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Technical Paper

Comparing Large Eddy Simulation of a Reacting Fuel Spray with Measured Quantitative Flame Parameters

2018-09-10
2018-01-1720
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions, it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels from renewable sources. For identifying the specification of an optimized fuel for engine combustion, it is essential to understand the details of combustion and pollutant formation. For obtaining a better understanding of the flame behavior, dynamic structure large eddy simulations are a method of choice. In the investigation presented in this paper, an n-heptane spray flame is simulated under engine relevant conditions starting at a pressure of 50 bar and a temperature of 800 K. Measurements are conducted at a high-pressure vessel with the same conditions. Liquid penetration length is measured with Mie-Scatterlight, gaseous penetration length with Shadowgraphy and lift-off length as well as ignition delay with OH*-Radiation. In addition to these global high-speed measurement techniques, detailed spectroscopic laser measurements are conducted at the n-heptane flame.
Technical Paper

1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0163
Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled. Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biofuels on the Mixture Formation and Ignition Process in Diesel-Like Jets

2017-10-08
2017-01-2332
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this paper, several fuels were selected which can be produced out of biomass or with hydrogen which is generated directly via electrolysis with electricity from renewable sources. All fuels are compared to conventional diesel fuel and two diesel surrogates. It is well known that there can be a large effect of fuel properties on mixture formation and combustion, which may result in a completely different engine performance compared to the operation with conventional diesel fuels. Mixture formation and ignition behavior can also largely affect the pollutant formation. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is also important to design new engine geometries or implement new calibrations for an existing engine. The fuel properties of the investigated fuels comprise a large range, for example in case of the derived cetane number, from below 30 up to 100.
Journal Article

Assessment of the Full Thermodynamic Potential of C8-Oxygenates for Clean Diesel Combustion

2017-09-04
2017-24-0118
Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” (TMFB) at the RWTH Aachen University, two novel biogenic fuels, namely 1-octanol and its isomer dibutyl ether (DBE), were identified and extensively analyzed in respect of their suitability for combustion in a Diesel engine. Both biofuels feature very different properties, especially regarding their ignitability. In previous works of the research cluster, promising synthesis routes with excellent yields for both fuels were found, using lignocellulosic biomass as source material. Both fuels were investigated as pure components in optical and thermodynamic single cylinder engines (SCE). For 1-octanol at lower part load, almost no soot emission could be measured, while with DBE the soot emissions were only about a quarter of that with conventional Diesel fuel. At high part load (2400 min-1, 14.8 bar IMEP), the soot reduction of 1-octanol was more than 50% and for DBE more than 80 % respectively.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Tailor-Made Fuels in an Optical Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0711
The influence of two oxygenated tailor-made fuels on soot formation and oxidation in an optical single cylinder research diesel engine has been studied. For the investigation a planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurement technique was applied to the engine in order to detect and evaluate the planar soot distribution for the two bio fuels within a laser light sheet. Furthermore the OH* chemiluminescence and broad band soot luminosity was visualized by high speed imaging to compare the ignition and combustion behavior of tested fuels: Two C8 oxygenates, di-n-butylether (DNBE) and 1-octanol. Both fuels have the same molecular formula but differ in their molecular structure. DNBE ignites fast and burns mostly diffusive while 1-octanol has a low cetane number and therefore it has a longer ignition delay but a more homogeneous mixture at time of ignition. The two bio fuels were finally compared to conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Internal and External Measures for Catalyst Light-Off Support

2015-09-06
2015-24-2501
Within a project of the Research Association for Combustion Engines e.V., different measures for rising the temperature of exhaust gas aftertreatment components of both a passenger car and an industrial/commercial vehicle engine were investigated on a test bench as well as in simulation. With the passenger car diesel engine and different catalyst configurations, the potential of internal and external heating measures was evaluated. The configuration consisting of a NOx storage catalyst (NSC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) illustrates the potential of an electrically heated NSC. The exhaust aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a DPF shows in simulation how variable valve timing in combination with electric heated DOC can be used to increase the exhaust gas temperature and thus fulfill the EU6 emission limits.
Journal Article

