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Technical Paper

Lifetime Prediction Modeling of Automotive Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

2019-04-02
2019-01-0385
Knowledge about the health conditions and expected lifetime of an operating fuel cell stack is essential to system control and maintenance of a fuel cell vehicle. To quickly and accurately estimate a stack’s lifetime, a data-driven prediction model for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is proposed in this study. In this model, the voltage output of the fuel cell stack is taken as the lifetime evaluation index. Two methods are used to establish the lifetime decay evaluation criteria of the PEMFC stack, i.e., (1) Least Squares Fitting (LSF) method that establishes the standard for stack voltage degradation behavior, and (2) Back Propagation (BP) neural network that learns the stack’s voltage decay characteristics and establishes the standard for the stack’s voltage degradation behavior. The Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) time series model is then employed to learn part of the known decay behavior of stack voltage so as to predict future stack decay.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Fuel Economy for CVT and 9-speed AT based Vehicles

2017-10-08
2017-01-2435
It is well-known that, compared with automatic transmissions (ATs), continuously variable transmission (CVT) shows advantages in fuel saving due to its continuous shift manner, since this feature enables the engine to operate in the efficiency-optimized region. However, as the AT gear number increases and the ratio gap narrows, this advantage of CVT is challenged. In this paper, a comparative study on fuel economy for a CVT based vehicle and a 9-speed automatic transmission (AT) based vehicle is proposed. The features of CVT and AT are analyzed and ratio control strategies for both the CVT and 9-speed AT based vehicles are designed from the view point of vehicle fuel economy, respectively. For the 9-speed AT, an optimal gear shift map is constructed. With this gear shift map, the optimal gear is selected as vehicle velocity and driving condition vary.
Technical Paper

Driving Force Coordinated Control of Separated Axle Hybrid Electric Dump Truck

2017-10-08
2017-01-2462
Due to the increase of mining production and rising labor costs, manufacturers of construction and mining equipment are engaged in developing large tonnage mining truck with good dynamic performance and high transport efficiency. This paper focuses on the improvement of the dynamic performance of a 52t off-highway dump truck. According to the characteristics of its operating cycle, electric auxiliary drive system is installed in the front axle aiming at improving the utilization rate of ground adhesion. The new all-wheel drive hybrid electric system makes it possible for dump truck transports at a higher velocity. Both the conventional dump truck model and the new all-wheel drive hybrid truck model are built based on the AVL-Cruise platform. Meanwhile, under the premise of enough dynamic performance, fuel consumption can be minimized by collaborative optimization in Isight.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Commercial Vehicle Head-Up Display Reminding System on Driving Safety in Mountainous Area

2017-09-17
2017-01-2500
Head-up Display (HUD) system can avoid drivers’ distraction on dashboard and effectively reduce collisions caused by emergency events, which is gradually being realized by researchers around the world. However, the current HUD only displays information like speed, fuel consumption, other information like acceleration and braking can’t be displayed yet. This research will use the indicator symbol‘s color and position change to remind drivers to brake or accelerate. Drivers can do driving operation timely and accurately. The system has the advantages of safety, intuition and real-time. The vehicle safe speed is calculated according to the road parameters, like adhesion coefficient and slope, and vehicle parameters, such as vehicle mass and centroid. Then, the appropriate braking operations are obtained by combining the vehicle driving state. The braking information is corresponded to the color and position change of the indicator symbol to prompt the drivers by the HUD interface.
Technical Paper

Suspension Performance and Energy Harvesting Property Study of a Novel Railway Vehicle Bogie with The Hydraulic-Electromagnetic Energy-Regenerative Shock Absorber

