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Standard

External Hydraulic Fluid Leakage Definition for Landing Gear Shock Absorbers

2018-07-25
CURRENT
ARP6408
The purpose of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is to provide a practical definition of external hydraulic fluid leakage exhibited by landing gear shock absorbers/struts. The definition will outline normal (acceptable weepage) and excessive leakage (unacceptable leakage) of shock absorbers/struts that is measurable. The definition of leakage is applicable to new gear assemblies, refurbished/remanufactured (overhauled) shock absorbers/struts, leakage of shock absorbers/struts encountered during acceptance flights, newly delivered and in-service aircraft. This ARP is intended to provide guidelines for acceptable leakage of landing gear shock absorbers/struts between the ambient temperatures of -65 °F (-54 °C) and 130 °F (54 °C) and to outline the procedure for measuring such leakage. The specific limits that are applied to any particular aircraft shall be adjusted by the aircraft manufacturer before inclusion in the applicable maintenance manual.
Standard

Landing Gear Structures and Mechanisms

2018-06-03
CURRENT
ARP1311D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes and other landing gear systems) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft. All axles, wheel forks, links, arms, mechanical and gas/oil shock struts, downlock and uplock assemblies, braces, trunnion beams, and truck beams, etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure, should be designed and validated in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, main and nose gear steering, positioning, damping, etc.) should also be included in this coverage. System level, non-structural components such as retraction/extension valves, controllers, secondary structure and mechanisms in the airframe (e.g., manual release mechanisms, slaved doors) as well as equipment that is located in the cockpit are not addressed in this ARP.
Standard

Historical Design Information of Aircraft Landing Gear and Control Actuation Systems

2017-07-10
CURRENT
AIR5565
This aerospace information report (AIR) provides historical design information for various aircraft landing gear and actuation/control systems that may be useful in the design of future systems for similar applications. It presents the basic characteristics, hardware descriptions, functional schematics, and discussions of the actuation mechanisms, controls, and alternate release systems. The report is divided into two basic sections: 1 Landing gear actuation system history from 1876 to the present. This section provides an overview and the defining examples that demonstrate the evolution of landing gear actuation systems to the present day. 2 This section of the report provides an in depth review of various aircraft. A summary table of aircraft detail contained within this section is provided in paragraph 4.1. The intent is to add new and old aircraft retraction/extension systems to this AIR as the data becomes available.
Standard

Tests, Impact, Shock Absorber Landing Gear, Aircraft

2012-10-03
CURRENT
AS6053A
This specification covers definition of landing impact tests which are to be conducted on landing gear assemblies including shock absorbers, suggested instrumentation for the tests and required data of the resulting test report. It is intended to standardize impact test procedures on landing gear shock absorbers and to provide sufficient data to allow evaluation of the design with respect to requirements of MIL-L-8552 and MIL-S-8959 as applicable.
Standard

Extraordinary and Special Purpose Landing Gear Systems

2012-10-03
CURRENT
AIR4846A
A landing gear system comprises the most compelling assembly of engineering skills. Its importance to the successful design of an aircraft can be favorably compared with that of the aircraft's wings and engines. A landing gear system consists of several different engineering disciplines, and is continually in the public eye especially with regard to safety. The primary objective of AIR4846 is to present a record of a variety of interesting gears, gear/aircraft systems and patents, and to discuss wherever possible the lessons learned, and the reasons for the design. Thus, the document is not only a historical account, but a means of recording technical knowledge for the practical benefit of future landing gear designers. Commendable efforts have been made over the years by several individuals to make such recordings, and AIR4846 will make continual reference to them. This applies to all books, papers, or specifications that have the approval of the SAE A-5 Committee.
Standard

Information on Hard Landings

2011-01-03
CURRENT
AIR5938
This document provides information on the current practices used by commercial and military operators in regards to hard landings (or overload events designated as hard landings). Since detailed information on inspections would be aircraft specific, this AIR provides only a general framework. Detailed information and procedures are available in the maintenance manuals for specific aircraft. Because hard landings potentially affect the entire aircraft, guidelines are listed here for non-landing gear areas. But, the primary focus of the document is the landing gear and related systems. The document may be considered to be applicable to all types of aircraft. This document does NOT provide recommended practices for hard landing inspections, nor does it provide recommendations on the disposition of damaged equipment. Refer to ARP 4915 and ARP 5600.
Standard

