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Technical Paper

Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine by Simultaneous Measurement of Time Resolved PIV and PLIF

2020-01-24
2019-32-0552
Cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in low load operation is a factor that may cause various problems in engine operation. Variable valve timing and variable ignition timing are commonly used as a means to reduce this variation. However, due to mountability and cost constraints, these methods are not feasible for use in motorcycle engines. Therefore, development of an engine with minimal CCV without utilizing complicated mechanisms or electronic control is required. CCV of combustion may be caused by fluctuations in in-cylinder flow, air-fuel mixture, temperature, residual gas and ignition energy. In this study, the relationship between CCV of combustion, in-cylinder flow fluctuation and air-fuel mixture fluctuation was the primary focus. In order to evaluate in-cylinder flow fluctuation, Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) technique was utilized.
Journal Article

Effects of Surface Compound Layer on Bending Fatigue Strength of Nitrided Chromium-Molybdenum Steel

2020-01-24
2019-32-0504
Carburized and quenched materials with high fatigue strength are often used for motorcycle engine parts. Nitrided materials exhibit less deformation during heat treatment than carburized and quenched materials, so if the same or higher fatigue strength can be achieved with nitrided materials as with carburized and quenched materials, the geometric precision of parts can be increased and we can reduce engine noise as well as power loss. When the fatigue strengths of a nitrided material with its compound layer surface put into γ’ phase through nitriding potential control (hereafter, G), and a nitrided material put into ε phase (hereafter, E) were measured, the results showed the fatigue strength of the G to be about 11% higher than that of carburized and quenched materials. It was inferred that the strength of the compound layer determines fatigue strength.
Technical Paper

Development of Motorcycle Engine Starting System Simulation Considering Air-Fuel Ratio Control

2017-11-05
2017-32-0045
Recently the response of the engine speed at starting has more importance than ever for quick start satisfying rider’s needs, as well as exhaust emissions. We have developed a simulation for studying engine and starter specifications, engine control algorithm and other engine control parameters. This system can be utilized to realize appropriate starting time by considering air-fuel ratio under various conditions. This paper addresses what are taken account of in our method. Examples applying this to a conventional motorcycle engine are shown.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion and In-Cylinder Flow in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine Using PIV and PLIF Techniques

2017-10-08
2017-01-2213
Reduction in the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in internal combustion engines is required to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and improve drivability. CCV increases at low load operations and lean/dilute burn conditions. Specifically, the factors that cause CCV of combustion are the cyclic variations of in-cylinder flow, in-cylinder distributions of fuel concentration, temperature and residual gas, and ignition energy. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze these factors in a production engine. This study used an optically accessible single-cylinder engine in which combustion and optical measurements were performed for 45 consecutive cycles. CCVs of the combustion and in-cylinder phenomena were investigated for the same cycle. Using this optically accessible engine, the volume inside the combustion chamber, including the pent-roof region can be observed through a quartz cylinder.
Journal Article

Development of Fracture-Split Connecting Rods Made of Titanium Alloy for Use on Supersport Motorcycles

2015-11-17
2015-32-0830
A connecting rod made of titanium alloy is effective for lower fuel consumption and higher power output comparing to a steel one because the titanium connecting rod enables to reduce the weight of both of reciprocating and rotating parts in an entire engine substantially. But up to now, it has been adopted only to expensive and small-lot production models because a material cost is high, a processing is difficult and a wear on a sliding area should be prevented. In order to adopt the titanium connecting rods into a more types of motorcycles, appropriate materials, processing methods and surface treatment were considered. Hot forging process was applied not only to reduce a machining volume but also to enhance a material strength and stiffness. And the fracture-splitting (FS) method for the big-end of the titanium connecting rod was put into a practical use.
Journal Article

