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Technical Paper

Downhill Safety Assistant Driving System for Battery Electric Vehicles on Mountain Roads

2019-09-15
2019-01-2129
When driving in mountainous areas, vehicles often encounter downhill conditions. To ensure safe driving, it is necessary to control the speed of vehicles. For internal combustion engine vehicles, auxiliary brake such as engine brake can be used to alleviate the thermal load caused by the continuous braking of the friction brake. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), regenerative braking can be used as auxiliary braking to improve brake safety. And through regenerative braking, energy can be partly converted into electrical energy and stored in accumulators (such as power batteries and supercapacitors), thus extending the mileage. However, the driver's line of sight in the mountains is limited, resulting in a certain degree of blindness in driving, so it is impossible to fully guarantee the safety and energy saving of downhill driving.
Technical Paper

Effect of Circumferential Magnetic Field on Braking Performance of a Direct Vane Magnetorheological Fluid Retarder

2019-04-02
2019-01-0342
The hydraulic retarder used in commercial vehicles can provide hydraulic damping to generate braking torque, reducing the pressure of the braking system on the slope section and increasing the safety. In this paper, the magnetorheological fluid with fast magnetic field reflection characteristics is used to increase the response speed of the hydraulic retarder, which can effectively reduce the response time of the hydraulic retarder. In this paper, the influence of the change of circumferential magnetic field on the braking torque of the magnetorheological fluid retarder is studied.
Technical Paper

Passenger Cabin’s Parking Cooling System Based on TEC and Air Conditioning Condensate Water

2019-04-02
2019-01-1066
In the passenger cabin of the parking under the summer sun, the air’s average temperature will reach about 60°C. Such temperature can cause discomfort to the person who has just entered the passenger cabin, also can damage components of the passenger cabin. The reason for this phenomenon is because it is not convective with the outside air. Some vehicles use the electric power to drive the blower in order to ventilate, but the air’s temperature of cabin is so high that the blower’s effect of ventilation is limited. The system proposes to use solar energy to drive the automobile blower and the thermoelectric cooler(TEC) in order to cool the cabin’s air, and use the air-conditioning condensate water collected during the driving process to cool the TEC’s hot end to improve the cooling efficiency.
Technical Paper

Temperature Control Characteristics of Automotive Power Battery Based on R-1233zd(E)’s Flowing Phase Change Heat Transfer

2018-04-03
2018-01-1191
Li-ion power battery is the core component of the electric vehicle power system, and the battery temperature will increase because of the electrochemical reaction of the Li-ion battery. The heat accumulates inside of the battery, which can degrade the working performance of the power battery and shorten the battery cycle life. At present, the wind cooling technology is relatively mature. However, it cannot achieve ideal heat dissipation effect under the working conditions of the high-power or high ambient temperature. In this research, the battery thermal management is carried out by the characteristics of the working fluid’s flowing phase change heat transfer. The phase change working fluid is R-1233zd(E) which is a kind of environmentally friendly liquid with nonconductive and nonflammable. It can achieve the purpose of controlling the battery’s temperature using the characteristics of isothermal heat absorption under different gas phase rate of phase change working fluid.
Technical Paper

The Measures of Improving Power Generation Stability for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy

2018-04-03
2018-01-1367
The automobile exhaust energy can be recovered by the thermoelectric module generator(TEG). Owing to the complex urban traffic, the exhaust gas’s temperature fluctuations are resulted, which means the unstable hot-end temperature of the TEG. By installing solid heat capacity material(SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, it is possible to appropriately reduce the temperature fluctuation, but there is still a fluctuation of the TEG’s power output. Then by adding voltage filter circuit (VFC) after the TEG, the power output stability can be improved. This research uses SHCM and VFC to improve the stability of the exhaust gas generation. Firstly, the three-dimensional heat transfer model of the exhaust pipe thermoelectric power generation system is established. The heat capacity materials with low thermal resistance and high heat capacity were selected as the research object based on previous research.
Technical Paper

The Research of the Heavy Truck’s Warming System

2017-10-08
2017-01-2221
It’s not easy to start the engine in winter, especially in frigid highlands, because the low temperature increases the fuel’s viscosity, decreasing the lubricating oil flow ability and the storage performance of battery. Current electrical heating method can improve the engine starting performance in low temperature condition, but this method adds an external power to the engine, leading to the engine cannot maintain an efficient energy utilization. A warming device using the solar energy is designed to conserve the energy during the daytime, and directly warm up the engine at the time when the engine turns off for a long time, especially during the night. A solar collector installed on the top of the vehicle is used to convert the solar energy to the thermal energy, which is then transferred to the heat accumulator that contain the phase-change medium which can increase the heat storage performance.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling and State Estimation for Multi-In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Intelligent Vehicle

