between input excitations and vibro-acoustic responses of arbitrary-shaped panels has grown exponentially. The application of a particular methodology or technology to the evaluation of a specific structure depends intimately on the goals and objectives of the NVH engineers and industries.
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