Cylinder Pressure Based Fuel Path Control for Non-Conventional Combustion Modes

2015-09-06
2015-24-2508
Model-based control strategies along with an adapted calibration process become more important in the overall vehicle development process. The main drivers for this development trend are increasing numbers of vehicle variants and more complex engine hardware, which is required to fulfill the more and more stringent emission legislation and fuel consumption norms. Upcoming fundamental changes in the homologation process with EU 6c, covering an extended range of different operational and ambient conditions, are suspected to intensify this trend. One main reason for the increased calibration effort is the use of various complex aftertreatment technologies amongst different vehicle applications, requiring numerous combustion modes. The different combustion modes range from heating strategies for active Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration or early SCR light-off and rich combustion modes to purge the NOx storage catalyst (NSC) up to partially premixed combustion modes.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine by In-Cylinder Blending of Ethanol and Diesel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1801
This study investigated dual-fuel operation with a light duty Diesel engine over a wide engine load range. Ethanol was hereby injected into the intake duct, while Diesel was injected directly into the cylinder. At low loads, high ethanol shares are critical in terms of combustion stability and emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. As the load increases, the rates of heat release become problematic with regard to noise and mechanical stress. At higher loads, an advanced injection of Diesel was found to be beneficial in terms of combustion noise and emissions. For all tests, engine-out NOx emissions were kept within the EU-6.1 limit.
Journal Article

Nitric Oxide Measurements in the Core of Diesel Jets Using a Biofuel Blend

2015-04-14
2015-01-0597
Maintaining low NOx emissions over the operating range of diesel engines continues to be a major issue. However, optical measurements of nitric oxide (NO) are lacking particularly in the core of diesel jets, i.e. in the region of premixed combustion close to the spray axis. This is basically caused by severe attenuation of both the laser light and fluorescent emission in laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) applications. Light extinction is reduced by keeping absorption path lengths relatively short in this work, by investigating diesel jets in a combustion vessel instead of an engine. Furthermore, the NO-detection threshold is improved by conducting 1-d line measurements instead of 2-d imaging. The NO-LIF data are corrected for light attenuation by combined LIF and spontaneous Raman scattering. The quantified maximum light attenuation is significantly lower than in comparable previous works, and its wavelength dependence is surprisingly weak.
Journal Article

Mixture-Formation Analysis by PLIF in an HSDI Diesel Engine Using C8-Oxygenates as the Fuel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0960
With increasing interest in new biofuel candidates, 1-octanol and di-n-butylether (DNBE) were presented in recent studies. Although these molecular species are isomers, their properties are substantially different. In contrast to DNBE, 1-octanol is almost a gasoline-type fuel in terms of its auto-ignition quality. Thus, there are problems associated with engine start-up for neat 1-octanol. In order to find a suitable glow-plug position, mixture formation is studied in the cylinder under almost idle operating conditions in the present work. This is conducted by planar laser-induced fluorescence in a high-speed direct-injection optical diesel engine. The investigated C8-oxygenates are also significantly different in terms of their evaporation characteristics. Thus, in-cylinder mixture formation of these two species is compared in this work, allowing conclusions on combustion behavior and exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Transport and Mixing Phenomena in Turbulent Flows in Closed Domains

2015-04-14
2015-01-0399
In this work, a transport and mixing model that calculates mixing in thermodynamic phase space was derived and validated. The mixing in thermodynamic multizone space is consistent to the one in the spatially resolved physical space. The model is developed using a turbulent channel flow as simplified domain. This physical domain of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is divided into zones based on the quantitative value of transported scalars. Fluxes between the zones are introduced to describe mixing from the transport equation of the probability density function based on the mixing process in physical space. The mixing process of further scalars can then be carried out with these fluxes instead of solving additional transport equations. The relationship between the exchange flux in phase space and the concept of scalar dissipation are shown and validated by comparison to DNS results.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of Lignin and Cellulose Based Oxygenated Fuels in a Compression-Ignition Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0910
Lignocellulosic biomass consists of (hemi-) cellulose and lignin. Accordingly, an integrated biorefinery will seek to valorize both streams into higher value fuels and chemicals. To this end, this study evaluated the overall combustion performance of both cellulose- and lignin derivatives, namely the high cetane number (CN) di-n-butyl ether (DnBE) and low CN anisole, respectively. Said compounds were blended both separately and together with EN590 diesel. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder compression ignition engine, which has been optimized for improved combustion characteristics with respect to low emission levels and at the same time high fuel efficiency. The selected operating conditions have been adopted from previous “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB)” work.
Journal Article

