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Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Condensation Processes under Non-reacting Conditions in an Optically-Accessible Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0197
Engine experiments have revealed the importance of fuel condensation on the emission characteristics of low temperature combustion. However, direct in-cylinder experimental evidence has not been reported in the literature. In this paper, the in-cylinder condensation processes observed in optically accessible engine experiments are first illustrated. The observed condensation processes are then simulated using state-of-the-art multidimensional engine CFD simulations with a phase transition model that incorporates a well-validated phase equilibrium numerical solver, in which a thermodynamically consistent phase equilibrium analysis is applied to determine when mixtures become unstable and a new phase is formed. The model utilizes fundamental thermodynamics principles to judge the occurrence of phase separation or combination by minimizing the system Gibbs free energy.
Technical Paper

Investigating Collaborative Robot Gripper Configurations for Simple Fabric Pick and Place Tasks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0699
Fiber composite materials are widely used in many industrial applications - specially in automotive, aviation and consumer goods. Introducing light-weighting material solutions to reduce vehicle mass is driving innovative materials research activities as polymer composites offer high specific stiffness and strength compared to contemporary engineering materials. However, there are issues related to high production volume, automation strategies and handling methods. The state of the art for the production of these light-weight flexible textile or composite fiber products is setting up multi-stage manual operations for hand layups. Material handling of flexible textile/fiber components is a process bottleneck. Consequently, the long term research goal is to develop semi-automated pick and place processes for flexible materials utilizing collaborative robots within the process. Collaborative robots allow for interactive human-machine tasks to be conducted.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Polymer SLI Battery

2019-04-02
2019-01-0594
Lead-acid batteries have dominated the automotive conventional electric system, particularly in the functions of starting (S), lighting (L) and ignition (I) for decades. However, the low energy-to-weight ratio and the low energy-to-volume ratio makes the lead-acid SLI battery relatively heavy, large, and shallow Depth of Discharge (DOD). This could be improved by replacing the lead-acid battery by the lithium-ion polymer battery. The lithium-ion polymer battery can provide the same power with lightweight, compact volume, and deep DOD for engine idle elimination using start-stop function that is a basic feature in electric-drive vehicles. This paper presents the modeling and validation of a lithium-ion battery for SLI application. A lithium-metal-oxide based cell with 3.6 nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity is used in the study. A simulation model of lithium-ion polymer battery pack (14.4V, 80Ah) with battery management system is built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment.
Technical Paper

A 3D Simulation Methodology for Predicting the Effects of Blasts on a Vehicle Body

2019-04-02
2019-01-1033
Triggered explosions are increasingly becoming common in the world today leading to the loss of precious lives under the most unexpected circumstances. In most scenarios, ordinary citizens are the targets of such attacks, making it essential to design countermeasures in open areas as well as in mobility systems to minimize the destructive effects of such explosive-induced blasts. It would be rather difficult and to an extent risky to carry out physical experiments mimicking blasts in real world scenarios. In terms of mechanics, the problem is essentially one of fluid-structure interaction in which pressure waves in the surrounding air are generated by detonating an explosive charge which then have the potential to cause severe damage to any obstacle on the path of these high-energy waves.
Technical Paper

Development of Subject-Specific Elderly Female Finite Element Models for Vehicle Safety

2019-04-02
2019-01-1224
Previous study suggested that female, thin, obese, and older occupants had a higher risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes. Human body finite element models were a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. The mesh deformation method based on radial basis function(RBF) was an attractive alternative for morphing baseline model to target models. Generally, when a complex model contained many elements and nodes, it was impossible to use all surface nodes as landmarks in RBF interpolation process, due to its prohibitive computational cost. To improve the efficiency, the current technique was to averagely select a set of nodes as landmarks from all surface nodes. In fact, the location and the number of selected landmarks had an important effect on the accuracy of mesh deformation. Hence, how to select important nodes as landmarks was a significant issue. In the paper, an efficient peak point-selection RBF mesh deformation method was used to select landmarks.
Technical Paper

On-Road and Chassis Dynamometer Evaluation of a Pre-Transmission Parallel PHEV

2019-04-02
2019-01-0365
This paper details the vehicle testing activities performed during the Year 4 of the EcoCAR 3 competition by the Wayne State University team on a Pre-Transmission Parallel PHEV. The paper focuses on two main testing platforms: the chassis dynamometer and the closed-course track (on-road). The focus of the former is to evaluate the emissions and energy consumption associated with different driving scenarios, while the latter has been used to assess the vehicle performance and their impact on the consumer appeal. The paper presents the objectives of each test, the setup accomplished for the different vehicle testing platforms, the results obtained and the comparison with the values expected from simulations. In addition, the impact of the results on the refinement of the control strategies and on the validation of the simulation models are discussed.
Technical Paper

Research on the FE Modeling and Impact Injury of Obese 10-YO Children Based on Mesh Morphing Methodology

