Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Grammatical Evolution Based Tool for Predicting Multivariable Response Surface for Laser Lap Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-1372
The problem of predicting the quality of weld is critical to manufacturing. A great deal of data is collected under multiple conditions to predict the quality. The data generated at Daimler Chrysler has been used to develop a model based on grammatical evolution. Grammatical Evolution Technique is based on Genetic Algorithms and generates rules from the data which fit the data. This paper describes the development of a software tool that enables the user to choose input variables such as the metal types of top and bottom layers and their thickness, intensity and speed of laser beam, to generate a three dimensional map showing weld quality. A 3D weld quality surface can be generated in response to any of the two input variables picked from the set of defining input parameters. This tool will enable the user to pick the right set of input conditions to get an optimal weld quality. The tool is developed in Matlab with Graphical User Interface for the ease of operation.
Technical Paper

Application of the Modal Compliance Technique to a Vehicle Body in White

2007-05-15
2007-01-2355
This paper describes the application of the modal compliance method to a complex structure such as a vehicle body in white, and the extension of the method from normal modes to the complex modes of a complete vehicle. In addition to the usual bending and torsion calculations, the paper also describes the application of the method to less usual tests such as second torsion, match-boxing and breathing. We also show how the method can be used to investigate the distribution of compliance throughout the structure.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Methodologies for Quantification of Body/Chassis Response to Brake Torque Variation

2007-05-15
2007-01-2343
Brake torque variation is a source of objectionable NVH body/chassis response. Such input commonly results from brake disk thickness variation. The NVH dynamic characteristics of a vehicle can be assessed and quantified through experimental modal testing for determination of mode resonance frequency, damping property, and shape. Standard full vehicle modal testing typically utilizes a random input excitation into the vehicle frame or underbody structure. An alternative methodology was sought to quantify and predict body/chassis sensitivity to brake torque variation. This paper presents a review of experimental modal test methodologies investigated for the reproduction of vehicle response to brake torque variation in a static laboratory environment. Brake caliper adapter random and sine sweep excitation input as well as body sine sweep excitation in tandem with an intentionally locked brake will be detailed.
Technical Paper

Laminar Flow Whistle on a Vehicle Side Mirror

2007-04-16
2007-01-1549
In the development of several outside mirror designs for vehicles, a high frequency noise (whistling) phenomenon was experienced. First impression was that this might be due to another source on the vehicle (such as water management channels) or a cavity noise; however, upon further investigation the source was found to be the mirror housing. This “laminar whistle” is related to the separation of a laminar boundary layer near the trailing edges of the mirror housing. When there is a free stream impingement on the mirror housing, the boundary layer starts out as laminar, but as the boundary layer travels from the impingement point, distance, speed, and roughness combine to trigger the transition turbulent. However, when the transition is not complete, pressure fluctuations can cause rapidly changing flow patterns that sound like a whistle to the observer. Because the laminar boundary layer has very little energy, it does not allow the flow to stay attached on curved surfaces.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Welded Aluminum Blanks for Liftgate Inner

2007-04-16
2007-01-0421
Tailor welded steel blanks have long been applied in stamping of automotive parts such as door inner, b-pillar, rail, sill inner and liftgate inner, etc. However, there are few known tailor welded aluminum blanks in production. Traditional laser welding equipment simply does not have the capability to weld aluminum since aluminum has much higher reflectivity than steel. Welding quality is another issue since aluminum is highly susceptible to pin holes and undercut which leads to deterioration in formability. In addition, high amount of springback for aluminum panels can result in dimension control problem during assembly. A tailor-welded aluminum blank can help reducing dimension variability by reducing the need for assembly. In this paper, application of friction stir and plasma arc welded blanks on a liftgate inner will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Head Impact Waveform to Minimize HIC

2007-04-16
2007-01-0759
To mitigate head impact injuries of vehicle occupants in impact accidents, the FMVSS 201 requires padding of vehicle interior so that under the free-moving-head-form impact, the head injury criterion (HIC) is below the limit. More recently, pedestrian head impact on the vehicle bonnet has been a subject being studied and regulated as requirements to the automobile manufacturers. Over the years, the square wave has been considered as the best waveform for head impacts, although it is impractical to achieve. This paper revisits the head impact topic and challenges the optimality of aiming at the square waveform. It studies several different simple waveforms, with the objective to achieve minimal HIC or minimal crush space required in head-form impacts. With that it is found that many other waveforms can be more efficient and more practical than the square wave, especially for the pedestrian impact.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process to Investigate Suspension Sensitivity to Brake Judder

2007-04-16
2007-01-0590
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Model Based Reusable and Reliable Software Validation for Functional Coverage using Virtual ECUs

2007-04-16
2007-01-1742
In embedded software world, development and testing are becoming far more complex with growing functionality and fail safe strategies. As a result of that, model-based software development is getting increasingly popular in capturing the functional requirements and auto generating the code from these validated models to avoid any functional deficiency. However, the complexity in the model may not be correctly interpreted by the code generation tool and may result to an incorrect code behavior. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed and implemented to validate the generated code against the models. Simulation test scripts are recorded in the modeling environment to generate the desired set of test inputs. These input scripts are designed to get complete transition and state exposure to maximize the functional coverage. With these test scripts, expected outputs are recorded for downstream validation in the simulation environment with mature models.
Technical Paper

