Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Journal Article

RCCI Combustion Regime Transitions in a Single-Cylinder Optical Engine and a Multi-Cylinder Metal Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0088
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an approach to increase engine efficiency and lower engine-out emissions by using in-cylinder stratification of fuels with differing reactivity (i.e., autoignition characteristics) to control combustion phasing. Stratification can be altered by varying the injection timing of the high-reactivity fuel, causing transitions across multiple regimes of combustion. When injection is sufficiently early, combustion approaches a highly-premixed autoignition regime, and when it is sufficiently late it approaches more mixing-controlled, diesel-like conditions. Engine performance, emissions, and control authority over combustion phasing with injection timing are most favorable in between, within the RCCI regime.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Main Combustion Parameters from the Measured Instantaneous Crankshaft Speed

2013-04-08
2013-01-0326
The increased interest for using alternative fuels in modern diesel engines requires better combustion control to achieve safe and efficient operation with fuels characterized by different physical and chemical properties. Knowing the ignition delay and the cylinder peak pressure will allow adapting the injection strategy, mainly injection timing to maintain good engine efficiency when operating with different alternative fuels. The use of the measured instantaneous crankshaft speed to estimate peak cylinder pressure and ignition delay is very attractive because speed is already a parameter in the ECU of the engine. Based on models using powertrain dynamics, the paper presents the development of several techniques using the measured speed to estimate the main combustion parameters for single cylinder and four cylinder diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Direct Visualization of Combustion in an E85-Fueled DISI Engine under Various Operation Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1129
Gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) engines have been adopted increasingly by the automotive industry in the recent years due to their performance, effects on the environment, and customers' demand on advanced technology. However, the knowledge of detailed combustion process in such engines is still not thoroughly analyzed and understood. With optically accessible engines (OAE) and advanced measuring techniques, such as high-speed digital imaging, the in-cylinder combustion process is made available directly to researchers. The present study primarily focuses on the effects of different parameters of engine control on the combustion process, such as fuel types, valve deactivation, ignition timing, spark energy, injection timing, air-fuel ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation. Three engine heads of a 2.0L GDI engine are used with modification to acquire different optical access.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Reciprocating Engine Piston Secondary Motion - Literature Review

2008-04-14
2008-01-1045
The piston secondary motion is an important phenomenon in internal combustion (IC) engine. It occurs due to the piston transverse and rotational motion during piston reciprocating motion. The piston secondary motion results in engine friction and engine noise. There has been lot of research activities going on in piston secondary motion using both analytical models and experimental studies. These studies are aimed at reducing the engine friction as well as the noise generated due to piston secondary motion. The aim of this paper is to compile the research actives carried out on the piston secondary motion and discuss the possible research opportunities for reducing the IC engine piston secondary motion.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel (B-20) on Performance and Emissions in a Single Cylinder HSDI Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1401
The focus of this study is to determine the effect of using B-20 (a blend of 20% soybean methyl ester biodiesel and 80% ultra low sulfur diesel fuel) on the combustion process, performance and exhaust emissions in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was operated under simulated turbocharged conditions with 3-bar indicated mean effective pressure and 1500 rpm engine speed. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures and EGR rates. The rate of heat release trace has been analyzed in details to determine the effect of the properties of biodiesel on auto ignition and combustion processes and their impact on engine out emissions. The results and the conclusions are supported by a statistical analysis of data that provides a quantitative significance of the effects of the two fuels on engine out emissions.
Technical Paper

Advanced Low Temperature Combustion (ALTC): Diesel Engine Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0652
The objective of this work is to develop a strategy to reduce the penalties in the diesel engine performance, fuel economy and HC and CO emissions, associated with the operation in the low temperature combustion regime. Experiments were conducted on a research high speed, single cylinder, 4-valve, small-bore direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system under simulated turbocharged conditions, at IMEP = 3 bar and engine speed = 1500 rpm. EGR rates were varied over a wide range to cover engine operation from the conventional to the LTC regime, up to the misfiring point. The injection pressure was varied from 600 bar to 1200 bar. Injection timing was adjusted to cover three different LPPCs (Location of the Peak rate of heat release due to the Premixed Combustion fraction) at 10.5° aTDC, 5 aTDC and 2 aTDC. The swirl ratio was varied from 1.44 to 7.12. Four steps are taken to move from LTC to ALTC.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Characterization Studies in an HSDI Diesel Engine under Conventional and LTC Regime

