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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine Retrofitted to Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Operation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0124
Recent development in hydraulic fracking made natural gas (NG) to be a promising alternative gaseous fuel for heavy-duty diesel engines. The existing compression ignition (CI) engine can be retrofitted to NG spark ignition (SI) operation by replacing the diesel injector with a spark plug and fumigating NG into the intake manifold. However, the original diesel piston geometry (flat head and bowl-in-piston chamber) was usually retained to reduce modification cost. The goal of this study was to increase the understanding of the NG lean-burn characteristics in a diesel-like, fast-burn SI combustion chamber. The experimental platform can operate in conventional (i.e., all engine parts are metal) or in optical configuration (i.e., the stock piston and cylinder block are replaced with a see-through piston and an extended cylinder block). The optical data indicated a fast-propagated flame inside the piston bowl.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a Natural Gas Lean-Burn Spark Ignition Engine with Bowl-in-Piston Combustion Chamber

2019-04-02
2019-01-0559
On- and off-road heavy-duty diesel engines modified to spark-ignition natural gas operation can reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil and enhance national energy security. Engine conversion can be achieved through the addition of a gas injector in the intake manifold and of a spark plug in place of the diesel injector. This paper investigated combustion characteristics and engine performance at several lean-burn operating conditions that changed spark timing, mixture equivalence ratio, and engine speed, using methane as NG surrogate.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of Metal and Optical Configuration of a Heavy-Duty CI Engine Converted to SI Natural Gas. Part 1: Combustion Behavior

2019-01-15
2019-01-0002
Internal combustion engines with optical access (a.k.a. optical engines) provide additional information in the quest for understanding the fundamental in-cylinder combustion phenomena. However, most optical engines have flat bowl-in-piston combustion chamber to optimize the visualization process, which is different, for example, from the traditional re-entrant bowl in compression ignition engines. A conventional heavy-duty direct-injection compression ignition engine was converted to spark ignition operation by replacing the fuel injector with a spark plug in both optical and metal setups to investigate the effect of the bowl geometry on flame propagation. Experimental data from steady-state lean-burn conditions was used to develop and validate a 3D CFD model of the engine. Numerical simulation results show that flame propagation in the radial direction was similar for both combustion chambers despite their different geometries.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of Metal and Optical Configuration of a Heavy-Duty CI Engine Converted to SI Natural Gas. Part 2: In-Cylinder Flow and Emissions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0003
Internal combustion diesel engines with optical access (a.k.a. optical engines) increase the fundamental understanding of combustion phenomena. However, optical access requirements result in most optical engines having a different in-cylinder geometry compared with the conventional diesel engine, such as a flat bowl-in-piston combustion chamber. This study investigated the effect of the bowl geometry on the flow motion and emissions inside a conventional heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine that can operate in both metal and optical-access configurations. This engine was converted to natural-gas spark-ignition operation by replacing the fuel injector with a spark plug and adding a low-pressure gas injector in the intake manifold for fuel delivery, then operated at steady-state lean-burn conditions. A 3D CFD model based on the experimental data predicted that the different bowl geometry did not significantly affect in-cylinder emissions distribution.
Technical Paper

Fuel Composition Effects in a CI Engine Converted to SI Natural Gas Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1137
Low-carbon fuels such as natural gas (NG) have the potential to lower the demand of petroleum-based fuels, reduce engine-out emissions, and increase IC engine thermal efficiency. One of the most rapid and efficient use of NG in the transportation sector would be as a direct replacement of the diesel fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines without any major engine modifications to the combustion chamber such as new pistons and/or engine head. An issue is the large variation in NG composition with the location and age of the gas well across U.S., which would affect engine operation, as well as the technology integration with emissions after treatment systems. This study used a conventional CI engine modified for spark ignition (SI) NG operation to investigate the effects of methane and a C1-C4 alkane blend on main combustion parameters like in-cylinder pressure, apparent heat release rate, IMEP, etc.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Plasma Exhaust Profile Manipulation Using Magnetic Fields

