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Technical Paper

Grammatical Evolution Based Tool for Predicting Multivariable Response Surface for Laser Lap Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-1372
The problem of predicting the quality of weld is critical to manufacturing. A great deal of data is collected under multiple conditions to predict the quality. The data generated at Daimler Chrysler has been used to develop a model based on grammatical evolution. Grammatical Evolution Technique is based on Genetic Algorithms and generates rules from the data which fit the data. This paper describes the development of a software tool that enables the user to choose input variables such as the metal types of top and bottom layers and their thickness, intensity and speed of laser beam, to generate a three dimensional map showing weld quality. A 3D weld quality surface can be generated in response to any of the two input variables picked from the set of defining input parameters. This tool will enable the user to pick the right set of input conditions to get an optimal weld quality. The tool is developed in Matlab with Graphical User Interface for the ease of operation.
Technical Paper

Application of the Modal Compliance Technique to a Vehicle Body in White

2007-05-15
2007-01-2355
This paper describes the application of the modal compliance method to a complex structure such as a vehicle body in white, and the extension of the method from normal modes to the complex modes of a complete vehicle. In addition to the usual bending and torsion calculations, the paper also describes the application of the method to less usual tests such as second torsion, match-boxing and breathing. We also show how the method can be used to investigate the distribution of compliance throughout the structure.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Methodologies for Quantification of Body/Chassis Response to Brake Torque Variation

2007-05-15
2007-01-2343
Brake torque variation is a source of objectionable NVH body/chassis response. Such input commonly results from brake disk thickness variation. The NVH dynamic characteristics of a vehicle can be assessed and quantified through experimental modal testing for determination of mode resonance frequency, damping property, and shape. Standard full vehicle modal testing typically utilizes a random input excitation into the vehicle frame or underbody structure. An alternative methodology was sought to quantify and predict body/chassis sensitivity to brake torque variation. This paper presents a review of experimental modal test methodologies investigated for the reproduction of vehicle response to brake torque variation in a static laboratory environment. Brake caliper adapter random and sine sweep excitation input as well as body sine sweep excitation in tandem with an intentionally locked brake will be detailed.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Head Impact Waveform to Minimize HIC

2007-04-16
2007-01-0759
To mitigate head impact injuries of vehicle occupants in impact accidents, the FMVSS 201 requires padding of vehicle interior so that under the free-moving-head-form impact, the head injury criterion (HIC) is below the limit. More recently, pedestrian head impact on the vehicle bonnet has been a subject being studied and regulated as requirements to the automobile manufacturers. Over the years, the square wave has been considered as the best waveform for head impacts, although it is impractical to achieve. This paper revisits the head impact topic and challenges the optimality of aiming at the square waveform. It studies several different simple waveforms, with the objective to achieve minimal HIC or minimal crush space required in head-form impacts. With that it is found that many other waveforms can be more efficient and more practical than the square wave, especially for the pedestrian impact.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process to Investigate Suspension Sensitivity to Brake Judder

2007-04-16
2007-01-0590
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Advancing the State of Strong Hybrid Technology

2006-10-16
2006-21-0058
As the hybrid automotive market becomes quickly saturated with highly competitive products and vehicles, auto manufacturers struggle with business models and the combination of current manufacturing with next generation development. The hybrid development cooperation amongst General Motors, DaimlerChrysler, and BMW offers a new business model that promotes the advancement of the state of strong hybrid technology while maintaining the strong global leadership and competition.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Vehicle Parameters on Car to Car Frontal Crash Fatality Risk Estimated through a Parameterized Model