2008-04-14
2008-01-1086
Several mechanisms are discussed to understand the particulate matter (PM) characterization in a high speed, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine using low sulfur diesel fuel. This includes their formation, size distribution and number density. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of injection pressures, EGR rates, injection timings and swirl ratios, therefore covering both conventional and low temperature combustion regimes. A micro dilution tunnel was used to immediately dilute a small part of the exhaust gases by hot air. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the particulate size distribution and number density. Particulate mass was measured with a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). Analysis was made of the root cause of PM characterization and their relationship with the combustion process under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure and Swirl Motion on Diesel Engine-out Emissions in Conventional and Advanced Combustion Regimes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0076
The fuel injection pressure and the swirl motion have a great impact on combustion in small bore HSDI diesel engines running on the conventional or advanced combustion concepts. This paper examines the effects of injection pressure and the swirl motion on engine-out emissions over a wide range of EGR rates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder, 4-valve, direct injection diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. The pressures and temperatures in the inlet and exhaust surge tanks were adjusted to simulate turbocharged engine conditions. The load and speed of the engine were typical to highway cruising operation of a light duty vehicle. The experiments covered a wide range of injection pressures, swirl ratios and injection timings. Engine-out emission measurements included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, smoke (in Bosch Smoke Units, BSU) and NOx.
Technical Paper

“OPERAS” In Advanced Diesel Engines for Commercial and Military Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0927
Advanced diesel engines developed for the commercial market need to be adapted to the military requirements by OPERAS (Optimizing the injection pressure P, the Exhaust gas recirculation E, injection events Retard and/or Advance and the swirl ratio S). The different after treatment devices, already used or expected to be applied to diesel engines, require feed gases of appropriate properties for their efficient operation. To produce these gases some OPERAS are needed to control the diesel combustion process. Since military vehicles do not need the after treatment devices, the OPERAS of the commercial engines should be modified to meet the military requirements for high power density, better fuel economy, reduction of parasitic losses caused by the cooled EGR system, and reduction of invisible black and white smoke in the field.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timings and Intake Port Flow Control on the In-Cylinder Wetted Fuel Footprints during PFI Engine Startup Process

2005-05-11
2005-01-2082
Wall-wetting due to liquid fuel film motion and fuel droplet impingement on combustion chamber walls is a major source of unburned hydrocarbons (UBHC), and is a concern for oil dilution in PFI engines. An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of injection timing, a charge motion control device, and the matching of injector with port geometry, on the “footprints” of liquid fuel inside the combustion chamber during the PFI engine starting process. Using a gasoline-soluble dye and filter paper deployed on the cylinder liner and piston top land surfaces to capture the liquid fuel footprints, the effects of the mixture formation processes on the wetted footprints can be qualitatively and quantitatively examined by comparing the wetted footprint locations and their color intensities. Real-time filming of the development of wetted footprints using a high-speed camera can also show the time history of the fuel wetting process inside an optically accessible engine.
Technical Paper

Spectral Analysis and Chemiluminescence Imaging of Hydrogen Addition to HSDI Diesel Combustion Under Conventional and Low-Temperature Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2919
Late-injection low-temperature diesel combustion is found to further reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The combustion phenomena and detail chemical kinetics are studied with high speed spray/combustion images and time-resolved spectroscopy analysis in a rapid compression machine (RCM) with a small bowl combustion chamber. High swirl and high EGR condition can be achieved in the RCM; variable injection pressure and injection timing is supplied by the high-pressure common-rail fuel injection system. Effect of small amount of premix hydrogen gas on diesel combustion is also studied in the RCM. A hydrogen injector is located in the upstream of air inlet for delivery small amount and premixed hydrogen gas into cylinder just before the compression stroke. The ignition delay is studied both from the pressure curves and the chemiluminescence images.
Technical Paper

Correlating Port Fuel injection to Wetted Fuel Footprints on Combustion Chamber Walls and UBHC in Engine Start Processes

2003-10-27
2003-01-3240
Unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions from gasoline engines remain a primary engineering research and development concern due to stricter emission regulations. Gasoline engines produce more UBHC emissions during cold start and warm-up than during any other stage of operation, because of insufficient fuel-air mixing, particularly in view of the additional fuel enrichment used for early starting. Impingement of fuel droplets on the cylinder wall is a major source of UBHC and a concern for oil dilution. This paper describes an experimental study that was carried out to investigate the distribution and “footprint” of fuel droplets impinging on the cylinder wall during the intake stroke under engine starting conditions. Injectors having different targeting and atomization characteristics were used in a 4-Valve engine with optical access to the intake port and combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Temperature Impact on Modeling and Control of Lean NOx Trap