2018-04-03
2018-01-0540
In order to improve the comprehensive protection for children with variable shapes and sizes, this paper conducted studies on the impact injury for obese children based on a 10-YO finite element model. Some specific geometrics on the body surface were firstly acquired by the combination of pediatric anthropometric database and generator of body (GEBOD). A Radial Basis Function (RBF) based mesh morphing technique was then used to modify the original standard size FE model using the obtained geometrics. The morphed FE model was validated based on the experimental data of frontal sled test and chest-abdomen impact test. The effects of obesity on injury performances were analyzed through simplified high-speed and low-speed crash simulations.
Technical Paper

One-Dimensional Modelling and Analysis of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Reduction of Cooling Loads in Military Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1112
There is a general interest in the reduction of cooling loads in military vehicles. To that end thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are being studied for their potential as insulators, particularly for military engines. The effectiveness of TBCs is largely dependent on their thermal properties, however insulating effects can also be modified by applying different coating thickness. Convection from in-cylinder surfaces can also be affected by manipulation of surface structure. Although most prior studies have examined TBCs as a means of increasing efficiency, military vehicle design is primarily concerned with the reduction of cylinder heat transfer to allow downsizing of cooling systems. A 1-D transient conjugate heat transfer model was developed to provide insight into the effects of different TBC designs and material selection on cooling loads. Results identify low thermal conductivity and low thermal capacitance as key parameters in achieving optimal heat loss reduction.
Journal Article

An Exploration of Jute-Polyester Composite for Vehicle Head Impact Safety Countermeasures

2018-04-03
2018-01-0844
Natural fiber-reinforced composites are currently gaining increasing attention as potential substitutes to pervasive synthetic fiber-reinforced composites, particularly glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP). The advantages of the former category of composites include (a) being conducive to occupational health and safety during fabrication of parts as well as handling as compared to GFRP, (b) economy especially when compared to carbon fiber-reinforced composites (CFRC), (c) biodegradability of fibers, and (d) aesthetic appeal. Jute fibers are especially relevant in this context as jute fabric has a consistent supply base with reliable mechanical properties. Recent studies have shown that components such as tubes and plates made of jute-polyester (JP) composites can have competitive performance under impact loading when compared with similar GFRP-based structures.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Natural Gas-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine with End Gas Ignition

2018-04-03
2018-01-0199
The present study helps to understand the local combustion characteristics of PREmixed Mixture Ignition in the End-gas Region (PREMIER) combustion mode while using increasing amount of natural gas as a diesel substitute in conventional CI engine. In order to reduce NOx emission and diesel fuel consumption micro-pilot diesel injection in premixed natural gas-air mixture is a promising technique. New strategy has been employed to simulate dual fuel combustion which uses well established combustion models. Main focus of the simulation is at detection of an end gas ignition, and creating an unified modeling approach for dual fuel combustion. In this study G-equation flame propagation model is used with detailed chemistry in order to detect end-gas ignition in overall low temperature combustion. This combustion simulation model is validated using comparison with experimental data for dual fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid Supervisory Controller for a Pre-Transmission Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Year 3 of the EcoCAR3 Competition

2018-04-03
2018-01-1012
This paper details the Wayne State University development of the Hybrid Supervisory Controller strategies for the Year 3 of the EcoCAR 3 competition. Included in this paper are the processes for developing the strategies for the supervisory control system, which includes the torque distribution among the powertrain components, and the diagnostic strategies adopted to guarantee the safety critical functionalities of the vehicle. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. During the Year 3 of the competition the team has refined the control strategies designed in the previous years, to enable the powertrain full functionalities and achieve better energy consumption over pre-determined drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Pediatric Occupant Kinematic Responses Using Finite Element Method in a Real-World Lateral Impact

2017-03-28
2017-01-1462
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Behaviors of Adhesively Bonded Steel Hat Section Components under Axial Impact Loading

2017-03-28
2017-01-1461
Adhesively bonded steel hat section components have been experimentally studied in the past as a potential alternative to traditional hat section components with spot-welded flanges. One of the concerns with such components has been their performance under axial impact loading as adhesive is far more brittle as compared to a spot weld. However, recent drop-weight impact tests have shown that the energy absorption capabilities of adhesively bonded steel hat sections are competitive with respect to geometrically similar spot-welded specimens. Although flange separation may take place in the case of a specimen employing a rubber toughened epoxy adhesive, the failure would have taken place post progressive buckling and absorption of impact energy.
Technical Paper

