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Technical Paper

A Non-Contact Overload Identification Method Based on Vehicle Dynamics

The vehicle overload seriously jeopardizes traffic safety and affects traffic efficiency. At present, the static weighing station and weigh-in-motion station are both relatively fixed, so the detection efficiency is not high and the traffic efficiency is affected; the on-board dynamic weighing equipment is difficult to be popularized because of the problem of being deliberately damaged or not accepted by the purchaser. This paper proposes an efficient, accurate, non-contact vehicle overload identification method which can keep the road unimpeded. The method can detect the vehicle overload by the relative distance (as the characteristic distance) between the dynamic vehicle's marking line and the road surface. First, the dynamics model of the vehicle suspension is set up. Then, the dynamic characteristic distance of the traffic vehicle is detected from the image acquired by the calibrated camera based on computer vision and image recognition technology.
Technical Paper

Simulation Research of a Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension Based on a Hydraulic Energy Regenerative Shock Absorber

The current paper proposes a hydraulic interconnected suspension system (HIS) based on a hydraulic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA) comparatively with the passive suspensions. The structure and working principles of the HIS system are introduced in order to investigate the damping performance and energy regeneration characteristics of the proposed system. Then, the dynamic characteristics of the HIS-HESA system have been investigated based on a 4-DOF longitudinal half vehicle model. In the simulation, two different road inputs were used in the dynamic characterization of the HIS-HESA; the warp sinusoidal excitation, and the random road signal. In addition, a comparative analysis was provided for the dynamic responses of the half vehicle model for both the HIS-HESA and the conventional suspension. Furthermore, a parametric analysis of the HIS-HESA has been carried out highlining the key parameters that have a remarkable effect on the HIS-HESA performance.
Technical Paper

Energy-Harvesting Potential and Vehicle Dynamics Conflict Analysis under Harmonic and Random Road Excitations

Energy has the worldwide concern since the World War. Recently, the energy harvesting technology has got more attraction in different fields and applications. Hence, in a world where energy becomes rare and expensive, even the small quantities are worth to be harvested where it can be exploited in different applications. Vehicle suspension is one of the vibration power dissipation sources in which the undesired vibration is dissipated into heat waste. Accordingly, the principal motivation of this study is exploitation the conflict between the potentially harvested power and vehicle dynamics in automotive suspension system induced by road irregularity. Therefore, in terms of RMS conflict diagrams, the conflict between the potential power and vehicle dynamics are sufficiently and comprehensively defined considering a vehicle speed of 20 m/s.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of the Stiffness-Damping Parameters of a H-Bahn Vehicle

H-Bahn ("hanging railway") refers to the suspended, unmanned urban railway transportation system. Through the reasonable platform layout, H-Bahn can be easily integrated into the existing urban transit system. With the development of urban roads, the associated rail facilities can be conveniently disassembled, moved and expanded. The track beam, circuits, communication equipment, and sound insulation screen are all installed in a box-type track beam so that the system can achieve a high level of integration and intelligence. The carriage of the modern H-banh vehicle is connected with the bogies by two hanging devices. The vehicle is always running in the box-type track beam; therefore there are less possibilities of derailment. Consequently, the key work focuses on the running stability evaluation and curve negotiation performance analysis.
Technical Paper

Suspension Performance and Energy Harvesting Property Study of a Novel Railway Vehicle Bogie with The Hydraulic-Electromagnetic Energy-Regenerative Shock Absorber

Systematic research on dynamic model, simulation analyses, prototype production and bench tests have been carried out in recent years on the most popular energy-harvesting shock absorbers-the mechanical motion rectifier (MMR), and the hydraulic-electromagnetic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA). This paper presents a novel application of the HESA into bogie system of railway vehicles. In order to study the differences of suspension performance and energy harvesting property between first suspension system and second suspension system of the application, simulation models are built in AMESim to make comparison studies on the different department suspensions caused by the nonlinear damping behaviors of the HESA. The simulation results show that the system can effectively reduce the impact between wheel and rail tracks, while maintaining good potential to recycle vibratory energy.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study on Vehicle Road Performance with Hydraulic Electromagnetic Energy-Regenerative Shock Absorber

This paper presents a novel application of hydraulic electromagnetic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA) into commercial vehicle suspension system and vehicle road performance are simulated by the evaluating indexes (e.g. root-mean-square values of vertical acceleration of sprung mass, dynamic tire-ground contact force, suspension deflection and harvested power; maximum values of pitch angle and roll angle). Firstly, the configuration and working principle of HESA are introduced. Then, the damping characteristics of HESA and the seven-degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics were modeled respectively before deriving the dynamic characteristics of a vehicle equipped with HESA. The control current is fixed at 7A to match the similar damping effect of traditional damper on the basis of energy conversion method of nonlinear shock absorber.
Journal Article

Design of the Linear Quadratic Control Strategy and the Closed-Loop System for the Active Four-Wheel-Steering Vehicle

