Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Journal Article

A Preliminary Study on the Restraint System of Self-Driving Car

2020-04-14
2020-01-1333
Due to the variation of compartment design and occupant’s posture in self-driving cars, there is a new and major challenge for occupant protection. In particular, the studies on occupant restraint systems used in the self-driving car have been significantly delayed compared to the development of the autonomous technologies. In this paper, a numerical study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of three typical restraint systems on the driver protection in three different scenarios.
Technical Paper

Response Ratio Development for Lateral Pendulum Impact with Porcine Thorax and Abdomen Surrogate Equivalents

2020-03-31
2019-22-0007
There has been recent progress over the past 10 years in research comparing 6-year-old thoracic and abdominal response of pediatric volunteers, pediatric post mortem human subjects (PMHS), animal surrogates, and 6-year-old ATDs. Although progress has been made to guide scaling laws of adult to pediatric thorax and abdomen data for use in ATD design and development of finite element models, further effort is needed, particularly with respect to lateral impacts. The objective of the current study was to use the impact response data of age equivalent swine from Yaek et al. (2018) to assess the validity of scaling laws used to develop lateral impact response corridors from adult porcine surrogate equivalents (PSE) to the 3-year-old, 6-year-old, and 10-year-old for the thorax and abdominal body regions.
Technical Paper

Determining Vibro-Acoustic Characteristics and Structural Damping of an Elastic Monolithic Panel

2019-06-05
2019-01-1538
Evaluations of the dynamic and acoustic responses of panels, partitions, and walls are of concern across many industries, from building home appliances, planning meeting rooms, to designing airplanes and passenger cars. Over the past few decades, search efforts for developing new methodologies and technologies to enable NVH engineers to acquire and correlate dynamically the relationship between input excitations and vibro-acoustic responses of arbitrary-shaped panels has grown exponentially. The application of a particular methodology or technology to the evaluation of a specific structure depends intimately on the goals and objectives of the NVH engineers and industries.
Journal Article

A Framework for Collaborative Robot (CoBot) Integration in Advanced Manufacturing Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0337
Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (CoBots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. CoBots, unlike traditional CoBots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although CoBots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of CoBots. The framework consists of the system level, work-cell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hours to program (and reprogram) them.
Technical Paper

Study of Muscle Activation of Driver’s Lower Extremity at the Collision Moment

2016-04-05
2016-01-1487
At the collision moment, a driver’s lower extremity will be in different foot position, which leads to the different posture of the lower extremity with various muscle activations. These will affect the driver’s injury during collision, so it is necessary to investigate further. A simulated collision scene was constructed, and 20 participants (10 male and 10 female) were recruited for the test in a driving simulator. The braking posture and muscle activation of eight major muscles of driver’s lower extremity (both legs) were measured. The muscle activations in different postures were then analyzed. At the collision moment, the right leg was possible to be on the brake (male, 40%; female, 45%), in the air (male, 27.5%; female, 37.5%) or even on the accelerator (male, 25%; female, 12.5%). The left leg was on the floor all along.
Journal Article

The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand: Visual-Manual Tasks

2016-04-05
2016-01-1423
Many metrics have been used in an attempt to predict the effects of secondary tasks on driving behavior. Such metrics often give rise to seemingly paradoxical results, with one metric suggesting increased demand and another metric suggesting decreased demand for the same task. For example, for some tasks, drivers maintain their lane well yet detect events relatively poorly. For other tasks, drivers maintain their lane relatively poorly yet detect events relatively well. These seeming paradoxes are not time-accuracy trade-offs or experimental artifacts, because for other tasks, drivers do both well. The paradoxes are resolved if driver demand is modeled in two orthogonal dimensions rather than a single “driver workload” dimension. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the published data from four simulator, track, and open road studies of visual-manual secondary task effects on driving.
Journal Article

The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand: Extension to Auditory-Vocal and Mixed-Mode Tasks

2016-04-05
2016-01-1427
The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include Auditory-Vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of Auditory-Vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
Technical Paper

Driver Demand: Eye Glance Measures

2016-04-05
2016-01-1421
This study investigated driver glances while engaging in infotainment tasks in a stationary vehicle while surrogate driving: watching a driving video recorded from a driver’s viewpoint and projected on a large screen, performing a lane-tracking task, and performing the Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) to measure attentional effects of secondary tasks on event detection and response. Twenty-four participants were seated in a 2014 Toyota Corolla production vehicle with the navigation system option. They performed the lane-tracking task using the vehicle’s steering wheel, fitted with a laser pointer to indicate wheel movement on the driving video. Participants simultaneously performed the TDRT and a variety of infotainment tasks, including Manual and Mixed-Mode versions of Destination Entry and Cancel, Contact Dialing, Radio Tuning, Radio Preset selection, and other Manual tasks. Participants also completed the 0-and 1-Back pure auditory-vocal tasks.
Technical Paper