Advancing the State of Strong Hybrid Technology

2006-10-16
2006-21-0058
As the hybrid automotive market becomes quickly saturated with highly competitive products and vehicles, auto manufacturers struggle with business models and the combination of current manufacturing with next generation development. The hybrid development cooperation amongst General Motors, DaimlerChrysler, and BMW offers a new business model that promotes the advancement of the state of strong hybrid technology while maintaining the strong global leadership and competition.
Technical Paper

A Grammatical Evolution Approach to System Identification of Laser Lap Welding

2006-04-03
2006-01-1614
Laser lap welding quality is a non-linear response based on a host of categorical and numeric material and process variables. This paper describes a Grammatical Evolution approach to the structure identification of the laser lap welding process and compares its performance with linear regression and a neuro-fuzzy inference system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computerized Digital Resonance Fatigue Test Controller with Load Feedback Management

2006-04-03
2006-01-1620
In this report, the DCX Stress Lab and the Tool Development & Test Support groups investigated automating a resonant bending crankshaft fatigue test. Fatigue testing, in general, is a laborious process since many samples are needed for analysis. This makes development cost and speed dependant on the component test efficiency. In the case of crankshaft resonant bending testing, both cost and speed are influenced by the manual feedback operation needed to run the current procedure. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, this project sought to automate the following tasks: maintaining the load on the part, reacting to resonance changes in the part, mapping resonance changes, logging the number of cycles, and discerning resonance frequency shift failure modes objectively.
Technical Paper

Model Based Development and Auto Testing: A Robust Approach for Reliable Automotive Software Development

2006-04-03
2006-01-1420
Automotive electronics and software is getting complex day by day. More and more features and functions are offered and supported by software in place of hardware. Communication is carried out on the CAN bus instead of hard wired circuits. This architectural transition facilitates lots of flexibility, agility and economy in development. However, it introduces risk of unexpected failures due to insufficient testing and million of possible combinations, which can be created by users during the life time of a product. Model based development supports an effective way of handling these complexities during simulation and also provide oracle for its validation. Based on priorities and type of applications, test vectors can be auto generated and can be used for formal verification of the models. These auto-generated test vectors are valuable assets in testing and can be effectively reused for target hardware (ECU) verification.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Test Cell for Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Powertrain Technologies using Model-Controlled Dynamometers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1409
Current engine development processes typically involve extensive steady-state and simple transient testing in order to characterize the engine's fuel consumption, emissions, and performance based on several controllable inputs such as throttle, spark advance, and EGR. Steady-state and simple transient testing using idealistic load conditions alone, however, is no longer sufficient to meet powertrain development schedule requirements. Mapping and calibration of an engine under transient operation has become critically important. And, independent engine development utilizing accelerated techniques is becoming more attractive. In order to thoroughly calibrate new engines in accelerated fashion and under realistic transient conditions, more advanced testing is necessary.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Robust Design of Automotive Thermal Systems - A Federated Approach

2006-04-03
2006-01-1576
Today automotive thermal systems development is a joint effort between an OEM and its suppliers. This paper presents a pilot program showing how OEMs and suppliers can jointly develop a reliable and robust thermal system using CAE tools over the internet. Federated Intelligent Product Environment (FIPER) has been used to establish B2B communication between OEMs and suppliers. Suppliers remotely run thermal systems computer models at the OEM site using the FIPER B2B feature.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2006-04-03
2006-01-0522
Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1512
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

Cam-Phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Maximizing Torque Output

2005-10-24
2005-01-3757
Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology provides high potential in achieving high performance, low fuel consumption and pollutant reduction. However, more degrees of freedom impose a big challenge for engine characterization and calibration. In this study, a simulation based approach and optimization framework is proposed to optimize the setpoints of multiple independent control variables. Since solving an optimization problem typically requires hundreds of function evaluations, a direct use of the high-fidelity simulation tool leads to the unbearably long computational time. Hence, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are trained with high-fidelity simulation results and used as surrogate models, representing engine's response to different control variable combinations with greatly reduced computational time. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the cam-phasing strategy at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) is optimized for a dual-independent Variable Valve Timing (VVT) engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cylinder Pressure Transducer Accuracy based upon Mounting Style, Heat Shields, and Watercooling

2005-10-24
2005-01-3750
This investigation evaluated different pressure transducers in one cylinder to examine the combustion measurement differences between them simultaneously. There were a total of eleven transducers ranging in both diameter and type of transducer (piezo-electric, piezoresistive, and optical). Furthermore, the sensors differed in the methodology for minimizing signal distortion due to temperature. This methodology could take the form of various size mounting passages, heat shields, watercooling or heat transfer paths. To evaluate the sensors, different engine operating conditions were conducted, focusing at full load and low speeds. Other hardware configurations of the same engine family were used to exaggerate the combustion environment, specifically a tumble-motion plate and turbocharging.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Transfer Case Imbalance

2005-05-16
2005-01-2297
Different methodologies to test transfer case imbalance were investigated in this study. One method utilized traditional standard single plane and two plane methods to measure the imbalance of the transfer case when running it on a dynamic balance machine at steady RPM, while a second method utilized accelerometers and a laser vibrometer to measure vertical vibration on the transfer case when running it on a dynamic balance machine in 4 Hi open mode during a run up from 1000 to 4000 RPM with a 40 RPM difference between the input and output shaft speeds. A comparison of all of the measurements for repeatability and accuracy was done with the goal of determining an appropriate and efficient method that generates the most consistent results. By using the traditional method, the test results were not repeatable. This may be due to the internal complexity of transfer cases. With the second method, good correlation between the measurements was obtained.
X