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Technical Paper

Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction Technology for Water Quality Monitoring: Evaluation of C-SPE and Debubbling Methods in Microgravity

2007-07-09
2007-01-3217
Colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) is being developed as a method for in-flight monitoring of spacecraft water quality. C-SPE is based on measuring the change in the diffuse reflectance spectrum of indicator disks following exposure to a water sample. Previous microgravity testing has shown that air bubbles suspended in water samples can cause uncertainty in the volume of liquid passed through the disks, leading to errors in the determination of water quality parameter concentrations. We report here the results of a recent series of C-9 microgravity experiments designed to evaluate manual manipulation as a means to collect bubble-free water samples of specified volumes from water sample bags containing up to 47% air. The effectiveness of manual manipulation was verified by comparing the results from C-SPE analyses of silver(I) and iodine performed in-flight using samples collected and debubbled in microgravity to those performed on-ground using bubble-free samples.
Technical Paper

Liquid Metering Centrifuge Sticks (LMCS): A Centrifugal Approach to Metering Known Sample Volumes for Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE)

2007-07-09
2007-01-3216
Phase separation is one of the most significant obstacles encountered during the development of analytical methods for water quality monitoring in spacecraft environments. Removing air bubbles from water samples prior to analysis is a routine task on earth; however, in the absence of gravity, this routine task becomes extremely difficult. This paper details the development and initial ground testing of liquid metering centrifuge sticks (LMCS), devices designed to collect and meter a known volume of bubble-free water in microgravity. The LMCS uses centrifugal force to eliminate entrapped air and reproducibly meter liquid sample volumes for analysis with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE). Previous flight experiments conducted in microgravity conditions aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft demonstrated that the inability to collect and meter a known volume of water using a syringe was a limiting factor in the accuracy of C-SPE measurements.
Technical Paper

Application of Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) to Monitoring Nickel(II) and Lead(II) in Spacecraft Water Supplies

2004-07-19
2004-01-2539
Archived water samples collected on the International Space Station (ISS) and returned to Earth for analysis have, in a few instances, contained trace levels of heavy metals. Building on our previous advances using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE) as a biocide monitoring technique [1, 2], we are devising methods for the low level monitoring of nickel(II), lead(II) and other heavy metals. C-SPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric platform based on the extraction of analytes onto a membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent that are then quantified on the surface of the membrane using a diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Along these lines, we have analyzed nickel(II) via complexation with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and begun to examine the analysis of lead(II) by its reaction with 2,5-dimercapto-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole (DMTD) and 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR).
Technical Paper

ISS Potable Water Sampling and Chemical Analysis: Expeditions 4 & 5

2003-07-07
2003-01-2401
The International Space Station (ISS) drinking water supply consists of water recovered from humidity condensate, water transferred from Shuttle, and groundwater supplied from Russia. The water is dispensed from both the stored water dispensing system (SVO-ZV) and the condensate recovery system (SRV-K) galley. Teflon bags are used periodically to collect potable water samples, which are then transferred to Shuttle for return to Earth. The results from analyses of these samples are used to monitor the potability of the drinking water on board and evaluate the efficiency of the water recovery system. This report provides results from detailed analyses of samples of ISS recovered potable water, Shuttle-supplied water, and ground-supplied water taken during ISS Expeditions 4 and 5. During Expedition 4, processing of U.S. Lab condensate through the Russian condensate recovery system was initiated. Results indicate water recovered from both Service Module and U.S.
Technical Paper

The MEOW Experiment: Measuring Cognitive Performance of Planetary Analog Base Crewmembers

2003-07-07
2003-01-2539
Sustained crew performance under conditions of isolation, confinement and increased risk is a key contributor to the success of manned space exploration missions. Measuring crew performance and identifying the factors affecting it is therefore crucial both during actual space missions and as part of precursor activities on the ground. Planetary analog bases play an important role in this context. These integrated simulation facilities allow the operational, hardware, and human side of all mission-related elements to be combined, and thus permit the capturing of interactions among these elements. The crew on board such a station is exposed to stressors and other conditions similar to those encountered during space missions. Planetary analog bases therefore represent a valuable resource for better understanding the dynamics of crew performance.
Technical Paper

Rapid Determination of Biocide Concentrations Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE): Results from Microgravity Testing

2003-07-07
2003-01-2406
A sorption-spectrophotometric platform for the concentration and subsequent quantification of biocides in spacecraft drinking water is described. This methodology, termed Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE), is based on the extraction of analytes onto a membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. Quantification of the extracted analytes is accomplished by interrogating the surface of the membrane with a commercially available diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Ground-based experiments have shown that C-SPE is a viable means to determine biocide concentrations in the range commonly found in water samples from the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). This paper details efforts to advance C-SPE closer to space flight qualification and ISS implementation, starting with the modification of the ground based biocide detection platform to simplify operation in a microgravity environment.
Technical Paper

