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Technical Paper

A Target Cascading Method Using Model Based Simulation in Early Stage of Vehicle Development

2019-04-02
2019-01-0836
In the early stages of vehicle development, it is important for decision makers to understand a feasible constraint region that satisfies all system level requirements. The purpose of this paper is to propose a target cascading method to solve for a feasible design region which satisfies all constraints of the system based on model based simulation. In this method, the feasible design region is explored by using both global optimization methods and active learning techniques. In optimization problems, the inverse problem for understanding feasibility for specific designs is defined and solved. To determine the objective functions of the inverse problem, an index representing the achievement level of constraints from system requirements is introduced. To predict feasible regions in the specific design space, a surrogate model of minimized values of the index is trained by using a kriging model.
Technical Paper

A Study of Triple Skyhook Control for Semi-Active Suspension System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0168
The research described in this paper focused on improving occupant ride comfort and road holding by suppressing sprung and unsprung vibration using a semi-active suspension system. It has been reported that occupants tend to perceive vertical vibrations in a frequency range between 4 and 8 Hz as uncomfortable (described below as the “mid-frequency range”). Previous research into semi-active suspension system has focused on reducing vibration in this mid-frequency range, as well as close to the sprung resonance frequency of between 1 and 2 Hz. Skyhook damper (SH) control is a typical ride comfort control used to damp vibration close to the sprung resonance frequency. However, since SH control is not capable of damping vibration in the mid-frequency range, the shock absorbers are configured with a lower damping factor. This helps to achieve a good balance between reducing vibration close to the sprung mass resonance and in the mid-frequency range.
Technical Paper

Highly Decorative, Lightweight Flexible Solar Cells for Automotive Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0863
The strict CO2 emission limit for passenger cars have been set by US, EU, Japan, China and other countries. In order to meet the requirement, it is essential to develop an alternative power source for the future cars. Power generation by solar panels is a promising renewable energy candidate because the most environmentally friendly vehicles such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are equipped with large-capacity batteries that can be charged with electricity generated by solar panels. The requirements for the solar panels are paintable with desired color and to be lightweight. In this study, we developed a simple lift-off process for producing colorful and lightweight Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for future automotive application. Our measurements show that the developed lift-off process can provide the lightweight solar panel that have nearly identical performance compared to that of the cell before the lift-off process.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

2018-04-03
2018-01-1033
To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.
Technical Paper

A Java Implementation of Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) Fuel Economy Simulation Code Modules

2018-04-03
2018-01-0412
Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a free and open-source tool developed by National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). Among the attractive capabilities of the FASTSim is that it can perform computationally efficient fuel economy simulations of automotive vehicles with reasonable accuracy for standard or arbitrary drive cycles. The modeling capability includes vehicles with various types of powertrains such as: conventional vehicles (CVs), hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). The public version of FASTSim available from NREL is implemented in Excel, which achieves the goal of good accessibility to a broad audience, but has some limitations, including: i) bottleneck in computations when importing arbitrary drive cycles, ii) slower computations in general than other scripting or programming languages, and iii) less portable to integration with other applications and/or other platforms.
Journal Article

A Study on Optimal Powertrain Sizing of Plugin Hybrid Vehicles for Minimizing Criteria Emissions Associated with Cold Starts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0406
Plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have several attractive features in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles (CVs) that only have an internal combustion engine (ICE), PHEVs have better energy efficiency like regular hybrids (HEVs), allow for electrifying an appreciable portion of traveled miles, and have no range anxiety issues like battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs). However, in terms of criteria emissions (e.g., NOx, NMOG, HC), it is unclear if PHEVs are any better than HEVs or CVs. Unlike GHG emissions, criteria emissions are not continuously emitted in proportional quantities to fossil fuel consumption. Rather, the amount and type of criteria emissions is a rather complex function of many factors, including type of fuel, ICE temperature, speed and torque, catalyst temperature, as well as the ICE controls (e.g., fuel-to-air ratio, valve and ignition timing).
Journal Article

Rubber Suspension Bushing Model Identified by General Design Parameters for Initial Design Phase

2018-04-03
2018-01-0693
This article proposes a rubber suspension bushing model considering amplitude dependence as a useful tool at the initial design phase. The purpose of this study is not to express physical phenomena accurately and in detail and to explore the truth academically, but to provide a useful design method for initial design phase. Experiments were carried out to verify several dynamic characteristics of rubber bushings under vibration up to a frequency of 100 Hz, which is an important frequency range when designing ride comfort performance. When dynamic characteristic theory and the geometrical properties of the force-displacement characteristic curve were considered using these dynamic characteristics as assumptions, an equation was derived that is capable of calculating the dynamic stiffness under an arbitrary amplitude by identifying only two general design parameters (dynamic stiffness and loss factor) under a reference amplitude.
Journal Article

