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Technical Paper

Battery Thermal Management System Using Water as a Phase Change Material

2017-10-08
2017-01-2454
In these years, the advantages of using phase change material (PCM) in the thermal management of electric power battery has been wide spread. Because of the thermal conductivity of most phase change material (eg.wax) is low, many researchers choose to add high conductivity materials (such as black lead). However, the solid-liquid change material has large mass, poor flow-ability and corrosively. Therefore, it still stays on experiential stage. In this paper, the Thermal characteristics of power battery firstly be invested and the requirements of thermal management system also be discussed. Then a new PCM thermal management has been designed which uses pure water as liquid phase change material, adopts PCM with a reflux device for thermal management.
Technical Paper

Driving Fatigue Detection based on Blink Frequency and Eyes Movement

2017-03-28
2017-01-1443
The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Mg2Si1-xSnx Thermoelectric Materials

2016-10-17
2016-01-2161
In this research, the Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric material is used in the exhaust temperature difference power-generating system, and the material's heat transfer characteristic and power-generating characteristic were analyzed. Firstly, steady heat transfer model from vehicle exhaust to cooling water was established. Then the impact of Sn/Si ratio to the thermoelectric characteristic parameter was analyzed. Finally, considering the influence of varying thermal conductivity to the heat transfer process along the material's heat transfer direction, when the cold end temperature of thermoelectric materials was controlled by cooling water respectively boiling at 343K and 373K, the thermoelectric conversion efficiency and power output of Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric materials with different x value were evaluated based on simulation calculation.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Study of Gasoline Engine Exhaust Manifold Based on Weak Coupling of CFD and FE

2016-10-17
2016-01-2350
This paper combines fluid software STAR-CCM+ and finite element software ABAQUS to solve the temperature field of this Gasoline engine exhaust manifold based on loose coupling method. Through the simulation of car parking cooling - full load condition at full speed, we estimate thermal fatigue life of the exhaust manifold with the plastic strain increment as the evaluation parameters. It can guide the direction of optimal design of the exhaust manifold. Here we also revealed how the bolt force affects the manifold elastic and plastic behavior.
Technical Paper

A Two-Stage Pressure Boost Device for Relieving Turbocharger Delay Effect by Means of Utilizing Engine Waste Heat

2015-09-29
2015-01-2790
Turbochargers can improve vehicle dynamic performance and fuel economy and are applied widely nowadays. Due to the existence of turbocharger delay effect, acceleration delay and insufficient combustion are its disadvantages. By collecting high pressure gas which generates from the inertia of the turbine in the intake passage when the vehicle slows down, the gas can be supplied for the shortage while the vehicle is accelerating, which can reduce turbocharger delay effect directly. However, turbocharger delay effect changes a little at high speed and low speed which is subjected to the air inflation and short air-release time. This paper adds a set of pressure booster device on the existing inflating-deflating device, whose thermal energy comes from the compressed air and lubricating oil, to facilitate pressure increasing in inflating-deflating device and help the chamber change sooner, which avails to relieve the delay effect.
Technical Paper

Research and Simulation of Electro-Hydraulic Braking System Based on Integrated Master Cylinder

2015-04-14
2015-01-0159
Analogous to a vacuum boosted system, Electro-Hydraulic Braking System (EHB) is free from engine vacuum and supplies a braking force proportional to driver input. The independence of engine vacuum makes it especially suitable to be used in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As a key component of EHB, master cylinder is driven by the pump rather than the vacuum booster. Even if the pump fails, the cylinder can also build proper pressure. Meanwhile, in order to maintain the pedal feeling, a pedal stroke simulator is applied in the system. In this paper, aiming at decreasing the size and cost of master cylinder and providing an ideal pedal feeling without compromise of performance, a new integrated master cylinder of EHB system is designed including two parts: master cylinder and pedal stroke simulator. The key components of the integrated master cylinder are motor pump, solenoid valves and composite springs.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Soot Mechanism of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) with Various Oxygen Concentrations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0389
A multi-step acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) phenomenological soot model was proposed and implemented into KIVA-3V Release 2 code. Experiments were conducted in an optical constant volume combustion chamber to investigate the combustion and soot emission characteristics under the conditions of 1000 K initial temperature with various oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 11%). Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in conjunction under the same operation conditions. The predicted soot mass traces showed good agreement with experimental data. As ambient oxygen decreased from 21% to 11%, ignition delay retarded and the distribution of temperature became more homogenous. Compared to 21% ambient oxygen, the peak value of total soot mass at 16% oxygen concentration was higher due to the suppressed soot oxidation mechanism.
Technical Paper

A Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Toluene Reference Fuel (toluene/n-heptane) for Diesel Engine Combustion Simulations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0387
In the present study, we developed a reduced chemical reaction mechanism consisted of n-heptane and toluene as surrogate fuel species for diesel engine combustion simulation. The LLNL detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane was chosen as the base mechanism. A multi-technique reduction methodology was applied, which included directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), non-essential reaction elimination, reaction pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, and reaction rate adjustment. In a similar fashion, a reduced toluene mechanism was also developed. The reduced n-heptane and toluene mechanisms were then combined to form a diesel surrogate mechanism, which consisted of 158 species and 468 reactions. Extensive validations were conducted for the present mechanism with experimental ignition delay in shock tubes and laminar flame speeds under various pressures, temperatures and equivalence ratios related to engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulation based Evaluation of the Electro-Hydraulic Energy-Harvesting Suspension (EHEHS) for Off-Highway Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1494
Nowadays, off-highway vehicles enjoyed a significant status in the national defense and civil construction. There is no doubt that the working conditions of off-highways are quite different from the conventional passenger cars, hence, their suspensions are particularly designed. Since the hydro-pneumatic suspension technology is maturely applied in engineering machinery, this paper presents a concept for a novel energy-harvesting device, which is applied in off-highway vehicles based on hydro-pneumatic suspension, namely, electro-hydraulic energy-harvesting suspension (EHEHS). The EHEHS took the fundamental of mechanism-electronic-hydraulic system, which consisted the following elements: a cylinder, 2 check valves, a hydro-pneumatic spring, a hydraulic motor, a DC motor, a processing circuit and a battery. In the EHEHS system, the cylinder is used to transmit the vibration energy into hydraulic energy, which is stored in hydro-pneumatic spring.
Journal Article