2006-04-03
2006-01-1134
For the purposes of analyzing and understanding the general effects of a set of different vehicle attributes on overall crash outcome a fleet model is used. It represents the impact response, in a one-dimensional sense, of two vehicle frontal crashes, across the frontal crash velocity spectrum. The parameters studied are vehicle mass, stiffness, intrusion, pulse shape and seatbelt usage. The vehicle impact response parameters are obtained from the NCAP tests. The fatality risk characterization, as a function of the seatbelt use and vehicle velocity, is obtained from the NASS database. The fatality risk is further mapped into average acceleration to allow for evaluation of the different vehicle impact response parameters. The results indicate that the effects of all the parameters are interconnected and none of them is independent. For example, the effect of vehicle mass on fatality risk depends on seatbelt use, vehicle stiffness, available crush, intrusion and pulse shape.
Technical Paper

A Grammatical Evolution Approach to System Identification of Laser Lap Welding

2006-04-03
2006-01-1614
Laser lap welding quality is a non-linear response based on a host of categorical and numeric material and process variables. This paper describes a Grammatical Evolution approach to the structure identification of the laser lap welding process and compares its performance with linear regression and a neuro-fuzzy inference system.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Robust Design of Automotive Thermal Systems - A Federated Approach

2006-04-03
2006-01-1576
Today automotive thermal systems development is a joint effort between an OEM and its suppliers. This paper presents a pilot program showing how OEMs and suppliers can jointly develop a reliable and robust thermal system using CAE tools over the internet. Federated Intelligent Product Environment (FIPER) has been used to establish B2B communication between OEMs and suppliers. Suppliers remotely run thermal systems computer models at the OEM site using the FIPER B2B feature.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2006-04-03
2006-01-0522
Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Transfer Case Imbalance

2005-05-16
2005-01-2297
Different methodologies to test transfer case imbalance were investigated in this study. One method utilized traditional standard single plane and two plane methods to measure the imbalance of the transfer case when running it on a dynamic balance machine at steady RPM, while a second method utilized accelerometers and a laser vibrometer to measure vertical vibration on the transfer case when running it on a dynamic balance machine in 4 Hi open mode during a run up from 1000 to 4000 RPM with a 40 RPM difference between the input and output shaft speeds. A comparison of all of the measurements for repeatability and accuracy was done with the goal of determining an appropriate and efficient method that generates the most consistent results. By using the traditional method, the test results were not repeatable. This may be due to the internal complexity of transfer cases. With the second method, good correlation between the measurements was obtained.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable Self Contained Phase Shifting Digital Shearography for Composite Material Testing

2005-04-11
2005-01-0590
The use of composite materials in the automotive industry has become increasingly widespread. With this increase in use, techniques for non-destructive testing (NDT) have become more and more important. Various optical NDT inspective methods such as holography, moiré techniques, and shearography have been used for material testing. Among these methods, shearography appears to be most practical. Shearography has a simple optical setup due to its “self-referencing” system, and it is relatively insensitive against rigid-body motions. Measurements of displacement derivatives, and thus strain directly, rather than the displacement itself is achieved through this method. Therefore shearography detects defects in objects by correlating anomalies of strain which are usually easier than correlating the anomalies of the displacement itself, as in holography. To date shearography has shown potential as a NDT tool for identifying defects in small structures.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Simulations in Machining Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0518
Computer applications have been widely used to assist product design. The successes and sophistication of computer aided engineering (CAE) techniques are respectfully recognized in this field. CAE applications in the manufacturing area however are still developing, although the manufacturing community is increasingly starting to pay attentions to computer simulations in its daily workings. This paper will briefly introduce some of these applications and promote awareness of computer simulations in manufacturing area. It contains four main sections: finite element analysis (FEA) in machining fixture design, FEA applications in component assembly, machining process simulations and machining vibrations in the milling operation. Each section comes with a practical case study, potential benefits are identified and conclusions are presented by using an integrated design and analysis approach.
Technical Paper

Using a Vehicle Exhaust Emission Simulator (VEES) as a Cross Check Tool for Emission Test Cell Correlation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0687
It is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain good repeatability from running lab vehicle correlation testing, since vehicle variability is so significant at the Low ULEV and SULEV emissions levels. These new emission standards are becoming so stringent that it makes it very difficult to distinguish whether a problem is a result of vehicle variability, test cell sampling or the analytical system. A vehicle exhaust emission simulator (VEES) developed by Horiba, can simulate emissions from low emitting gasoline vehicles by producing tailpipe flow rates containing emissions constituents ( HC, CH4, CO, NOx, CO2 ) injected at the tailpipe flow stream via mass flow controllers.
Technical Paper