Crashworthy Landing Gear Design

2010-05-04
CURRENT
AIR4566A
The intent of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to document the design requirements and approaches for the crashworthy design of aircraft landing gear. This document covers the field of commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of crashworthy landing gear design requirements and approaches may be used as a reference for future aircraft.
Standard

Landing Gear Structures and Mechanisms

2009-02-04
HISTORICAL
ARP1311C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes and other landing gear systems) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft. All axles, wheel forks, links, arms, mechanical and gas/oil shock struts, downlock and uplock assemblies, braces, trunnion beams, and truck beams etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure, should be designed and validated in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, main and nose gear steering, positioning, damping, etc.) should also be included in this coverage. System level, non-structural components such as retraction/extension valves, controllers, secondary structure and mechanisms in the airframe (e.g., manual release mechanisms, slaved doors) as well as equipment that is located in the cockpit are not addressed in this ARP.
Standard

Extraordinary and Special Purpose Landing Gear Systems

2006-05-19
HISTORICAL
AIR4846
A landing gear system comprises the most compelling assembly of engineering skills. Its importance to the successful design of an aircraft can be favorably compared with that of the aircraft's wings and engines. A landing gear system consists of several different engineering disciplines, and is continually in the public eye especially with regard to safety. The primary objective of AIR4846 is to present a record of a variety of interesting gears, gear/aircraft systems and patents, and to discuss wherever possible the lessons learned, and the reasons for the design. Thus, the document is not only a historical account, but a means of recording technical knowledge for the practical benefit of future landing gear designers. Commendable efforts have been made over the years by several individuals to make such recordings, and AIR4846 will make continual reference to them. This applies to all books, papers, or specifications that have the approval of the SAE A-5 Committee.
Standard

Aircraft Landing Gear

1999-06-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1311B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft including all aircraft with vertical landing and crash attenuation requirements. All axles, wheel forks, axle beams, links, arms, mechanical and nitrogen/oil energy absorbers, lock assemblies, braces, trunnion beams, and truck beams etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure, should be designed in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, main and nose gear steering, positioning, and/or damping) should also be included in this coverage.
Standard

Aircraft Nosewheel Steering Systems

1997-03-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1595A
This document provides recommended practices for the design, development, and verification testing of aircraft nosewheel steering (NWS) systems.
Standard

Aircraft Nosewheel Steering/Centering Systems

1996-06-01
CURRENT
AIR1752A
The intent of this AIR is twofold: (1) to present descriptive summary of aircraft nosewheel steering and centering systems, and (2) to provide a discussion of problems encountered and “lessons learned” by various airplane manufacturers and users. This document covers both military aircraft (land-based and ship-based) and commercial aircraft. It is intended that the document be continually updated as new aircraft and/or new “lessons learned” become available.
Standard

AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR

1995-01-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1311A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft applications. All axles, wheel forks, axle beams, links, arms, mechanical and air-oil energy absorbers braces, lock assemblies, trunnion beams, etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure should be designed in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, steering, positioning, and/or damping) should also be included in this coverage. It should be the responsibility of the airframe manufacturer to determine the compatibility of these needs with the aircraft and to specify requirements in excess of these minima where appropriate.
Standard

Crashworthy Landing Gear Design

1992-07-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4566
The intent of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to document the design requirements and approaches for the crashworthy design of aircraft landing gear. This document covers the field of commercial and military airplanes and helicopters. This summary of crashworthy landing gear design requirements and approaches may be used as a reference for future aircraft.
Standard

AIRCRAFT NOSE WHEEL STEERING/CENTERING SYSTEMS

1991-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1752
This document covers both military aircraft (land-based and ship-based) and commercial aircraft. It is intended that the document be continually updated as new aircraft and/or new "lessons learned" become available.
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