2017-03-28
2017-01-1483
Systematic research on dynamic model, simulation analyses, prototype production and bench tests have been carried out in recent years on the most popular energy-harvesting shock absorbers-the mechanical motion rectifier (MMR), and the hydraulic-electromagnetic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA). This paper presents a novel application of the HESA into bogie system of railway vehicles. In order to study the differences of suspension performance and energy harvesting property between first suspension system and second suspension system of the application, simulation models are built in AMESim to make comparison studies on the different department suspensions caused by the nonlinear damping behaviors of the HESA. The simulation results show that the system can effectively reduce the impact between wheel and rail tracks, while maintaining good potential to recycle vibratory energy.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Efficient Driving for Motor Vehicles Based on Slope Recognition

2017-03-28
2017-01-0037
The drivers' hysteretic perception to surrounding environment will affect vehicular fuel economy, especially for the heavy-duty vehicles driving under complex conditions and long distance in mountainous areas. Unreasonable acceleration or deceleration on the slope will increase the fuel consumption. Improving the performance of the engine and the transmission system has limited energy saving potential, and most fuel-efficient driving assistant systems don't consider the road conditions. The main purpose of this research is to introduce an economic driving scheme with consideration of the prestored slope information in which the vehicle speed in mountainous slopes is reasonably planned to guide the driver's behavior for reduction of the fuel consumption. Economic driving optimization algorithm with low space dimension and fast computation speed is established to plan accurate and real-time economic driving scheme.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Effects of Hot EGR on the Operation of Natural Gas Engine Ignited by Diesel-Butanol Blends

2017-03-28
2017-01-0760
Butanol, which is a renewable biofuel, has been regarded as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. When blended with diesel and applied to pilot ignited natural gas engines, butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency. However, high blend ratio of butanol is limited by its longer ignition delay caused by the higher latent heat and higher octane number, which restricts the improvement of emission characteristics. In this paper, the potential of increasing butanol blend ratio by adding hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is investigated. 3D CFD model based on a detailed kinetic mechanism was built and validated by experimental results of natural gas engine ignited by diesel/butanol blends. The effects of hot EGR is then revealed by the simulation results of the combustion process, heat release traces and also the emissions under different diesel/butanol blend ratios.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Performance and Emission of Acetone-Ethanol and Gasoline Blends in a PFI Spark Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0833
To face the challenges of fossil fuel shortage and air pollution problems, there is growing interest in the potential usage of alternative fuels such as bio-ethanol and bio-butanol in internal combustion engines. The literature shows that the acetone in the Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) blends plays an important part in improving the combustion performance and emissions, owing to its higher volatility. In order to study the effects of acetone addition into commercial gasoline, this study focuses on the differences in combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port-injection spark-ignition engine fueled with pure gasoline (G100), ethanol-containing gasoline (E30) and acetone-ethanol-gasoline blends (AE30 at A:E volumetric ratio of 3:1). The tests were conducted at 1200RPM with the default calibration (for gasoline), at 3 bar and 5 bar BMEP under various equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Thermal Stability Research of Vehicle Exhaust Waste-Heat Recovery System with Intermediate Medium

2016-04-05
2016-01-0228
Vehicle exhaust waste-heat recovery with thermoelectric power generators can improve energy efficiency, as well as vehicle fuel economy. In the conventional structure, the hot-end of thermoelectric module is directly connected with the outer wall of the exhaust pipe, while the cold-end is connected with the water pipe’s outer wall of the vehicle engine cooling cycle. However, the variety of vehicle engine operating conditions leads to the instability of the hot-end temperature, which will reduce the generating efficiency of the thermoelectric modules and also shorten its service life. This research is on the basis of constructing a heat transfer oil circulation, and to study the action principles and implementation methods of it.
Technical Paper

A Two-Stage Pressure Boost Device for Relieving Turbocharger Delay Effect by Means of Utilizing Engine Waste Heat