Effects of Sinusoidal Whole Body Vibration Frequency on Drivers' Muscle Responses

2015-04-14
2015-01-1396
Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to contribute to the onset of low back pain. However, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. Little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz at 0.4 g of acceleration. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations. Muscle activity was measured using electromyography (EMG).
Technical Paper

A Surrogate Test for Cognitive Demand: Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT)

2015-04-14
2015-01-1385
As advanced electronic technology continues to be integrated into in-vehicle and portable devices, it is important to understand how drivers handle multitasking in order to maintain safe driving while reducing driver distraction. NHTSA has made driver distraction mitigation a major initiative. Currently, several types of Detection Response Tasks (DRTs) for assessing selective attention by detecting and responding to visual or tactile events while driving have been under development by an ISO WG8 DRT group. Among these DRTs, the tactile version (TDRT) is considered as a sensitive surrogate measure for driver attention without visual-manual interference in driving, according to the ISO DRT Draft Standard. In our previous study of cognitive demand, our results showed that the TDRT is the only surrogate DRT task with an acute sensitivity to a cognitive demand increase in an auditory-vocal task (i.e., n-Back verbal working memory task).
Technical Paper

Safe Interaction for Drivers: A Review of Driver Distraction Guidelines and Design Implications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1384
In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver's limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
Technical Paper

HMI Design for Increasing Vehicle Energy Efficiency by Affecting Driving Habits

2013-04-08
2013-01-0570
Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team is designing and modifying a GM-donated Chevrolet Malibu 2013 to a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid. A Freescale-donated Center Stack Unit (CSU) touchscreen display is used for Human Machine Interface (HMI). Surveys were conducted to better understand CSU functionality expectations. One required function was increasing driving efficiency. Other hybrid and electric vehicles HMI systems present driving and environmental settings efficiencies such as average fuel economy, lifetime fuel economy, electric charge used, fuel used, distances driven on each power source, instantaneous power gauge and instantaneous driver efficiency gauge. These offer drivers a large sum of information but with no provision to analyze and improve one's driving habits unless one has the required knowledge to understand the causes behind the values presented.
Technical Paper

Equivalent Drive Cycle Analysis, Simulation, and Testing - Wayne State University's On-Road Route for EcoCAR2

2013-04-08
2013-01-0549
The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is participating in a design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. The team created a repeatable on-road test drive route using local public roads near the university that would be of similar velocity ranges contained in the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule - a weighted combination of four different EPA-based drive cycles (US06 split into city and highway portions, all of the HWFET, first 505 seconds portion of UDDS). The primary purpose of the team's local on-road route was to be suitable for testing the team's added hybrid components and control strategy for minimizing petroleum consumption and tail pipe emissions. Comparison analysis of velocities was performed between seven local routes and the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule. Three of the seven local routes had acceptable equivalence for velocity (R₂ ≻ 0.80) and the team selected one of them to be the on-road test drive route.
Journal Article

Development of the Enhanced Peripheral Detection Task: A Surrogate Test for Driver Distraction

2012-04-16
2012-01-0965
Up to now, there is no standard methodology that addresses how driver distraction is affected by perceptual demand and working memory demand - aside from visual allocation. In 2009, the Peripheral Detection Task (PDT) became a NHTSA recommended measure for driver distraction [1]. Then the PDT task was renamed as the Detection Response Task (DRT) because the International Standards Organization (ISO) has identified this task as a potential method for assessing selective attention in detection of visual, auditory, tactile and haptic events while driving. The DRT is also under consideration for adoption as an ISO standard surrogate test for driver performance for new telematics designs. The Wayne State University (WSU) driver imaging group [2, 3] improved the PDT and created the Enhanced Peripheral Detection Task I (EPDT-I) [4]. The EPDT-I is composed of a simple visual event detection task and a video of a real-world driving scene.
Journal Article

Cognitive Distraction While Driving: A Critical Review of Definitions and Prevalence in Crashes