2017-09-23
2017-01-1996
Dynamic modeling and state estimation are significant in the trajectory tracking and stability control of the intelligent vehicle. In order to meet the requirement of the stability control of the eight-in-wheel-motor-driven intelligent vehicle, a full vehicle dynamics model with 12 degrees of freedom, including the longitudinal, lateral, yaw and roll motion of the body, and rotational motion of 8 wheels, is established for the research of the intelligent vehicle in this paper. By simulation with MATLAB/SIMULINK and by comparison with the TruckSim software, the reliability and practicality of the dynamics model are verified. Based on the established dynamics model, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) state observer is proposed to estimate the vehicle sideslip angle, roll angle and yaw rate, which are the key parameters to the stability control of the intelligent vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development and Test of ESC Controller with Driver-In-the-Loop Platform

2017-09-23
2017-01-1993
This paper presents a Driver-In-the-Loop (DIL) bench test system for development of ESC controller. The real-time platform is built-up based on NI/PXI system and the real steering/throttle/braking actuator. In addition, the CarSim provides the vehicle model and the animator for virtual driving environment. A hierarchical ESC controller is proposed in MATLAB/Simulink then download into PXI. In the upper motion controller, the sliding mode theory is adopted and the logic threshold algorithm is used in the lower slip controller. Finally, ESC test is implemented under typical conditions by DIL and Model-In-the-Loop (MIL). The results show that, DIL could make up the shortage of driver model which can’t accurately simulate the emergency response of real driver. Therefore, DIL test could verify the ESC controller more accurately and effectively with considering the human-vehicle-road environment.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Commercial Vehicle Head-Up Display Reminding System on Driving Safety in Mountainous Area

2017-09-17
2017-01-2500
Head-up Display (HUD) system can avoid drivers’ distraction on dashboard and effectively reduce collisions caused by emergency events, which is gradually being realized by researchers around the world. However, the current HUD only displays information like speed, fuel consumption, other information like acceleration and braking can’t be displayed yet. This research will use the indicator symbol‘s color and position change to remind drivers to brake or accelerate. Drivers can do driving operation timely and accurately. The system has the advantages of safety, intuition and real-time. The vehicle safe speed is calculated according to the road parameters, like adhesion coefficient and slope, and vehicle parameters, such as vehicle mass and centroid. Then, the appropriate braking operations are obtained by combining the vehicle driving state. The braking information is corresponded to the color and position change of the indicator symbol to prompt the drivers by the HUD interface.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature on Braking Efficiency Stability of Magnetorheological Fluid Auxiliary Braking Devices

2017-09-17
2017-01-2510
Fluid auxiliary braking devices can provide braking torque through hydraulic damping, fluid auxiliary braking devices can also convert vehicular inertia energy into transmission fluid heat energy during the braking, which can effectively alleviate the work pressure of the main brake. Traditional hydraulic auxiliary braking devices use transmission fluids to transmit torque, however, there is a certain lag effect during the braking. The magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) can also be used to transmit torque because it has the advantages of controlling braking torque linearly and responding fast to the magnetic field changed. The temperature of MR fluid will increase when the vehicle is engaged in continuous braking. MR fluid temperature changes will cause a bad influence on the efficiency stability of auxiliary braking.
Technical Paper

Brake Guidance System for Commercial Vehicles with Coordinated Friction and Engine Brakes

2017-09-17
2017-01-2508
Using friction brakes for long time can increase easily its temperature and lower vehicle brake performance in the downhill process. The drivers' hysteretic perception to future driving condition could mislead them to stop untimely the engine brake, and some other auxiliary braking devices are designed to increase the brake power for reduction of the friction brake torque. The decompression engine brake has complex structure and high cost, and the application of eddy current retarder or hydraulic retarder on the commercial vehicles is mainly limited to their cost and mass. In this paper, an innovative brake guidance system for commercial vehicles with coordinated friction brakes and engine brake is introduced to guide the drivers to minimize the use of the friction brakes on the downhill with consideration of future driving conditions, which is aimed at releasing the engine brake potential fully and controlling the friction brake temperature in safe range.
Technical Paper

Driving Fatigue Detection based on Blink Frequency and Eyes Movement

2017-03-28
2017-01-1443
The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
Technical Paper

Over-the-Horizon Safety Speed Warning System for Heavy-Duty Vehicle in Mountain Areas

2017-03-28
2017-01-0091
The mountainous roads are rugged and complex, so that the driver can not make accurate judgments on dangerous road conditions. In addition, most heavy vehicles have characteristics of large weight and high center of gravity. The two factors above have caused most of the car accidents in mountain areas. A research shows that 90% of car accidents can be avoided if drivers can respond within 2-3 seconds before the accidents happen. This paper proposes a speed warning scheme for heavy-duty vehicle over the horizon in mountainous area, which can give the drivers enough time to respond to the danger. In the early warning aspect, this system combines the front road information, the vehicle characteristics and real-time information obtained from the vehicle, calculates and forecasts the danger that may happen over the horizon ahead of time, and prompts the driver to control the vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Passenger Compartment Auxiliary Cooling System Based on Peltier Effect