2015-09-29
2015-01-2790
Turbochargers can improve vehicle dynamic performance and fuel economy and are applied widely nowadays. Due to the existence of turbocharger delay effect, acceleration delay and insufficient combustion are its disadvantages. By collecting high pressure gas which generates from the inertia of the turbine in the intake passage when the vehicle slows down, the gas can be supplied for the shortage while the vehicle is accelerating, which can reduce turbocharger delay effect directly. However, turbocharger delay effect changes a little at high speed and low speed which is subjected to the air inflation and short air-release time. This paper adds a set of pressure booster device on the existing inflating-deflating device, whose thermal energy comes from the compressed air and lubricating oil, to facilitate pressure increasing in inflating-deflating device and help the chamber change sooner, which avails to relieve the delay effect.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Optimization of Power Train Parameter and Control Strategy in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus

2015-09-29
2015-01-2828
In the Plug-in hybrid electric bus, the power train parameter and control strategy significantly affect the economy and dynamic performance. Thus, the simultaneous optimization of power train parameter and control strategy is designed for the trade-off between the dynamic and economic performance. Depending on the parallel electric auxiliary control strategy in a plug-in hybrid electric bus, a vehicle dynamic simulation model is built with the software AVL Cruise. Aiming at the minimization of equivalent gas consumption and acceleration time from 0 to 50kmph, the gear ratio, final drive ratio, gear shifting strategy and control strategy are chosen as optimal variable, which significantly impact power performance and fuel economy. The driving performance and the driving range with full battery are considered as constraints. Based on the software Isight, multi-objective optimization model is built by adopting non-dominated sorting genetic optimization algorithm (NSGA-II).
Technical Paper

Characterization Spray and Combustion Processes of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) in a Constant Volume Chamber

2015-04-14
2015-01-0919
Recent research has shown that butanol, instead of ethanol, has the potential of introducing a more suitable blend in diesel engines. This is because butanol has properties similar to current transportation fuels in comparison to ethanol. However, the main downside is the high cost of the butanol production process. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product of the fermentation process of butanol production. By eliminating the separation and purification processes, using ABE directly in diesel blends has the potential of greatly decreasing the overall cost for fuel production. This could lead to a vast commercial use of ABE-diesel blends on the market. Much research has been done in the past five years concerning spray and combustion processes of both neat ABE and ABE-diesel mixtures. Additionally, different compositions of ABE mixtures had been characterized with a similar experimental approach.
Technical Paper

A Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Toluene Reference Fuel (toluene/n-heptane) for Diesel Engine Combustion Simulations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0387
In the present study, we developed a reduced chemical reaction mechanism consisted of n-heptane and toluene as surrogate fuel species for diesel engine combustion simulation. The LLNL detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane was chosen as the base mechanism. A multi-technique reduction methodology was applied, which included directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), non-essential reaction elimination, reaction pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, and reaction rate adjustment. In a similar fashion, a reduced toluene mechanism was also developed. The reduced n-heptane and toluene mechanisms were then combined to form a diesel surrogate mechanism, which consisted of 158 species and 468 reactions. Extensive validations were conducted for the present mechanism with experimental ignition delay in shock tubes and laminar flame speeds under various pressures, temperatures and equivalence ratios related to engine conditions.
Technical Paper

The Performance Study of Air-Friction Reduction System for Hydraulic Retarder

2014-09-30
2014-01-2283
The hydraulic retarder, which is an auxiliary brake device for enhancing traffic safety, has been widely used in kinds of heavy commercial vehicles. When the vehicle equipped with the retarder is traveling in non-braking state, the transmission loss would be caused because of the stirring air between working wheels of the rotor and the stator no matter if the retarder connects in parallel or in series with the transmission [1]. This paper introduces an elaborate hydraulic retarder air-friction reduction system (AFRS) which consists of a vacuum generating module and pneumatic control module. AFRS works to reduce the air friction by decreasing the gas density between working wheels when the retarder is in non-braking state. The pneumatic control model of hydraulic retarder is built first. Then various driving conditions are considered to verify the performance of the AFRS. The stability of the AFRS is analyzed based on the complete driveline model.
Technical Paper