Improvement of the Startability with Reverse Stroke Intake Devices for a Motorcycle Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0107
This paper proposes a novel engine starter system composed of a small-power electric motor and a simple mechanical valve train. The system makes it possible to design more efficient starters than conventional systems, and it is especially effective to restart engines equipped with idling stop systems. Recently, several idling stop systems, having intelligent start-up functions and highly-efficient generate capabilities have been proposed for motorcycles. One of challenges of the idling stop systems is the downsizing of electric motors for starting-up. However, there are many limitations to downsize the electric motors in the conventional idling stop systems, since the systems utilize the forward-rotational torque of the electric motors to compress the air-fuel mixture gas in the cylinders. Our studies exceeded the limitations of downsizing the electric motors by mainly using the engine combustion energy instead of the electric energy to go over the first compression top dead center.
Journal Article

Friction Measurement of Al-17%Si Monolithic Cylinder with using Newly Developed Floating Liner Device

2014-11-11
2014-32-0052
The improvement of fuel consumption is the most important issue for engine manufactures from the viewpoint of energy and environment conservation. A piston-cylinder system plays an important role for the reduction of an engine friction. For the improvement of the frictional behavior of the piston-cylinder system, it is beneficial to observe and analyze the frictional waveforms during an engine operation. To meet the above-mentioned demand, frictional waveforms were measured with using the renewed floating liner device. In the newly developed floating liner device, an actual cylinder block itself was used as a test specimen. The measured single cylinder was an aluminum monolithic type made of hypereutectic Al-17%Si alloy using a high pressure die casting process. The combined piston was a light weight forged piston and a DLC coated piston ring was used. For the measurement, 110cc air cooled single cylinder engine was used.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Propeller Damper (Shift Dampener System)

2013-10-15
2013-32-9068
Generally, the gearshift mechanism for outboard motors shifts into forward or reverse gear without using the synchromesh arrangement (dog clutch engagement)(See Fig.1). This type of shift mechanism has advantages in simple structure and in saving space and cost, but at the same time, this is often the source of problem due to the abrasion caused by the hitting of gear against the dog clutch before the engagement, as well as large gearshift shock and noise. In addition, the outboard motor horsepower is getting bigger in recent years. As they are equipped with bigger and heavier engines and propellers, the shifting shock and noise tend to become more severe. For this reason, the improvement in this aspect is required. We looked into the way to reduce the shock and noise by means of propellers, because the propeller can be mounted and replaced easily, which allows the effective improvement to be spread to the outboard motors already in the market.
Journal Article

Application of Vacuum Assisted Carbide Dispersion Carbonitriding to Connecting Rods

2013-10-15
2013-32-9082
In four-cycle single-cylinder motorcycle engines, high Hertzian stress is generated on and beneath the big-end surface of the connecting rod. If the surface strength would be improved, the diameter of the big-end could be made smaller, making the entire engine smaller and lighter. Therefore, application of carbide dispersion carbonitriding using a vacuum furnace (hereinafter referred to as “vacuum CD carbonitriding”) on the big-end surface was investigated. Vacuum CD carbonitriding was carried out by three processes. The first was a CD carburizing process. This process is done to obtain granular cementite, but in order to avoid decreasing the strength, it is necessary to prevent the formation of coarsened cementite at the grain boundary. The second process was a refining process. This process is done for the purpose of refining the prior austenite grain size. The third process was a carbonitriding process.
Journal Article

The Effect of Surface Morphology of Cylinder Bore Surface on Anti-Scuffing Property made by High Pressure Die-Casting Process using Hyper-Eutectic Al-Si Alloy

2013-10-15
2013-32-9046
A monolithic type aluminum (Al) cylinder made of hypereutectic Aluminum-Silicon alloy has been widely used for motorcycle applications. It has a lightweight structure and a superior cooling ability owing to its material property and surface finishing. Usually the cylinder bore surface of the monolithic type Al cylinder is finished by an etching process or a honing process in order to expose silicon (Si) particles from aluminum (Al) matrix for the improvement of the tribological properties. The morphology of the cylinder bore surface including the exposure of Si particles is supposed to make an important effect on its tribological properties, especially on the anti-scuffing property. In this research, the anti-scuffing property of three kinds of cylinder bore finishing, an etched surface, a Si exposure honed surface and a conventional plateau honed surface is evaluated with using a reciprocated type wear tester. The experimental results are analyzed by using Weibull analysis.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Compensated Control of Gradient for the Haptic Throttle Grip