Archiving Trace Organic Contaminants in Spacecraft Water

2003-07-07
2003-01-2408
One of the long-standing concerns in space exploration is the presence of trace organic contaminants in recycled spacecraft water supplies. At present, water samples on the International Space Station (ISS) are collected at regular intervals, stored in Teflon™-lined containers, and returned to Earth for characterization. This approach, while effective in defining water quality, has several notable problems. First, this method of archiving removes a significant volume of the ISS water supply. Second, the archived water consumes valuable cargo space in returning Shuttle and Soyuz vehicles. Third, the organic contaminants present in the collected samples may degrade upon extended storage. The latter problem clearly compromises sample integrity. Upon return to Earth, sample degradation is minimized by refrigeration. Due to present resource constraints, however, refrigeration is not a viable option in space.
Technical Paper

A Rapid Method for Determining Biocide Concentration in a Spacecraft Water Supply

2002-07-15
2002-01-2535
Monitoring and maintaining biocide concentrations is vital for assuring safe drinking water both in ground and spacecraft applications. Currently, there are no available methods to measure biocide concentrations (i.e., silver ion or iodine) on-orbit. Sensitive, rapid, simple colorimetric methods for the determination of silver(I) and iodine are described. The apparatus consists of a 13-mm extraction disk (Empore® membrane) impregnated with a colorimetric reagent and placed in a plastic filter holder. A Luer tip syringe containing the aqueous sample is attached to the holder and 10 mL of sample is forced through the disk in ∼30 s. Silver(I) is retained by a disk impregnated with 5-(p-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-rhodanine (DMABR), and iodine is retained as a yellow complex on a membrane impregnated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP).
Technical Paper

Quality of Water Supplied by Shuttle to ISS

2002-07-15
2002-01-2532
The water supply for the International Space Station (ISS) consists partially of excess fuel-cell water that is treated on the Shuttle and stored on ISS in 44 L collapsible Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). Iodine is removed from the source water, and silver biocide and mineral concentrates are added by the crewmember while the CWCs are filled. Potable (mineralized) CWCs are earmarked for drinking and food hydration, and technical (non-mineralized) CWCs are reserved for waste system flushing and electrolytic oxygen generation. Representative samples are collected in Teflon® bags and returned to Earth for chemical analysis. The parameters typically measured include pH, conductivity, total organic carbon, iodine, silver, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, trace metals, formate and alcohols. The Nylon monomer caprolactam is also measured and tracked since it is known to leach slowly out of the plastic CWC bladder material.
Technical Paper

Identification of an Organic Impurity Leaching from a Prototype ISS Water Container

2001-07-09
2001-01-2125
Collapsible bladder tanks called Contingency Water Containers (CWCs) have been used to transfer water from the Shuttle to the Mir and the International Space Station (ISS). Because their use as potable water storage on the ISS is planned for years, efforts are underway to improve the containers, including the evaluation of new materials. Combitherm®, a multi-layer plastic film, is a material under evaluation for use as the CWC bag material. It consists of layers of linear low density polyethylene, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, nylon, and a solvent- free adhesive layer. Long term studies of the quality of water stored in Combitherm bladders indicate a gradual but steady increase in the total organic carbon value. This suggests a leaching or breakdown of an organic component of the Combitherm.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development

2001-07-09
2001-01-2370
The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization.
Technical Paper

F-16 Battery/Charger Evaluation

1999-08-02
1999-01-2486
As the maintenance and disposal costs of aircraft batteries have risen, it has become critical to increase battery lifetime and to reduce maintenance cycles. This has led to the development of charging techniques designed to increase battery life while continuing to satisfy battery performance requirements. However, the cost of battery chargers accounts for 60% to 80% of the battery/charger system cost. AFRL/PRPB has initiated an in-house project to evaluate F-16 batteries using the existing F-16 charger. The objective is to determine which batteries can pass all F-16 performance and lifetime requirements using this charger. Several batteries were procured from several sources and two F-16 chargers are on loan to us from Sacramento/ALC. Depending on the outcome of this phase the project may be extended to include other aircraft and other chemistries such as Nickel-Metal Hydride and Lithium-Ion. Results to date and future plans will be discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis of Potable Water and Humidity Condensate: Phase One Final Results and Lessons Learned

1999-07-12
1999-01-2028
Twenty-nine recycled water, eight stored (ground-supplied) water, and twenty-eight humidity condensate samples were collected on board the Mir Space Station during the Phase One Program (1995-1998). These samples were analyzed to determine potability of the recycled and ground-supplied water, to support the development of water quality monitoring procedures and standards, and to assist in the development of water reclamation hardware. This paper describes and summarizes the results of these analyses and lists the lessons learned from this project. Results show that the recycled water and stored water on board Mir, in general, met NASA, Russian Space Agency (RSA), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards.
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis and Water Recovery Testing of Shuttle-Mir Humidity Condensate