A Strategy to Recycle the Braking Energy of HEV with EMB

2014-09-28
2014-01-2542
Recovering the braking energy and reusing it can significantly improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs).The battery ability of recovering electricity limits the improvement of the regenerative braking performance. As one way to solve this problem, the technology of brake-by-wire can be adopted in the HEVs to use the recovery dynamically. The use of high-power electrical equipment, such as electromechanical brake (EMB), is working in the form of brake-by-wire. Due to the nature of EMB, there exists an obvious coupling relationship between the energy flow and brake force distribution. In this paper, a brake force distribution controller is proposed in HEV with EMB, which can maximize braking energy recovery, compared with the conventional distribution control without EMB. Meanwhile, an energy flow strategy working with the distribution controller is designed, which is less limited to the performance of the battery.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Modeling of Transmission Efficiency of Vehicle Driveline

2014-04-01
2014-01-1779
This work analyzes the transmission efficiency of vehicle driveline including the gearbox, universal transmission and differential. Based on the structure of transmission, mathematic models are built to analyze transmission's characteristics. However, an experiment reveals the limitation of this method. Then, the paper statistically analyzes the experimental data and mainly analyzes the influencing factors. Then Neural Network is used to build the efficiency model. A method called “filling data and gradually extrapolating” is used when building neural network model. Finally, the neural network model is used in the simulation of fuel consumption. The conclusion is Neural Network model can imitate the transmission efficiency of vehicle driveline efficiently, but its internal structure is not clear so other modeling methods are needed to be found.
Technical Paper

Study on Variable Combustion Chamber (VCC) Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1607
A patented VCC (variable combustion chamber) piston mechanism is presented, by which excess in-cylinder pressure would be able to be limited effectively based on each working cycle while a spark-ignition engine running with higher CR (compression ratio) of 12.0:1. A conventional engine can be converted to a VCC engine just by replacing its typical pistons with VCC pistons. Besides the benefits that VCR (Variable Compression Ratio) has been still pursued so far, there would be other advantages for VCC engine, such as excellent fuel economy at each load not only at light loads, and the improvement of cycle-by-cycle variation of in-cylinder pressure, and high reliability with simple structure. The innovative design of VCC piston is introduced. The main design features of VCC piston are a VCC mechanism assembled between the piston crown and the piston skirt, and a special reset cam assembled at the wrist-pin end of the connecting rod.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Technology and the Development Foreground

2009-04-20
2009-01-1015
The paper analyzes the technological features of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, describes the changes that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will bring to the automobile industry and the marketing modes, and proposes a brand-new marketing mode of “automobile supermarket”. It also introduces the opportunities and challenges that fuel cell technology will bring to the world energy technology, and puts forward a concept of “hydrogen energy network” to push the mutual development of both hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen energy industry.
Technical Paper

Engine Cycle Simulation and Development Engine of a Gasoline

2007-10-29
2007-01-4103
In order to acquire low fuel consumption while the engine is running at low speeds and maintain the high power output of the traditional 4-valve engine at high speeds, multiple camshafts were applied in gasoline engines. An engine cycle simulation process of a gasoline engine with multiple camshaft profiles was presented in this paper. Engine cycle models were set up to describe external characteristic at 14 different speeds. A one-dimension model was used to describe the transient heat and mass transfer in pipes of the gasoline engine. In-cylinder combustion model was calibrated by engine test results. The simulation results showed a good agreement with engine testing results. Simulation and experimental research showed the volumetric efficiency and torque were low from 2500rpm to 3500rpm. Some parametrical study was presented for performance improvement of intermediate speeds, including changing induction-pipe length and putting off multiple camshafts shift.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Evaluation of the Urban Bus Driving Cycle on Fuel Economy

2007-07-23
2007-01-2073
On-road testing of driving performance of the urban bus was carried out, and a representative urban bus driving cycle was developed after on-road testing, according to the test results. Then, the vehicle simulation software AVL CRUISE was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of the urban bus. It involves the simulation of complete drive train system and the driver behavior. The model is validated by comparing the results of the simulation to the results of the field test. Then the developed driving cycle is evaluated by fuel consumption resulted from the simulation and engine bench test on fuel economy.
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