2017-09-19
2017-01-2048
In this research, the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) effects of applying a toroidal magnetic field around an ionized exhaust plume were investigated to manipulate the exhaust profile of the plasma jet under near vacuum conditions. Tests for this experiment were conducted using the West Virginia University (WVU) Hypersonic Arc Jet Wind Tunnel. A series of twelve N52 grade neodymium magnets were placed in different orientations around a steel toroid mounted around the arc jet’s exhaust plume. Four different magnet orientations were tested in this experiment. Two additional configurations were run as control tests without any imposed magnetic fields surrounding the plume. Each test was documented using a set of 12 photographs taken from a fixed position with respect to the flow. The photographic data was analyzed by comparing images of the exhaust plume taken 10, 20, and 30 seconds after the plasma jet was activated.
Technical Paper

E-KERS Energy Management Crucial to Improved Fuel Economy

2016-09-18
2016-01-1947
The operation of a conventional passenger car is characterised by increasing or maintaining the kinetic energy, when accelerating or cruising the vehicle, and reducing the kinetic energy by using the brakes. While the energy taken by the friction brakes to slow the vehicle is dissipated into heat, the introduction of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) has permitted the recovery of part of the braking energy. This reduces the amount of energy needed from the internal combustion engine (ICE). The contribution reviews the latest developments in electric KERS (E-KERS), with emphasis to round trip efficiency wheels to wheels and electrification of the powertrain. The contribution considers the opportunity to connect the E-KERS traction battery to other electric machines, such as an electrically assisted turbocharger (E-TC) connected to a motor/generator unit, or an electric water pump (EWP), to further optimise the vehicle operation.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Potential of Waste Heat Recovery as a Pathway for Heavy-Duty Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management

2015-04-14
2015-01-1606
Heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engines are the primary propulsion source for most heavy-duty vehicle freight movement and have been equipped with an array of aftertreatment devices to comply with more stringent emissions regulations. In light of concerns about the transportation sector's influence on climate change, legislators are introducing requirements calling for significant reductions in fuel consumption and thereby, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission over the coming decades. Advanced engine concepts and technologies will be needed to boost engine efficiencies. However, increasing the engine's efficiency may result in a reduction in thermal energy of the exhaust gas, thus contributing to lower exhaust temperature, potentially affecting aftertreatment activity, and consequently rate of regulated pollutants. This study investigates the possible utilization of waste heat recovered from a HDD engine as a means to offset fuel penalty incurred during thermal management of SCR system.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG Combustion on Engine Performance and Emission

2015-03-10
2015-01-0009
With the purpose of reducing emission level while maintaining the high torque character of diesel engine, various solutions have been proposed by researchers over the world. One of the most attractive methods is to use dual fuel technique with premixed gaseous fuel ignited by a relatively small amount of diesel. In this study, Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, was premixed with intake air and used as the main fuel, and diesel fuel was used as ignition source to initiate the combustion. By varying the proportion of diesel and CH4, the combustion and emissions characteristics of the dual fuel (diesel/CH4) combustion system were investigated. Different cases of CFD studies with various concentration of CH4 were carried out. A validated 3D quarter chamber model of a single cylinder engine (diesel fuel only) generated by using AVL Fire ESE was modified into dual fuel mode in this study.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sensor Failure Detection, Identification and Accommodation (SFDIA) Performance Following Common-Mode Failures of Pitot Tubes

2014-09-16
2014-01-2164
Recent catastrophic air crashes have shown that physical redundancy is not a foolproof option for failures on Air Data Systems (ADS) on an aircraft providing airspeed measurements. Since all the redundant sensors are subjected to the same environmental conditions in flight, a failure on one sensor could occur on the other sensors under certain conditions such as extreme weather; this class of failure is known in the literature as “common mode” failure. In this paper, different approaches to the problem of detection, identification and accommodation of failures on the Air Data System (ADS) of an aircraft are evaluated. This task can be divided into component tasks of equal criticality as Sensor Failure Detection and Identification (SFDI) and Sensor Failure Accommodation (SFA). Data from flight test experiments conducted using the WVU YF-22 unmanned research aircraft are used.
Technical Paper