In the field of active safety, the active four-wheel-steering (4WS) system seems to be an attractive alternative and an effective tool to improve the vehicles' handling stability in lane-keeping control performance. Under normal using condition, the vehicle's lateral acceleration is comparatively small, and the mathematic relationship between the small side force excitation and the small slip angle of the tire is in the linear region. Furthermore, the effects of roll, heave, and pitch motions are neglected as well as the dynamic characteristics of the tires and suspension system in this work. Therefore, the linear quadratic control (LQC) theory is used to ensure that the output of the 4WS control system can keep track of the desired yaw rate and zero-sideslip-angle response can also be realized at the same time.
Technical Paper

Simulation based Evaluation of the Electro-Hydraulic Energy-Harvesting Suspension (EHEHS) for Off-Highway Vehicles

Nowadays, off-highway vehicles enjoyed a significant status in the national defense and civil construction. There is no doubt that the working conditions of off-highways are quite different from the conventional passenger cars, hence, their suspensions are particularly designed. Since the hydro-pneumatic suspension technology is maturely applied in engineering machinery, this paper presents a concept for a novel energy-harvesting device, which is applied in off-highway vehicles based on hydro-pneumatic suspension, namely, electro-hydraulic energy-harvesting suspension (EHEHS). The EHEHS took the fundamental of mechanism-electronic-hydraulic system, which consisted the following elements: a cylinder, 2 check valves, a hydro-pneumatic spring, a hydraulic motor, a DC motor, a processing circuit and a battery. In the EHEHS system, the cylinder is used to transmit the vibration energy into hydraulic energy, which is stored in hydro-pneumatic spring.
Technical Paper

Development of an Integrated Braking Control Strategy for Commercial Vehicles

Commercial vehicle plays an important role during transportation process under the demand of high speed, convenience and efficiency. So improving active safety of commercial vehicle has become a research topic. Due to the fact that braking characteristic is the basic and most closely related to safe driving of vehicle's performances, this paper aims to improve the braking performance by researching into an integrated control method based on the mature ABS products. Firstly, a strategy which gives priority to ABS and differential yaw moment control, complementary with the hydraulic active suspension control is proposed. In comparison with ABS, the combined control of brake system and suspension system is designed not only for preventing wheels lock. But the directional control to avoid roll or spin is more focused on. Then in order to run the novel method correctly, the controlled variables and evaluation criteria are illustrated briefly.
Technical Paper

Application of Wavelet Analysis in Truck Cab Vibration Signal Processing

The basic principle of wavelet transform is presented and the method of wavelet theory is used in vibration signal analysis of vehicle in this paper. The vibration signals which generated in the locations such as cab floor, engine, transmission, band spring and frame under the usual work condition are measured by the vibration test system. The vibration signals are decomposed with the principle of wavelet decomposition at level six, and eigenvectors of signal energy are gained. According to the correlation coefficient of eigenvectors of signal energy distribution, two signals correlativity is determined. It could be an effective method that identificate the main vibration source.
Technical Paper

Energy Dissipation and Recovery of Vehicle Shock Absorbers

This paper presented a brief derivation of the energy dissipation by vehicle shock absorbers. Analysis between energy dissipation and damping coefficient, the road displacement power spectral density, the vehicle speed and the tire stiffness was carried out. Then an energy recovery scheme was put forward, and the bench test proved that the energy harvest scheme is feasible. In the end, this paper provided detailed derivation of the characteristics of the hydraulic electromagnetic energy-regenerative shock absorber, which increases its feasibility and practicability.
Technical Paper

The Shock Absorber of Energy Recovery Using Electrorheological Fluid

When vehicle traveling on the bumpy road or vehicle acceleration and deceleration, which will cause the body vibration of vehicle, at the same time, a large part of energy would be absorbed by the shock absorber transforms the mechanical energy into heat energy dissipated. In order to recycle the energy of vibration and keep the stability of running car, this paper provides the shock absorber of energy recovery that recycling the energy dissipated from the traditional absorber. The shock absorber includes rod and rodless chamber cavity, the two parts contain oil outlet and oil inlet, which connected to a bridge type loop of hydraulic to make pulsating oil pressure towards one direction, when the shock absorber vibration causes pulsating oil pressure, it drives hydraulic pump operation. Because the output shaft of the hydraulic pump fixedly attached to the input shaft of generator, so the generator produces electricity for recycling energy[1].
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Control of Semi-active Air Suspension for Cab Based on Genetic Algorithms

Semi-active suspension has been widely applied in commercial vehicle suspension in order to get good riding comfortableness. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) has been widely applied in the field of kinetic control because control rule of FLC is easy to understand. But the gain of fuzzy rules and adjustment of membership functions usually depend on experts' experiences and repeated experiments, thus the fuzzy rules and membership functions has strong subjectivity, also are easily affected by environment of experiments, so the main problem of fuzzy logic controller design is selection and optimization of fuzzy rules and membership functions. Genetic Algorithms (GA) is the algorithm that searches the optimal solution through simulating natural evolutionary process and is one of the evolution algorithms which have most extensive impact.