Development of Engine Lubrication System with New Internal Gear Fully Variable Discharge Oil Pump

2017-10-08
2017-01-2431
Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction. Reducing friction under cold conditions is becoming more important in hybrid vehicle (HV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV) systems due to the lower oil temperatures of these systems, which results in higher friction loss. To help resolve this issue, a new internal gear fully variable discharge oil pump (F-VDOP) was developed. This new oil pump can control the oil pressure freely over a temperature range from -10°C to hot conditions. At 20°C, this pump lowers the minimum main gallery pressure to 100 kPa, thereby achieving a friction reduction effect of 1.4 Nm. The developed oil pump achieves a pressure response time constant of 0.17 seconds when changing the oil pressure from 120 kPa to 200 kPa at a temperature of 20°C and an engine speed of 1,600 rpm.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Transmission Loss for Lightweight Body Structures

2017-06-05
2017-01-1812
In an effort to reduce mass, future automotive bodies will feature lower gage steel or lighter weight materials such as aluminum. An unfortunate side effect of lighter weight bodies is a reduction in sound transmission loss (TL). For barrier based systems, as the total system mass (including the sheet metal, decoupler, and barrier) goes down the transmission loss is reduced. If the reduced surface density from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, however, performance can be restored (though, of course, this eliminates the mass savings). In fact, if all of the saved mass from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, the TL performance may be improved over the original system. This is because the optimum performance for a barrier based system is achieved when the sheet metal and the barrier have equal surface densities. That is not the case for standard steel constructions where the surface density of the sheet metal is higher than the barrier.
Technical Paper

Electromigration of Ni Plating/Sn-0.7Cu Based Joint System of Power Modules for Hybrid Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1239
Power modules are used to operate three-phase alternating current motors in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. Good fuel efficiency and high power density are required in the field of hybrid vehicles. To achieve this goal, the miniaturization of the power module will be necessary. This trend may make a current density, which is created by insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and free wheel diodes (FWDs), higher in power modules. Solder is often used as the joint material of power modules. It is known that a current density larger than 10 kA/cm2 causes solder electromigration. This phenomenon may cause delamination of the joint area. In addition, the ambient temperature has an influence on electromigration. The temperature of an engine compartment is high, so it is likely to cause electromigration. However, the current density of the double-sided cooling power modules in 2007 with solder joint is lower than 0.4 kA/cm2, and this value is lower than 10 kA/cm2.
Technical Paper

Development of New Plug-In Hybrid Transaxle for Compact-Class Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1151
To help respond to growing customer demand for environmentally friendly vehicles, a new transaxle for plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) has been developed that achieves excellent fuel economy and ensures high performance when the PHV operates in electric vehicle (EV) mode. Under the basic concept of sharing a large number of parts with the transaxle in the all new Prius, the newly designed PHV transaxle was developed with the aim of enhancing EV power and range. To achieve our goal, the new transaxle uses a Dual Motor Drive System that operates the generator as a motor to supplement the existing motor. It also features an electrical oil pump (EOP) that improves cooling performance in EV mode. The developed transaxle helps to advance the PHV as a key next-generation environmentally friendly vehicle by maximizing the performance of the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) and achieving even better dynamic EV mode performance than the new Prius HV.
Technical Paper

Efficient Heat Pump System for PHEV/BEV

2017-03-28
2017-01-0188
As vehicle emission regulations become increasingly rigorous, the automotive industry is accelerating the development of electrified vehicle platforms such as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). Since the available waste heat from these vehicles is limited, additional heat sources such as electric heaters are needed for cabin heating operation. The use of a heat pump system is one of the solutions to improve EV driving range at cold ambient conditions. In this study, an efficient gas-injection heat pump system has been developed, which achieves high cabin heating performance at low ambient temperature and dehumidification operation without the assistance of electric heaters in ’17 model year Prius Prime.
Journal Article