Cracking Failure Analysis and Optimization on Exhaust Manifold of Engine with CFD-FEA Coupling

2014-04-01
2014-01-1710
For fracture cracks that occurred in the tight coupling exhaust manifold durability test of a four-cylinder gasoline engine with EGR channel, causes and solutions for fracture failure were found with the help of CFD and FEA numerical simulations. Wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient of the exhaust manifold inside wall were first accurately obtained through the thermal-fluid coupling analysis, then thermal modal and thermoplastic analysis were acquired by using the finite element method, on account of the bolt pretightening force and the contact relationship between flange face and cylinder head. Results showed that the first-order natural frequency did not meet the design requirements, which was the main reason of fatigue fracture. However, when the first-order natural frequency was rising, the delta equivalent plastic strain was increasing quickly as well.
Journal Article

Study on the Unsteady Heat Transfer of Engine Exhaust Manifold Based on the Analysis Method of Serial

2014-04-01
2014-01-1711
In order to predict the thermal fatigue life of the internal combustion engine exhaust manifold effectively, it was necessary to accurately obtain the unsteady heat transfer process between hot streams and exhaust manifold all the time. This paper began with the establishment of unsteady coupled heat transfer model by using serial coupling method of CFD and FEA numerical simulations, then the bidirectional thermal coupling analysis between fluid and structure was realized, as a result, the difficulty that the transient thermal boundary conditions were applied to the solid boundary was solved. What's more, the specific coupling mode, the physical quantities delivery method on the coupling interface and the surface mesh match were studied. On this basis, the differences between strong coupling method and portioned treatment for solving steady thermal stress numerical analysis were compared, and a more convenient and rapid method for solving static thermal stress was found.
Technical Paper

Study on Variable Combustion Chamber (VCC) Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1607
A patented VCC (variable combustion chamber) piston mechanism is presented, by which excess in-cylinder pressure would be able to be limited effectively based on each working cycle while a spark-ignition engine running with higher CR (compression ratio) of 12.0:1. A conventional engine can be converted to a VCC engine just by replacing its typical pistons with VCC pistons. Besides the benefits that VCR (Variable Compression Ratio) has been still pursued so far, there would be other advantages for VCC engine, such as excellent fuel economy at each load not only at light loads, and the improvement of cycle-by-cycle variation of in-cylinder pressure, and high reliability with simple structure. The innovative design of VCC piston is introduced. The main design features of VCC piston are a VCC mechanism assembled between the piston crown and the piston skirt, and a special reset cam assembled at the wrist-pin end of the connecting rod.
Journal Article

A Wavelet Neural Network Method to Determine Diesel Engine Piston Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions

2012-09-10
2012-01-1760
This paper presents a method of calculating temperature field of the piston by using a wavelet neural network (WNN) to identify the unknown boundary conditions. Because of the complexity of the heat transfer and limitations of experimental conditions of heat transfer analysis of the piston in a diesel engine, boundary conditions of the piston temperature field were usually obtained empirically, and thus the result itself was uncertain. By employing the capability of resolution analysis from a wavelet neural network, the method obtains improved boundary heat transfer coefficients with a limited number of measured temperatures. Using FEA software iteratively, results show the proposed wavelet neural network analysis method improves the prediction of unknown boundary conditions and temperature distribution consistent with the experimental data with an acceptable error.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Simulation of Transient Heat Transfer among Multi-Component Coupling System in Internal Combustion Chamber

2008-06-23
2008-01-1818
A 3-D numerical analysis model of transient heat transfer among the multi-component coupling system in combustion chamber of internal combustion engine has been developed successfully in the paper. The model includes almost all solid components in combustion chamber, such as piston assembly, cylinder liner, cylinder head gasket, cylinder head, intake valves and exhaust valves, etc. With two different coupling heat transfer modes, one is the lubricant film heat conduction between two moving components, another is the contact heat conduction between two immovable solid components, and with the direct coupled-field analysis method of FEM, the heat transfer relation among the components is established. The simulation result dedicates the transient heat transfer process among the components such as moving piston assembly and cylinder liner, moving valves and cylinder head. The effect of cylinder head gasket on heat transfer among the components is also studied.
Technical Paper

Engine Cycle Simulation and Development Engine of a Gasoline

2007-10-29
2007-01-4103
In order to acquire low fuel consumption while the engine is running at low speeds and maintain the high power output of the traditional 4-valve engine at high speeds, multiple camshafts were applied in gasoline engines. An engine cycle simulation process of a gasoline engine with multiple camshaft profiles was presented in this paper. Engine cycle models were set up to describe external characteristic at 14 different speeds. A one-dimension model was used to describe the transient heat and mass transfer in pipes of the gasoline engine. In-cylinder combustion model was calibrated by engine test results. The simulation results showed a good agreement with engine testing results. Simulation and experimental research showed the volumetric efficiency and torque were low from 2500rpm to 3500rpm. Some parametrical study was presented for performance improvement of intermediate speeds, including changing induction-pipe length and putting off multiple camshafts shift.
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