Considerations of Bio-fidelity Corridors for Lateral Impacts

2005-04-11
2005-01-0308
Developing an effective side impact ATD for assessing vehicle impact responses requires a method for evaluating that ATD's bio-fidelity. ISO/TR9790 has been in existence for some years to serve that purpose. Recently, NHTSA sponsored a research project on the post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) responses subjected to side impact conditions. Based on those newly available PMHS data, Maltese generated a new approach for creating bio-fidelity corridors for human surrogates. The approach incorporates the time factor into the evaluation equation and automates the process (Maltese et al. 2002). This paper serves as the first attempt to look closely at the new bio-fidelity corridor generation process (hereafter referred as the Maltese approach) with respect to its validity, effectiveness, as well as its practicality. The effect of mass scaling was first examined in order to ensure the integrity of the data. The time alignment scheme and the formation of the corridors were then tested.
Technical Paper

Managing Road Load Data & The Process

2005-04-11
2005-01-0828
Faced with an ever increasing supply of road load data and no reasonable means to keep track of it, Managing Road Load Data and The Process is about one engineer's charge to deliver a solution. This paper summarizes the approach taken by this engineer and his team to produce a system that not only provides a place to store their data, but facilitates the entire data collection, validation and dissemination process. By following the steps outlined in this document, virtually every opportunity for improvement will be identified. That is, the process is thoroughly explored; the wants and needs of the users are identified, and then, as warranted, turned into functional elements of the system. The result is a central repository that is accessible to all and with the capability of significantly reducing cost and timing. The development process presented here is not a difficult one to accomplish, but does require keeping track of a lot of detail. It can therefore be quite time consuming.
Technical Paper

CAE Fatigue Prediction of Fuel Tank Straps using Proving Ground Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-1405
The durability of fuel tank straps is essential for vehicle safety. Extensive physical tests are conducted to verify designs for durability. Due to the complexity of the loads and the fuel-to-tank interaction, computer-aided-engineering (CAE) simulation has had limited application in this area. This paper presents a CAE method for fuel tank strap durability prediction. It discusses the analytical loads, modeling of fuel-to-tank interaction, dynamic analysis methods, and fatigue analysis methods. Analysis results are compared to physical test results. This method can be used in either a fuel-tank-system model or a full vehicle model. It can give directional design guidance for fuel tank strap durability in the early stages of product development to reduce vehicle development costs.
Technical Paper

Repairable System Reliability Prediction

2004-03-08
2004-01-0457
For a vehicle or repairable system, incidents (conditions) are neither necessarily independent nor identically distributed. Therefore, traditional statistical distributions like Weibull, Normal, etc, are no longer valid to estimate reliability. The Non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) model can be used to predict reliability and warranty of the field product. It can also measure the reliability improvement during the development cycle. The NHPP model is discussed in this paper. In applying a NHHP model to reliability data on a repairable system, one may have few or no failures. This paper presents the I/100 and reliability derivations when the parameter β in the ROCOF function is assumed to have a known value.
Technical Paper

A Graphical Representation of Road Profile Characteristics

2004-03-08
2004-01-0769
Load data representing severe customer usage is required during the chassis development process. One area of current research is the use of road profiles for predicting chassis loads. The most direct method of predicting these loads is to run dynamic simulations of the vehicle using numerous road profiles as the excitation. This onerous task may be avoided, and a greatly reduced number of simulations would be required, if roads having similar characteristics can be grouped. Currently, road profiles are characterized by their spectral content. It has been noted by several researches, however, that road profiles are generally nonstationary signals that contain significant transient events and are not well described in the spectral domain. The objective of this work, then, is to develop a method by which the characteristics of the road can be captured by describing these constitutive transient events.
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