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Technical Paper

Development of Motorcycle Engine Starting System Simulation Considering Air-Fuel Ratio Control

Recently the response of the engine speed at starting has more importance than ever for quick start satisfying rider’s needs, as well as exhaust emissions. We have developed a simulation for studying engine and starter specifications, engine control algorithm and other engine control parameters. This system can be utilized to realize appropriate starting time by considering air-fuel ratio under various conditions. This paper addresses what are taken account of in our method. Examples applying this to a conventional motorcycle engine are shown.
Journal Article

Improvement of the Startability with Reverse Stroke Intake Devices for a Motorcycle Engine

This paper proposes a novel engine starter system composed of a small-power electric motor and a simple mechanical valve train. The system makes it possible to design more efficient starters than conventional systems, and it is especially effective to restart engines equipped with idling stop systems. Recently, several idling stop systems, having intelligent start-up functions and highly-efficient generate capabilities have been proposed for motorcycles. One of challenges of the idling stop systems is the downsizing of electric motors for starting-up. However, there are many limitations to downsize the electric motors in the conventional idling stop systems, since the systems utilize the forward-rotational torque of the electric motors to compress the air-fuel mixture gas in the cylinders. Our studies exceeded the limitations of downsizing the electric motors by mainly using the engine combustion energy instead of the electric energy to go over the first compression top dead center.
Technical Paper

Application of FEM Analysis Using Loads Predicted from Strain Measurement in Motorcycle Frame Development

This paper presents an approach for efficiently evaluating motorcycle main frame strength using external loads predicted from measured strain data in our development process. The loads are calculated by simple matrix inversion, and can be used as boundary conditions of static analysis that resembles actual phenomena. The advantage of this method is that it allows relatively precise reproduction of actual boundary conditions without the data usually needed for dynamic simulation such as tire and suspension characteristics which often take large amount of time and man-hour to obtain. Although this approach is simple and common practice, there are a lot of things to be concerned for gaining useful results in a broad range of stages in the motorcycle main frame development process. How we effectively make use of this approach is going to be introduced here.
Journal Article

Development of New Concept Two-Wheel Steering System for Motorcycles

This paper describes the development of a new concept two-wheel steering system for realizing motorcycle motion control. By considering the whole of the main frame as the rear-wheel steering axis, it was possible to move the rear-wheel steering system from the conventional installation position at the rear arm to the head pipe. As a result, the developed two-wheel steering system is both lightweight and compact. This two-wheel steering system was installed in a motorcycle, and starting and stopping tests were carried out with two people riding on the motorcycle. The test results confirmed that the two-wheel steering system is capable of changing the motion characteristics of the motorcycle in actual riding. Furthermore, by calculating the equivalent wheel alignment of this system, this paper also theoretically demonstrates that these changes in motion characteristics are caused by changes in caster and trail.
Journal Article

Torque Control of Rear Wheel by Using Inverse Dynamics of Rubber/Aramid Belt Continuous Variable Transmission

This paper concerns a torque control of a rear wheel of a motorcycle equipped with a rubber/aramid belt electronically-controlled continuous variable transmission where a primary sheave position is controlled by an electric motor. In particular, the paper discusses a method to calculate a required engine torque and a required primary sheave position, given reference values of a rear-wheel torque and an engine rotational velocity. The method forms a foundation of a hierarchized traction control where a higher control layer decides an optimal motorcycle motion (rear-wheel torque and engine rotational velocity) and a lower control layer realizes the motion by actuators (engine torque and primary sheave position). Difficulties of the control are due to large mechanical compliance of the rubber/aramid belt, which leads to an inevitable lag from the primary sheave position to a speed reduction ratio.
Journal Article

Steering Damper for Street Motorcycle

We introduce a research on steering dampers using MR fluid (Magnetorheological Fluid). In recent years, steering dampers have been used in on-road and off-road motorcycles. Steering dampers stabilize the front end of motorcycles. The advantage of a steering damper is increased stability, but hydraulic steering dampers give rise to the problem of ‘Heavy Steering’. In order to resolve this heavy steering, we need to set the restrictions on the maximum damping force and avoid it from interfering when the rider is steering. However only reducing the damping force will lead to insufficient damping force when the handle, unresponsive because of kickback, shakes. We solved this problem with the development of an electric control damper which generates sufficient damping force at low steering angle rates and also allows for mechanically limiting the maximum damping force.
Technical Paper

Effect by Fuel Cut with the Strong Hybrid Motorcycle to Improve the Fuel Consumption