Number Concentration and Size Distributions of Nanoparticle Emissions during Low Temperature Combustion using Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1588
Due to tightening emission legislations, both within the US and Europe, including concerns regarding greenhouse gases, next-generation combustion strategies for internal combustion diesel engines that simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions while improving thermal efficiency have drawn increasing attention during recent years. In-cylinder combustion temperature plays a critical role in the formation of pollutants as well as in thermal efficiency of the propulsion system. One way to minimize both soot and NOx emissions is to limit the in-cylinder temperature during the combustion process by means of high levels of dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) combined with flexible fuel injection strategies. However, fuel chemistry plays a significant role in the ignition delay; hence, influencing the overall combustion characteristics and the resulting emissions.
Journal Article

Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment with Scrubber Process: NOx Destruction

2012-05-15
2011-01-2440
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, produced by engines that burn fuels with atmospheric air, are known to cause negative health and environmental effects. Increasingly stringent emissions regulations for marine engines have caused newer engines to be developed with inherent NOx reduction technologies. Older marine engines typically have a useful life of over 20 years and produce a disproportionate amount of NOx emissions when compared with their newer counterparts. Wet scrubbing as an aftertreatment method for emissions reduction was applied to ocean-going marine vessels for the reduction of sulfur oxides (SOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The gaseous absorption process was explored in the laboratory as an option for reducing NOx emissions from older diesel engines of harbor craft operating in ports of Houston and Galveston. A scrubber system was designed, constructed, and evaluated to provide the basis for a real-world design.
Journal Article

Preliminary Systems Evaluation for a Guidable Extended Range Tube Launched-UAV

2011-10-18
2011-01-2559
Tube Launched-Unmanned Air Vehicles (TL-UAV) are munitions that alter their trajectories during flight to enhance the capabilities by possibly extending range, increasing loiter time through gliding, and/or having guided targeting capabilities. Traditional munition systems, specifically the tube-launched mortar rounds, are not guided. Performance of these "dumb" munitions could be enhanced by updating to TL-UAV and still utilize existing launch platforms with standard propellant detonation firing methods. The ability to actively control the flight path and extend range of a TL-UAV requires multiple onboard systems which need to be identified, integrated, assembled, and tested to meet cooperative function requirements. The main systems, for a mortar-based TL-UAV being developed at West Virginia University (WVU), are considered to be a central hub to process information, aerodynamic control devices, flight sensors, a video camera system, power management, and a wireless transceiver.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Lightweighting Design Alternatives for Automotive Components

2011-09-13
2011-01-2287
Gasoline-powered vehicles compose the vast majority of all light-duty vehicles in the United States. Improving fuel economy is currently a topic of great interest due to the rapid rise in gasoline costs as well as new fuel-economy and greenhouse-gas emissions standards. The Chevrolet Silverado is currently one of the top selling trucks in the U.S. and has been previously modeled using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC). This state-of the art model was employed to examine alternative weight saving configurations using material alternatives and replacement of traditional steel with composite panels. Detailed mass distribution analysis demonstrated the chassis assembly to be an ideal candidate for weight reduction and was redesigned using Aluminum 7075-T6 Alloy and Magnesium Alloy HM41A-F.
Technical Paper

Advanced Modeling of Diesel Particulate Filters to Predict Soot Accumulation and Pressure Drop

2011-09-11
2011-24-0187
Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are recognized as the most efficient technology for particulate matter (PM) reduction, with filtration efficiencies in excess of 90%. Design guidelines for DPFs typically are: high removal efficiency, low pressure drop, high durability and capacity to resist high temperature excursions during regeneration events. The collected mass inside the trap needs to be periodically oxidized to regenerate the DPF. Thus, an in-depth understanding of filtration and regeneration mechanisms, together with the ability of predicting actual DPF conditions, could play a key role in optimizing the duration and number of regeneration events in case of active DPFs. Thus, the correct estimation of soot loading during operation is imperative for effectively controlling the whole engine-DPF assembly and simultaneously avoidingany system failure due to a malfunctioning DPF. A viable way to solve this problem is to use DPF models.
Technical Paper