2013-10-15
2013-32-9026
Recently, there have been many reports about developing control systems that actuate engines and brakes based on friction circle. We are researching the control system for motorcycles, which adds the return torque of throttle grip based on it for informing the limit of tire grip on the driving wheel. This throttle grip is a haptic display, offers haptic signals by controlling the motor connected to the throttle grip as a HMI. From the results of riding tests, the system was found helpful for riders to control the throttle grip as well as feeling easy about knowing the limit of tire grip. But it is known that the friction circle of a driving wheel depends on the normal force which changes by the gradient of road, acceleration and so on. The compensated control for changing the normal force by gradient was made to improve the throttle grip control system.
Technical Paper

Section Flow Improvement of Plasma Spray Cylinder in Outboard Motor

2013-10-15
2013-32-9029
The two-stroke engines were in the main stream of the outboard motors, but they have been replaced with the four-stroke counterparts reflecting the environmental protection movement in recent years. However, the replacement with four-stroke engines involves increased number of components and additional displacement, and the outboard motors tend to be larger and heavier. This represents an issue, since the maneuverability of the boat is degraded due to the inappropriate weight distribution on the boat. Yamaha outboard motors F300B and VF250A, of which the production started in the year 2009, are equipped with four-stroke engines, and yet achieved the light weight equivalent to their two-stroke counterparts. The production volume of these models reached 20,000 units.
Journal Article

Torque Control of Rear Wheel by Using Inverse Dynamics of Rubber/Aramid Belt Continuous Variable Transmission

2013-10-15
2013-32-9042
This paper concerns a torque control of a rear wheel of a motorcycle equipped with a rubber/aramid belt electronically-controlled continuous variable transmission where a primary sheave position is controlled by an electric motor. In particular, the paper discusses a method to calculate a required engine torque and a required primary sheave position, given reference values of a rear-wheel torque and an engine rotational velocity. The method forms a foundation of a hierarchized traction control where a higher control layer decides an optimal motorcycle motion (rear-wheel torque and engine rotational velocity) and a lower control layer realizes the motion by actuators (engine torque and primary sheave position). Difficulties of the control are due to large mechanical compliance of the rubber/aramid belt, which leads to an inevitable lag from the primary sheave position to a speed reduction ratio.
Journal Article

Reduced-Order Modeling of Intake Air Dynamics in Single-Cylinder Four-Stroke Engine

2013-10-15
2013-32-9041
This study deals with reduced-order modeling of intake air dynamics in single-cylinder four-stroke naturally-aspirated spark-ignited engines without surge tanks. It provides an approximate calculation method for embedded micro computers to estimate intake manifold pressures in real time. The calculation method is also applicable to multi-cylinder engines with individual throttle bodies since the engines can be equated with parallelization of the single-cylinder engines. In this paper, we illustrate the intake air dynamics, describe a method to estimate the intake manifold pressures, and show experimental results of the method.
Technical Paper

Predictive Simulation of PFI Engine Combustion and Emission

2013-10-15
2013-32-9169
This paper reports a methodology to estimate combustion pattern and emission by predictive simple simulation with good accuracy on various conditions of PFI engine. 3D-CFD cord VECTIS has been applied for this simulation, its settings and methods are as follows. RANS equation with liner k-epsilon model has been used as the turbulence model. Turbulent burning velocity equation contains not only turbulent velocity term but also laminar burning velocity term. For ignition model, we use a predictive model called DPIK. We iterate cycle calculation until wallfilm behavior is stabilized to get the reasonable mixture formation. We have applied this methodology to 125cc engine of motorcycle. As a result, we have obtained heat release curve and pressure curve with good accuracy on various operating conditions such as engine speed, engine load, air fuel ratio, wall temperature, and spray direction. CO and NOx calculated simultaneously have also been acceptable.
Technical Paper