1999-07-12
1999-01-2029
Humidity condensate collected and processed in-flight is an important component of a space station drinking water supply. Water recovery systems in general are designed to handle finite concentrations of specific chemical components. Previous analyses of condensate derived from spacecraft and ground sources showed considerable variation in composition. Consequently, an investigation was conducted to collect condensate on the Shuttle while the vehicle was docked to Mir, and return the condensate to Earth for testing. This scenario emulates an early ISS configuration during a Shuttle docking, because the atmospheres intermix during docking and the condensate composition should reflect that. During the STS-89 and STS-91 flights, a total volume of 50 liters of condensate was collected and returned. Inorganic and organic chemical analyses were performed on aliquots of the fluid.
Technical Paper

Toxicological Assessment of Sealed Spacecraft Modules

1999-07-12
1999-01-2055
Spacecraft modules that are last purged with clean air several months before they are entered by humans on orbit require careful management. The crew must not be exposed to harmful concentrations of air pollutants when they first enter. The magnitude of the pollution the crew will encounter depends on the volume of the module, the length of time since the last clean-air purge or scrub, the inherent offgassing rate of the materials in the module, the interior temperature of the module while offgassing occurs, and the system leak rate. The time of the last module purge or scrub can be several months before crew entry, so it is essential that the offgassing rate within the module be measured over a suitable interval of time to estimate pollution levels with confidence. Air samples were taken from the STS-74 Russian Docking Module, the STS-79 Spacehab, and the ISS Node 1 prior to launch to predict pollution levels at crew first entry.
Technical Paper

Reduction in the Iodine Content of Shuttle Drinking Water: Lessons Learned

1999-07-12
1999-01-2117
Iodine is the disinfectant used in U.S. spacecraft potable water systems. Recent long-term testing on human subjects has raised concerns about excessive iodine consumption. Efforts to reduce iodine consumption by Shuttle crews were initiated on STS-87, using hardware originally designed to deiodinate Shuttle water prior to transfer to the Mir Space Station. This hardware has several negative aspects when used for Shuttle galley operations, and efforts to develop a practical alternative were initiated under a compressed development schedule. The alternative Low Iodine Residual System (LIRS) was flown as a Detailed Test Objective on STS-95. On-orbit, the LIRS imparted an adverse taste to the water due to the presence of trialkylamines that had not been detected during development and certification testing. A post-flight investigation revealed that the trialkylamines were released during gamma sterilization of the LIRS resin materials.
Technical Paper

Results of the Risk Mitigation Experiment for the Volatile Organic Analyzer

1998-07-13
981745
A volatile organic analyzer (VOA), developed by Graseby Dynamics, Ltd. under contract to the Johnson Space Center Toxicology Laboratory, is the core instrument for trace contaminant monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS). The VOA will allow trace amounts of target compounds to be analyzed in real time so that ISS air quality can be assessed in nominal and contingency situations. Recent events on Mir have underscored the need for real-time analysis of air quality so that the crew can respond promptly during off-nominal conditions. The VOA, which is based on gas chromatography/ion mobility spectrometry, is the first spacecraft instrument to be used for such a complex task. Consequently, a risk mitigation experiment (VOA/RME) was flown to assess the performance and engineering aspects of the VOA. This paper is a review of VOA/RME results from the STS-81 and STS-89 flights and their implications for the ISS VOA design and operations.
Technical Paper

Alternate Test Methods for High Pressure Engine Component Testing

1991-04-01
911125
This paper presents an analysis of potential methods for the testing of Space Shuttle Main Engine turbopump assemblies in a modified Component Test Facility at Stennis Space Center. In particular, the test methods will support long-duration (approximately 250 seconds) green run (acceptance) tests. Six potential test methods were considered, including the traditional, fully pressure-fed test method, some test methods involving engine systems, and some test methods involving recirculation of the pump outlet flow, or “bootstrapping.” Two of these methods were investigated in sufficient detail to provide ROM cost estimates: the fully pressure-fed method, and one of the bootstrap methods.
Technical Paper

Are Present Horns, Whistles and Sirens Necessary for Communications?

1972-02-01
720640
Horns, whistles and sirens are commonly used to convey information concerning time, location or warning. Of major concern to the community are the audible warning systems used on emergency vehicles and trains. The various types of existing audible warning systems and their historical development are discussed in this paper, together with an analysis of their effectiveness in fulfilling their prime function - namely, to warn people of imminent danger. It is concluded that such systems perform adequately in many situations, but not when the recipient of the warning signal is inside another vehicle. It is suggested that alternative means be developed for warning the occupants of vehicles of immediate danger so that audible warning systems of reduced acoustic power can be used to warn the pedestrian or other persons outside vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Vibro-Acoustic Test System for Simulation of Saturn V Dynamic Launch Environment on Major Space Vehicle Structures

1967-02-01
670583
A description of the largest Acoustic and Vibration Test Facilities in existence for the simulation of major launch vehicle dynamic environment is given and the operational characteristics of both are discussed. Sinusoidal and random excitation techniques are described and unique vibration control methods presented. A comparison of the effects of vibration and acoustic excitation on major space vehicle structures is made.
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