Improvement of Ride Comfort by Unsprung Negative Skyhook Damper Control Using In-Wheel Motors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1678
Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors (IWMs) are capable of independent control of the driving force at each wheel. These vehicles can also control the motion of the sprung mass by driving force distribution using the suspension reaction force generated by IWM drive. However, one disadvantage of IWMs is an increase in unsprung mass. This has the effect of increasing vibrations in the 4 to 8 Hz range, which is reported to be uncomfortable to vehicle occupants, thereby reducing ride comfort. This research aimed to improve ride comfort through driving force control. Skyhook damper control is a typical ride comfort control method. Although this control is generally capable of reducing vibration around the resonance frequency of the sprung mass, it also has the trade-off effect of worsening vibration in the targeted mid-frequency 4 to 8 Hz range. This research aimed to improve mid-frequency vibration by identifying the cause of this adverse effect through the equations of motion.
Journal Article

Development of New Electronically Controlled Hydraulic Unit for Various Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1660
The use of hybrid, fuel cell electric, and pure electric vehicles is on the increase as part of measures to help reduce exhaust gas emissions and to help resolve energy issues. These vehicles use regenerative-friction brake coordination technology, which requires a braking system that can accurately control the hydraulic brakes in response to small changes in regenerative braking. At the same time, the spread of collision avoidance support technology is progressing at a rapid pace along with a growing awareness of vehicle safety. This technology requires braking systems that can apply a large braking force in a short time. Although brake systems that have both accurate hydraulic control and large braking force have been developed in the past, simplification is required to promote further adoption.
Journal Article

Development of a Parameter Identification Method for MF-Tyre/MF-Swift Applied to Parking and Low Speed Manoeuvres

2016-04-05
2016-01-1645
A vehicle parking manoeuvre is characterized by low or zero speed, small turning radius and large yaw velocity of the steered wheels. To predict the forces and moments generated by a wheel under these conditions, the Pacejka Magic Formula model has been extended to incorporate the effect of spin (turn slip model) in the past years. The extensions have been further developed and incorporated in the MFTyre/MF-Swift 6.2 model. This paper describes the development of a method for the identification of the turn slip parameters. Based on the operating conditions of a typical parking manoeuvre, the dominant parameters of the turn slip model are firstly defined. At an indoor test facility, the response of a tyre under the identified operating conditions is measured. An algorithm is developed to identify the dominant turn slip parameters from the measured responses.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Adhesion Properties between Epoxy Resin and Primer and between Primer and Ni Plating in Hybrid Vehicle Power Semiconductor Module under High Temperature Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0500
In this report, adhesion mechanism between epoxy resin and primer and between primer and Ni platting in Hybrid vehicle (HV) was investigated. Adhesion forces are thought to be a combination of mechanical bond forces (such as anchor effect), chemical bond forces and physical bond forces (such as hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals force). Currently there is insufficient understanding of the adhesion mechanism. In particular, the extent to which the three bond forces contribute to adhesion strength. So the adhesion mechanism of polyimide primers was analyzed using a number of different methods, including transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observation, to determine the contributions of the three bonding forces. Molecular simulation was also used to investigate the relationship between adhesion strength and the molecular structure of the primer.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight Soundproof Cover Using the Biot Theory (Vibration Propagation in Elastic Porous Materials), and an Example Application to a Transmission

2016-04-05
2016-01-0517
To reduce cabin noise and vehicle weight (for lower fuel consumption), a lightweight soundproofing cover was developed as a countermeasure to sources of noise, using the Biot theory (vibration propagation theory in poroelastic materials). This report also presents the results of its application to a metal belt-type continuously variable transmission (CVT) used in Toyota Motor Corporation’s 2.0L vehicles.
Journal Article

Analysis of Influence of Snow Melting Agents and Soil Components on Corrosion of Decorative Chrome Plating

2016-04-05
2016-01-0539
The dissolution and exfoliation of chromium plating specific to Russia was studied. Investigation and analysis of organic compounds in Russian soil revealed contents of highly concentrated fulvic acid. Additionally, it was found that fulvic acid, together with CaCl2 (a deicing agent), causes chromium plating corrosion. The fulvic acid generates a compound that prevents reformation of a passivation film and deteriorates the sacrificial corrosion effectiveness of nickel.
Technical Paper

Development of Gasoline Injector Cleaner for Port Fuel Injection and Direct Injection

2016-04-05
2016-01-0830
Port fuel injection (PFI) injector and direct fuel injection (DI) injector clogging from deposits caused by poor fuel quality, is a concern in emerging countries. Then DI injector deposits are sometimes cleaned by injector cleaners in such situation. However deposit cleaners for PFI injectors have not been developed, because of the lack of research of PFI injector deposits. Through chemical analysis, this study showed them to be water-soluble deposits. Subsequently success was achieved in developing a new gasoline injector cleaner applicable to injector deposits in both types of injectors, through optimization of a surface active agent.
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