2003-03-03
2003-01-1163
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine has a significant fuel economy improvement over the traditional port fuel injection engine. The tradeoff for this benefit is excessive exhaust emissions, especially NOx. Three-way-catalyst (TWC) is inefficient to treat NOx emission during lean operation. So Lean NOx Trap (LNT) is invented for NOx aftertreatment and it has both storage mode and purge mode. Research on modeling and control of LNT has been conducted, but it is still lack of the essential information on the temperature effect. This research focuses on the impact of trap temperature on LNT storage time, purge time and fuel economy. The mechanism of temperature effect on LNT is investigated at first. Then the temperature control strategy based on fuel economy improvement is proposed.
Technical Paper

A Simple Linear Approach for Transient Fuel Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-0360
Significant A/F ratio excursion may occur during some engine transient operations, especially for transient periods of throttle tip in or tip out. A/F ratio excursion results in excessive emissions, extra fuel consumption, driveability deterioration and three-way-catalyst (TWC) efficiency drop. Simple two-parameter (X, τ) wall wetting models have traditionally been used to describe this transient A/F ratio excursion phenomenon. The transient fuel control techniques are utilized for this model to be applicable across vehicles, engines, fuel types and ambient conditions, so as to compensate for the A/F ratio excursion with the extra compensation fuel. More complicated model structures must be further expanded and model dependence on various environment conditions must be established to achieve a precise model. In this paper, a simple linear approach is proposed for transient fuel control, using least squares estimation.
Technical Paper

New Integrated “O.P.E.R.A.S.” Strategies for Low Emissions in HSDI Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-0261
Integrated control strategies for the O.P.E.R.A.S. (Optimization of injection Pressure, EGR ratio, injection Retard or Advance and Swirl ratio) are demonstrated. The strategies are based on an investigation of combustion and emissions in a small bore, high speed, direct injection diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system and is tested under simulated turbocharged engine conditions at two loads and speeds that represent two key operating points in a medium size HEV vehicle. A new phenomenological model is developed for the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber and the fractions that are injected prior to the development of the flame, injected in the flame or deposited on the walls. The investigation covered the effect of the different operating parameters on the fuel distribution, combustion and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Emissions Trade-Off and Combustion Characteristics of a High-Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0197
The emissions trade-off and combustion characteristics of a high speed, small-bore, direct injection, single cylinder, diesel engine are investigated at three different load conditions. The experiments covered a wide range of parameters including the injection pressure, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and swirl ratio (Sw). The effects of each parameter on the ignition delay (ID), apparent rate of energy release (ARER), NOx, Bosch smoke unit (BSU), CO and hydrocarbons are investigated. The results show that the NOx emission dropped continuously with the increase in EGR (up to 55%), but with increasing smoke emission in a classical trade-off relationship. The increase in injection pressure generally reduced smoke with NOx penalty; however, the NOx penalty decreased at higher EGR. There also appears to be an increase in the cool flame intensity at the high EGR rates. Applying swirl at high EGR rate and high injection pressure conditions further reduced smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1004
Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

A New Ignition Delay Formulation Applied to Predict Misfiring During Cold Starting of Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1184
A new formulation is developed for the ignition delay (ID) in diesel engines to account for the effect of piston motion on the global autoignition reaction rates. A differentiation is made between the IDe measured in engines and IDv, measured in constant volume vessels. In addition, a method is presented to determine the coefficients of the IDe correlation from actual engine experimental data. The new formulation for IDe is applied to predict the misfiring cycles during the cold starting of diesel engines at different low ambient temperatures. The predictions are compared with experimental results obtained on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Technique for Friction Simulation in Automotive Piston Ring and Cylinder Liners

1998-05-04
981407
A new friction testing system has been designed and built to simulate the actual engine conditions in friction and wear test of piston-ring and cylinder liner assembly. Experimental data has been developed as Friction Coefficient / Crank Angle Degree diagrams including the effects of running speed (500 and 700 rpm) and ring normal load. Surface roughness profilocorder traces were obtained for tested samples. Mixed lubrication regime observed in the most part of the test range. New cylinder bore materials and lubricants can be screened easily and more reliable simulated engine friction data can be collected using this technique.
X