2012-04-16
2012-01-0967
There is little agreement in the field of driving safety as to how to define cognitive distraction, much less how to measure it. Without a definition and metric, it is impossible to make scientific and engineering progress on determining the extent to which cognitive distraction causes crashes, and ways to mitigate it if it does. We show here that different studies are inconsistent in their definitions of cognitive distraction. For example, some definitions do not include cellular conversation, while others do. Some definitions confound cognitive distraction with visual distraction, or cognitive distraction with cognitive workload. Other studies define cognitive distraction in terms of a state of the driver, and others in terms of tasks that may distract the driver. It is little wonder that some studies find that cognitive distraction is a negligible factor in causing crashes, while others assert that cognitive distraction causes more crashes than drunk driving.
Journal Article

Development of the MADYMO Race Car Driver Model for Frontal Impact Simulation and Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Prediction in Indianapolis-type Racing Car Drivers

2008-12-02
2008-01-2975
This paper describes the results of a project to develop a MADYMO occupant model for predicting thoracolumbar (TL) spine injuries during frontal impacts in the Indianapolis-type racing car (ITRC) environment and to study the effect of seat back angle, shoulder belt mounting location, leg hump, and spinal curvature on the thoracolumbar region. The newly developed MADYMO Race Car Driver Model (RCDM) is based on the Hybrid III, 50th percentile male model, but it has a multi-segmented spine adapted from the MADYMO Human Facet Model (HFM) that allows it to predict occupant kinematics and intervertebral loads and moments along the entire spinal column. Numerous simulations were run using the crash pulses from seven real-world impact scenarios and a 70 G standardized crash pulse. Results were analyzed and compared to the real-world impacts and CART HANS® model simulations.
Technical Paper

Reciprocating Engine Piston Secondary Motion - Literature Review

2008-04-14
2008-01-1045
The piston secondary motion is an important phenomenon in internal combustion (IC) engine. It occurs due to the piston transverse and rotational motion during piston reciprocating motion. The piston secondary motion results in engine friction and engine noise. There has been lot of research activities going on in piston secondary motion using both analytical models and experimental studies. These studies are aimed at reducing the engine friction as well as the noise generated due to piston secondary motion. The aim of this paper is to compile the research actives carried out on the piston secondary motion and discuss the possible research opportunities for reducing the IC engine piston secondary motion.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Investigation of Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures in Indianapolis-type Racing Car Drivers during Frontal Impacts

2006-12-05
2006-01-3633
The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of driver kinematics, injury mechanisms and spinal loads causing thoracolumbar spinal fractures in Indianapolis-type racing car drivers. Crash reports from 1996 to 2006, showed a total of forty spine fracture incidents with the thoracolumbar region being the most frequently injured (n=15). Seven of the thoracolumbar fracture cases occurred in the frontal direction and were a higher injury severity as compared to rear impact cases. The present study focuses on thoracolumbar spine fractures in Indianapolis-type racing car drivers during frontal impacts and was performed using driver medical records, crash reports, video, still photographic images, chassis accelerations from on-board data recorders and the analysis tool MADYMO to simulate crashes. A 50th percentile, male, Hybrid III dummy model was used to represent the driver.
Technical Paper

Decentralized Secure Protocol for Inter-Vehicle Communication Networks

2006-04-03
2006-01-1493
In this paper, we propose a secure protocol for inter-vehicle communication (IVC) networks without the use of centralized roadside infrastructure. Future vehicles may use wireless IVC networks to exchange safety-critical information among each other. IVC networks do not have a centralized control, and instead rely on vehicles to coordinate with each other to exchange information. Because of the open medium, security is a concern in IVC networks. Vehicles need a mechanism to authenticate the safety-critical information that will be exchanged in IVC networks. A trusted third party Certificate Authority (CA) can provide such a mechanism through public-key certificates. However, the disadvantage of using public-key certificates is that drivers can identify each other. The certificate will allow drivers to trace each other's movements and will raise a privacy concern.
Technical Paper

Security Needs for the Future Intelligent Vehicles

2006-04-03
2006-01-1426
The need for active safety, highway guidance, telematics, traffic management, cooperative driving, driver convenience and automatic toll payment will require future intelligent vehicles to communicate with other vehicles as well as with the road-side infrastructure. However, inter-vehicle and vehicle to roadside infrastructure communications will impose some security threats against vehicles' safety and their proprietary information. To avoid collisions, a vehicle should receive messages only from other authentic vehicles. The internal buses and electronics of a vehicle must also be protected from intruders and other people with malicious intents. Otherwise, a person can inject incorrect messages into an authentic vehicle's internal communication system and then make the vehicle transmit wrong information to the other vehicles within the vicinity. Such an event may have catastrophic consequences. Thus, a detailed study of the security needs of the future vehicles is very important.
X