Development of CVT Shift Dynamic Simulation Model with Elastic Rubber V-Belt

2011-11-08
2011-32-0518
This paper presents a practical simulation model of the rubber V-belt CVT which is widely used as a low cost driveline element for small displacement motorcycles. The characteristic of this CVT is determined by the axial force balance between driver and driven pulleys, and the elastic force of a rubber V-belt. Because these axial and elastic forces are calculated by the kinematic and FEM analysis, a large-scale simulation model which costs long execution time for the calculation is needed to estimate the characteristic of CVT. This calculation uses the one-dimensional simulation model built up with MATLAB and SIMULINK environment, so that it was possible to get the calculation result with relatively low execution time. The elastic deformation of the rubber V-Belt was calculated by a simple spring model which was verified by experiments and FEM.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection and Flame Propagation on Combustion in Motorcycle Engine - Investigation by Visualization Technique

2011-11-08
2011-32-0566
This paper reports visualization of behavior of spray, wall film, and initial flame propagation in an SI engine with port fuel injection system for motorcycle in order to directly investigate their influences on combustion and relations among them. Borescopes were used to visualize the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and wall film in the intake port. Various injection systems and injection parameters were tested: injection direction, timing, and size of droplets to investigate the effect of mixture formation. It is concluded that combustion stability under low load condition is greatly influenced by mixture inhomogeneity in the combustion chamber whose evidence is the luminous emission. It is caused by direct induction of considerable amount of liquid fuel with large size of droplets into combustion chamber or too inhomogeneous mixture in the intake port.
Technical Paper

The Investigation of Mixture Formation and Combustion with Port Injection System by Visualization of Flame and Wall Film

2011-08-30
2011-01-1887
Mixture formation is one of the most important factors for the combustion in the spark ignition engine with port fuel injection. The relation between combustion and mixture quality, however, is not quantitatively well established. In this study, the connection of combustion and mixture formation was explored with various measurement techniques. Borescopes were used in order to investigate the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and behavior of spray and fuel film on the wall in the intake port. For the purpose of investigation on the effect of mixture formation, various port fuel injection systems and parameters were tested and compared: direction, timing, and size of droplet. An SI engine for small vehicle was used under condition of 4 000 rpm. The investigation by images obtained has shown that inhomogeneity of mixture causes low combustion stability, especially due to direct introduction of fuel droplets into the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact Continuously Variable Transmission Engine for Motorcycles

2011-08-30
2011-01-2030
The continuously variable transmission (CVT) with a rubber belt used in scooters is also regarded as a potential automatic transmission mechanism for conventional motorcycles. By making this system more compact and building it into the engine, a motorcycle CVT engine has been developed that is about the same size as a manual transmission (MT) engine. During driving with a CVT, heat is generated by friction at the sheaves, and therefore it was necessary to secure a certain length of belt to ensure that external air flows efficiently to the sheaves. However, making the CVT more compact restricted the belt length, which decreased cooling performance and increased the number of bends in the belt, making it difficult to maintain durability. To address this issue, a plastic resin drive belt and newly designed sheaves were adopted, and durability of more than that of a scooter was achieved.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Consumption of Small Motorcycle Engine with YMJET-FI

2009-11-03
2009-32-0049
A construction of the technology concerning fuel consumption improvement is an important problem not only for the four-wheeled vehicle but also for the motorcycle in recent years when petroleum resources are depleted rapidly. Yamaha originally developed a new fuel injection system (YMJET-FI) and applied the system to a single cylinder, water-cooled and small-displacement engine. In this paper, we would introduce the results of improving the fuel economy with keeping high performance. Improvements were noted in three matters, namely, in the lower load range, 1.Strengthening of in-cylinder flow, 2.Atomization of fuel spray, and 3.Reduction of wall film quantity.
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