2017-03-28
2017-01-0155
The closed cabin temperature is anticipated to be cooled down when it is a bit hot inside the driving car. The traditional air-condition lowers the cabin temperature by frequently switching the status of the compressor, which increases the engine’s parasitic power and shortens the compressor’s service-life. The semiconductor auxiliary cooling system with the properties of no moving parts, high control precision and quick response has the potential to assist the on-board air-condition in modulating the cabin temperature with relative small ranges. Little temperature differences between the cabin and the outside environment means that the system energy consumption to ensure the occupant comfort is relatively low and the inefficiency could be made up by the renewable energy source.
Technical Paper

The TEG Hot-End Heat Capacity’s Effect on the Power Output Stability for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy

2017-03-28
2017-01-0160
While the car ownership increasing all over the world, the unutilized thermal energy in automobile exhaust system is gradually being realized and valued by researchers around the world for better driving energy efficiency. For the unexpected urban traffic, the frequent start and stop processes as well as the acceleration and deceleration lead to the temperature fluctuation of the exhaust gas, which means the unstable hot-end temperature of the thermoelectric module generator (TEG). By arranging the heat conduction oil circulation at the hot end, the hot-end temperature’s fluctuation of the TEG can be effectively reduced, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply for the circulation. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material(SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, none energy consumption and light weight.
Technical Paper

The Research of the Adaptive Front Lighting System Based on GIS and GPS

2017-03-28
2017-01-0041
Automotive Front Lighting System(AFS) can receive the steering signal and the vehicular speed signal to adjust the position of headlamps automatically. AFS will provide drivers more information of front road to protect drivers safe when driving at night. AFS works when there is a steering signal input. However, drivers often need the front road's information before they turn the steering wheel when vehicles are going to go through a sharp corner, AFS will not work in such a situation. This paper studied how to optimize the working time of AFS based on GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS(Geographic Information System) to solve the problem. This paper analyzed the process of the vehicle is about to go through a corner. Low beams and high beams were discussed respectively.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Efficient Driving for Motor Vehicles Based on Slope Recognition

2017-03-28
2017-01-0037
The drivers' hysteretic perception to surrounding environment will affect vehicular fuel economy, especially for the heavy-duty vehicles driving under complex conditions and long distance in mountainous areas. Unreasonable acceleration or deceleration on the slope will increase the fuel consumption. Improving the performance of the engine and the transmission system has limited energy saving potential, and most fuel-efficient driving assistant systems don't consider the road conditions. The main purpose of this research is to introduce an economic driving scheme with consideration of the prestored slope information in which the vehicle speed in mountainous slopes is reasonably planned to guide the driver's behavior for reduction of the fuel consumption. Economic driving optimization algorithm with low space dimension and fast computation speed is established to plan accurate and real-time economic driving scheme.
Technical Paper

Safe Travelling Speed of Commercial Vehicles on Curves Based on Vehicle-Road Collaboration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0080
Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
Technical Paper

The Tunnel Climbing Acceleration Reminder System Based on Vehicle Dynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0079
Road traffic congestion sometimes happens at tunnel exit even without high traffic flow. One reason is that the deceleration process is imperceptible when the vehicle is driving to the tunnel exit with gradual upgrade slopes. Nowadays regulations are more concentrated in transport sectors, and control measures are applied to vehicles through the tunnel. This process is careless of vehicles’ specific characteristics and easily distract the driver attention. In this paper, a tunnel climbing acceleration reminder system is introduced. When the speed drop is detected and the analysis show this is due to the driver's unconscious behavior, the system will remind the driver to speed up. Based on the dynamic model and the tunnel properties, the relationship between the throttle opening degrees and the duration with the speed change is studied. Then, the engine braking is considered for the variation of speeds and slopes.
Technical Paper

Safety Speed Assessment for Driving in Foggy Environment Based on Visibility and Vehicle Brake Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0084
Studies show that driving in foggy environment is a security risk, and when driving in foggy environment, the drivers are easy to accelerate unconsciously. The safety information prompted to the driver is mainly from fog lights, road warning signs and the traffic radio. In order to increase the quality of the safety tips to prevent drivers from unintended acceleration and ensure the security of driving in foggy environment, the study proposes a safety speed assessment method for driving in foggy environment, combining the information of driving environment, vehicle’s speed and the multimedia system. The method uses camera which is installed on the front windshield pillar to collect the image about the environment, and uses the dark channel prior theory to calculate the visibility. And by using the environment visibility, the safety speed can be calculated based on the kinematics theory. And it is appropriate for vehicles which have different braking performance.
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