Effect of Strain Rate on Mechanical Responses of Jute-Polyester Composites

2017-03-28
2017-01-1467
There has been a keen interest in recent times on implementation of lightweight materials in vehicles to bring down the unladen weight of a vehicle for enhancing fuel efficiency. Fiber-reinforced composites comprise a class of such materials. As sustainability is also a preoccupation of current product development engineers including vehicle designers, bio-composites based on natural fibers are receiving a special attention. Keeping these motivations of lower effective density, environment friendliness and occupational safety in mind, woven jute fabric based composites have been recently studied as potential alternatives to glass fiber composites for structural applications in automobiles. In the past, mechanical characterization of jute-polyester composites were restricted to obtaining their stress-strain behaviors under quasi-static conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study on Combined Effects of Road Roughness, Vehicle Velocity and Sitting Occupancies on Multi-Occupant Vehicle Ride Comfort Assessment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0409
It is recognized that there is a dearth of studies that provide a comprehensive understanding of vehicle-occupant system dynamics for various road conditions, sitting occupancies and vehicle velocities. In the current work, an in-house-developed 50 degree-of-freedom (DOF) multi-occupant vehicle model is employed to obtain the vehicle and occupant biodynamic responses for various cases of vehicle velocities and road roughness. The model is solved using MATLAB scripts and library functions. Random road profiles of Classes A, B, C and D are generated based on PSDs (Power Spectral Densities) of spatial and angular frequencies given in the manual ISO 8608. A study is then performed on vehicle and occupant dynamic responses for various combinations of sitting occupancies, velocities and road profiles. The results obtained underscore the need for considering sitting occupancies in addition to velocity and road profile for assessment of ride comfort for a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Crack Failure Mode Analysis for Cam-Housing Rocker Arm and Pin

2017-03-28
2017-01-0358
During the extensive testing under NATO and Commercial Standards, crack is observed in camshaft housing to initiate from the eccentric shaft bore and go toward the hold down bolt hole. Hence lab test proposal is originated to induce similar failure in a controlled method and then to compare new design alternatives. CAE analysis follows the same set up as the lab test to duplicate failure mode in stress analysis and fatigue analysis with duty cycle loads, and then figures out two strategies on how to improve the design, including geometry change and material change. In geometry wise, four new design iterations are evaluated for comparison. In material wise, one new material for camshaft housing and five manufacturing effect parameters for pin and rocker arm are compared, including ground, machined, machined and decarburization, casting, as well as casting and nitride. With those comparisons, all manufacturing parameters are compared based on effectiveness to affect the fatigue life.
Technical Paper

Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Auto-Ignition and Flame Propagation Characteristics of Diesel Jets with Experimental Comparison

2017-03-28
2017-01-0842
Numerical simulations of diesel reacting jets in a simulated engine environment were carried out to study the effect of oxygen concentration on the ignition delay time and lift-off length dynamics. A recently developed mechanism, direct integration of chemistry, and well established Lagrangian-Eulerian spray model were utilized for 3-D turbulent spray combustion simulation under engine like conditions. The simulations are able to provide a time-history of chemical species including formaldehyde CH2O intermediates and hydroxide OH radicals to facilitate development of auto-ignition and lift off length numerical diagnostics. A range of important operating points including variations in the oxygen concentration, rail pressure, and injection duration were examined. The purpose of conducting the parametric studies is to investigate the consistency of the results and provide a more comprehensive analysis than a single point condition.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Public Vehicle Travel Survey Data Sets for Vehicle Driving Pattern and Fuel Economy Studies

2017-03-28
2017-01-0232
Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
Technical Paper

Control Development for an Engine-Disconnect Clutch in a Pre-Transmission Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2016-10-17
2016-01-2224
This paper details the development of the control algorithms to characterize the behavior of an electrohydraulic actuated dry clutch used in the powertrain of the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 Pre-Transmission Parallel hybrid vehicle. The paper describes the methodology and processes behind the development of the clutch physical model and electronic control unit to support the calibration of the vehicle’s hybrid supervisory controller. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in final stages of Year Two competition, which focuses on the powertrain components integration into the selected hybrid architecture. The dry clutch used by the team to enable the coupling between the engine and the electric motor is a key component of the Pre-Transmission Parallel configuration.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Dual-Fuel-CI and Single-Fuel-SI Engine Combustion Fueled with CNG

2016-04-05
2016-01-0789
With increasing interest to reduce the dependency on gasoline and diesel, alternative energy source like compressed natural gas (CNG) is a viable option for internal combustion engines. Spark-ignited (SI) CNG engine is the simplest way to utilize CNG in engines, but direct injection (DI) Diesel-CNG dual-fuel engine is known to offer improvement in combustion efficiency and reduction in exhaust gases. Dual-fuel engine has characteristics similar to both SI engine and diesel engine which makes the combustion process more complex. This paper reports the computational fluid dynamics simulation of both DI dual-fuel compression ignition (CI) and SI CNG engines. In diesel-CNG dual-fuel engine simulations and comparison to experiments, attention was on ignition delay, transition from auto-ignition to flame propagation and heat released from the combustion of diesel and gaseous fuel, as well as relevant pollutants emissions.
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