ExhAUST: DPF Model for Real-Time Applications

2011-09-11
2011-24-0183
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are well assessed exhaust aftertreatment devices currently equipping almost every modern diesel engine to comply with the most stringent emission standards. However, an accurate estimation of soot content (loading) is critical to managing the regeneration of DPFs in order to attain optimal behavior of the whole engine-after-treatment assembly, and minimize fuel consumption. Real-time models can be used to address challenges posed by advanced control systems, such as the integration of the DPF with the engine or other critical aftertreatment components or to develop model-based OBD sensors. One of the major hurdles in such applications is the accurate estimation of engine Particulate Matter (PM) emissions as a function of time. Such data would be required as input data for any kind of accurate models. The most accurate way consists of employing soot sensors to gather the real transient soot emissions signal, which will serve as an input to the model.
Technical Paper

Fresh and Aged SCRT Systems Retrofitted on a MY 1998 Class-8 Tractor: Investigation on In-use Emissions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0175
In order to comply with stringent 2010 US-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on-road, Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) emissions regulations, the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system has been judged by a multitude of engine manufacturers as the primary technology for mitigating emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). As virtually stand-alone aftertreatment systems, SCR technology further represents a very flexible and efficient solution for retrofitting legacy diesel engines as the most straightforward means of cost-effective compliance attainment. However, the addition of a reducing agent injection system as well as the inherent operation limitations of the SCR system due to required catalyst bed temperatures introduce new, unique problems, most notably that of ammonia (NH₃) slip.
Technical Paper

Nano Particulate Matter Evolution in a CFR1065 Dilution Tunnel

2009-11-02
2009-01-2672
Dual primary full-flow dilution tunnels represent an integral part of a heavy-duty transportable emissions measurement laboratory designed and constructed to comply with US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 Part 1065 requirements. Few data exist to characterize the evolution of particulate matter (PM) in full scale dilution tunnels, particularly at very low PM mass levels. Size distributions of ultra-fine particles in diesel exhaust from a naturally aspirated, 2.4 liter, 40 kW ISUZU C240 diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were studied in one set of standard primary and secondary dilution tunnels with varied dilution ratios. Particle size distribution data, during steady-state engine operation, were collected using a Cambustion DMS500 Fast Particulate Spectrometer. Measurements were made at four positions that spanned the tunnel cross section after the mixing orifice plate for the primary dilution tunnel and at the outlet of the secondary dilution tunnel.
Technical Paper

and Repeatability of Transient Heat Release Analysis for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1125
Reduced emissions, improved fuel economy, and improved performance are a priority for manufacturers of internal combustion engines. However, these three goals are normally interrelated and difficult to optimize simultaneously. Studying the experimental heat release provides a useful tool for combustion optimization. Heavy-duty diesel engines are inherently transient, even during steady state operation engine controls can vary due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or aftertreatment requirements. This paper examines the heat release and the derived combustion characteristics during steady state and transient operation for a 1992 DDC series 60 engine and a 2004 Cummins ISM 370 engine. In-cylinder pressure was collected during repeat steady state SET and the heavy-duty transient FTP test cycles.
Technical Paper

Emissions of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low Engine-Out NOx Calibrations to Meet 2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards

2009-04-20
2009-01-0909
For engine operations involving low load conditions for an extended amount of time, the exhaust temperature may be lower than that necessary to initiate the urea hydrolyzation. This would necessitate that the controller interrupt the urea supply to prevent catalyst fouling by products of ammonia decomposition. Therefore, it is necessary for the engine controller to have multiple calibrations available in regions of engine operation where the aftertreatment does not perform well, so that optimal exhaust conditions are guaranteed during the wide variety of engine operations. In this study the test engine was equipped with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), and programmed with two different engine calibrations, namely the low-NOx and the low fuel consumption (low-FC).
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