Any improvements of the fuel economy with engines are always required for all petroleum fuel vehicles. The goal of such improvements must lead to reduce fuel consumption of the engines. However it may cause some deterioration with riding feeling that is one of the most important characteristics of the motorcycles. Yamaha has developed the strong hybrid motorcycle "HV-X"(hereafter the motorcycle). The motorcycle consists of a 4-stroke 250 cm₃ a cylinder engine and two 300V AC motors with a planetary gear set. The motorcycle reduces fuel consumption without severe influence onto the drive performance by utilizing the electric power.
Journal Article

Relation between the Weave Mode in Low Speed Range and Slalom Running of Motorcycles

Recently, our research has focused on the weave mode. This is a representative vibration mode of motorcycles and is important when considering maneuverability and stability. In a method of analyzing the weave mode, a disturbance is applied to the handle bars of the motorcycle during running and then the response waveform of the roll angle and other items at that time is used to perform estimations. However, when the motorcycle is driven at low speeds, the steering operations of the rider have a large effect on the running data and this makes estimation difficult. Therefore, it was assumed that weave mode data can be estimated from slalom running data since this possesses almost the same vibration frequency as the weave mode in low speed range. In this research, a simulation was used to investigate the relationship between the weave mode and slalom running.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection and Flame Propagation on Combustion in Motorcycle Engine - Investigation by Visualization Technique

This paper reports visualization of behavior of spray, wall film, and initial flame propagation in an SI engine with port fuel injection system for motorcycle in order to directly investigate their influences on combustion and relations among them. Borescopes were used to visualize the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and wall film in the intake port. Various injection systems and injection parameters were tested: injection direction, timing, and size of droplets to investigate the effect of mixture formation. It is concluded that combustion stability under low load condition is greatly influenced by mixture inhomogeneity in the combustion chamber whose evidence is the luminous emission. It is caused by direct induction of considerable amount of liquid fuel with large size of droplets into combustion chamber or too inhomogeneous mixture in the intake port.
Technical Paper

Development of CVT Shift Dynamic Simulation Model with Elastic Rubber V-Belt

This paper presents a practical simulation model of the rubber V-belt CVT which is widely used as a low cost driveline element for small displacement motorcycles. The characteristic of this CVT is determined by the axial force balance between driver and driven pulleys, and the elastic force of a rubber V-belt. Because these axial and elastic forces are calculated by the kinematic and FEM analysis, a large-scale simulation model which costs long execution time for the calculation is needed to estimate the characteristic of CVT. This calculation uses the one-dimensional simulation model built up with MATLAB and SIMULINK environment, so that it was possible to get the calculation result with relatively low execution time. The elastic deformation of the rubber V-Belt was calculated by a simple spring model which was verified by experiments and FEM.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact Continuously Variable Transmission Engine for Motorcycles

The continuously variable transmission (CVT) with a rubber belt used in scooters is also regarded as a potential automatic transmission mechanism for conventional motorcycles. By making this system more compact and building it into the engine, a motorcycle CVT engine has been developed that is about the same size as a manual transmission (MT) engine. During driving with a CVT, heat is generated by friction at the sheaves, and therefore it was necessary to secure a certain length of belt to ensure that external air flows efficiently to the sheaves. However, making the CVT more compact restricted the belt length, which decreased cooling performance and increased the number of bends in the belt, making it difficult to maintain durability. To address this issue, a plastic resin drive belt and newly designed sheaves were adopted, and durability of more than that of a scooter was achieved.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Consumption of Small Motorcycle Engine with YMJET-FI

A construction of the technology concerning fuel consumption improvement is an important problem not only for the four-wheeled vehicle but also for the motorcycle in recent years when petroleum resources are depleted rapidly. Yamaha originally developed a new fuel injection system (YMJET-FI) and applied the system to a single cylinder, water-cooled and small-displacement engine. In this paper, we would introduce the results of improving the fuel economy with keeping high performance. Improvements were noted in three matters, namely, in the lower load range, 1.Strengthening of in-cylinder flow, 2.Atomization of fuel spray, and 3.Reduction of wall film quantity.
Technical Paper

Practical Use of the Engine Testing Dyno with the Vehicle Simulation for the MotoGP Race Engine Development

MotoGP is the pinnacle of motorcycle racing, with the world's top riders racing 800cc prototype machines at leading venues around the world. The riders compete against each other to win the title and show their superiority. The manufacturers have improved the engines every year to gain high power with low-fuel consumption. The percentage of the duration in fully open throttle is less than 20% of the race, but the partial throttle is used as much as 80%. Moreover, when the rider accelerates the machine, the front tire is easy to be lifted from the ground. In the middle of corner, the rider cannot open the throttle fully because of the tire slip. Therefore, it is the most important factor to appropriately control a throttle in the partial area. The Drive-By-Wire (DBW) system is one of the solutions for the force control. The vehicle simulation in the engine dyno test helped efficiently to evaluate the DBW.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Engine Development System by Using a Test Bed with Simulation Technology

With the hope of efficient and sophisticated motorcycle engine development, an engine test bed that can simulate vehicle running conditions using an ultra-low inertia motor and high response load control system was constructed, and was applied to the development of engines. By combining an exhaust gas analyzer, an exhaust gas constant volume sampler (CVS), and a data processing system, mass emissions could be measured in various test cycles. This system's advantages for data repeatability and test efficiency compared with a chassis test using a vehicle were confirmed. An acceleration test was conducted to assess running performance, and good agreement with actual driving values was confirmed. In addition, by measuring and evaluating engine response to throttle manipulation, it was possible to evaluate driveability on the test bed. These test findings indicate that this test bed can simulate vehicle driving tests with the engine only and will be a useful tool in engine development.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell System for Two-Wheeled Vehicles

Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) system is a compact lightweight system as it eliminates the need of a complex reformer unit. Moreover, since the methanol-water-solution used as fuel does not correspond to a flammable substance, it is thought that convenience is high. We have developed the hybrid scooter integrated with the DMFC system and the Li-ion rechargeable batteries, and optimized various parameters related to the performance and the efficiency. The power output of the DMFC system was adjusted to the value necessary for a constant ground run in 30 km/h of a commercial small electric scooter. All the system components had to be constituted in the limited space and under the restricted weight conditions. The net-power-output of the system was examined under various air flow rate, fuel flow rate and methanol concentration conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Fracture Splitting Method for Case Hardened Connecting Rods

The fracture splitting (FS) method for case hardened connecting rods has been developed to improve engine performance while decreasing production costs. The FS method is widely used for automotive connecting rods because it effectively improves their productivity. Normalized forging steels, microalloyed forging steels and powder metals have generally been used as the material in the FS method as they are easily split due to their brittleness. On the other hand, the materials to be used for high performance motorcycles are case hardened low carbon steels because they allow the connecting rods to be lightweight due to their high fatigue strengths. These materials, which have a hardened area of approx. 0.5mm in depth from the surface, have a ductile texture inside. This texture obstructs the crack propagation and makes the split force too high to split without deforming the bearing area.
Technical Paper

Light Body for Small Vehicles Using High-Quality Die-Casting Component

A high-quality die-casting technology has been developed for lightweight aluminum frame structures that produces high-strength aluminum parts that are also weldable. This new technology has been used in casting frames for motorcycles and snowmobiles and has enabled improved frame designs with far fewer component parts than was possible before. This die-casting technology also results in a significant reduction in energy consumption during the manufacturing process.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Circuit Inductance in Motor Controllers for Electric Vehicles

1 Research was conducted on reduction of circuit inductance for the purpose of reducing the surge voltage generated during switching by FET (field effect transistor / semiconductor device) in the power modules of motor controllers for golf carts (Fig. 1) and other electric vehicles. The motor control system is composed of the battery, the motor controller, the motor, and the wirings that connect them, and the inductance exists in them altogether. It became clear from simulation analysis and measurements from a prototype that only the inductance within the motor controller among these composition parts influences the surge voltage. And it became clear that there is a correlation between surge voltage and the sum of the inductance of the electrolytic capacitor inside the power module and the inductance of the circuit by which current is supplied from the electrolytic capacitor to the FET.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection System for Small Motorcycles

Attempts have been made to develop an electronically controlled fuel injection system that is ideal for small motorcycles, cost-efficient, compact, and electric power-saving while maintaining accuracy. For reducing the number of sensors and cost, highly accurate methods have been developed for the measurement of intake air mass, detection of acceleration, distinction of engine stroke, and estimation of atmospheric pressure without using a throttle position sensor, cam timing sensor, and barometric sensor in such a manner as to carry out sampling with the intake manifold pressure of single-cylinder engines synchronizing with the crank angle. For compactness and electric power saving, an injector and in-tank fuel pump module have been developed for small motorcycles.
Technical Paper

12 Present situation of Automated Guided Vehicle

Many automated guided golf cars using the electromagnetic guide technology are used in Japan to obtain more convenient and safer golf play. Now this technology is beginning to be used outside of the golf course as an on-demand people mover system. This paper presents an example of the engineering system of automated guided golf cars along for the 2 principles of automated guided vehicle. The first principle is “the steering control system including the automatic sensitivity adjustment function”, and the other principle is “the vehicle speed control system”.