Probing Species Formed by Pilot Injection During Re-Compression in a Controlled Auto-Ignition Engine by H2CO LIF and Chemiluminescence Imaging

2014-04-01
2014-01-1275
Pilot injection (PI) during the negative-valve-overlap (NVO) period is one method to improve control of combustion in gasoline controlled auto-ignition engines. This is generally attributed to both chemical and thermal effects. However, there are little experimental data on active species formed by the combusting PI and their effect on main combustion in real engines. Thus, it is the objective of the current study to apply and assess optical in-cylinder diagnostics for these species. Firstly, the occurrence and nature of combustion during the NVO period is investigated by spectrally-resolved multi-species flame luminescence measurements. OH*, CH*, HCO*, CO-continuum chemiluminescence, and soot luminosity are recorded. Secondly, spectrally-, spatially-, and cycle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements of formaldehyde are conducted. It is attempted to find a cycle-resolved measure of the chemical effect of PI.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Combination of Fuel Properties for a DI-Diesel Engine Under Partly Homogeneous Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1685
Partly homogeneous combustion (PHC) can assist the reduction of the engine-out emissions but its influence is limited by using conventional diesel fuel. To verify whether alternatively designed fuels can help to improve the PHC performance, the impact of different fuel properties in combination with engine control levers have been studied. Based on single cylinder heavy duty direct injection diesel engine (DIDE) test results with different diesel and diesel-like fuels, operating under partly homogeneous combustion conditions, the impact of the combination of the fuel properties were investigated. The fuel matrix was designed such that the fuel properties varied in sufficiently large ranges, in order to be able to detect the impact of the properties at the selected operating points. A statistical principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied to the fuel matrix to specify the interrelationship between the fuel properties, as well as to derive the most independent fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Model Predictions with Temperature Data Sensed On-Board from the Li-ion Polymer Cells of an Electric Vehicle

2012-05-15
2011-01-2443
One of the challenges faced when using Li-ion batteries in electric vehicles is to keep the cell temperatures below a given threshold. Mathematical modeling would indeed be an efficient tool to test virtually this requirement and accelerate the battery product lifecycle. Moreover, temperature predicting models could potentially be used on-board to decrease the limitations associated with sensor based temperature feedbacks. Accordingly, we present a complete modeling procedure which was used to calculate the cell temperatures during a given electric vehicle trip. The procedure includes a simple vehicle dynamics model, an equivalent circuit battery model, and a 3D finite element thermal model. Model parameters were identified from measurements taken during constant current and pulse current discharge tests. The cell temperatures corresponding to an actual electric vehicle trip were calculated and compared with measured values.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Optical Analysis of Oil Dilution in Diesel Regeneration Operation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1844
High levels of exhaust temperature or rich mixtures are necessary for the regeneration of today's diesel particulate filters or NOx catalysts. Therefore, late main injection or post injection is an effective strategy but leads to the well-known problem of lubricating oil dilution depending on the geometry, rail pressure and injection strategy. In this paper a method is developed to simulate fuel entrainment into the lubricating oil wall film in the diesel combustion chamber to predict oil dilution in an early design stage prior to hardware availability for durability testing. The simulation method integrates a newly developed droplet-film interaction model and is compared to results of an optical single-cylinder diesel engine and a similar thermodynamic single-cylinder test engine. Phenomena of diesel post injection like igniting early post injection or split post injections with short energizing times are considered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuel Properties on the Performance of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine under Part Homogeneous Operating Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1358
Tightening of emission norms necessitate intensified research in the field of emissions reduction. Fuel research opens up a vast area of potential improvement, since combustion behavior and the nature of the combustion products can be heavily influenced by fuel composition. In this paper, the effects of fuel properties on combustion and emissions shall be discussed, based on the study of standard diesel fuel, two types of diesel-like fuels and a kerosene fuel. Investigations were conducted on a single cylinder heavy duty direct-injected diesel engine operating under part-homogeneous combustion in the part-load operating range. For this purpose, a statistical design of experiments method (DOE) was utilized in order to evaluate the influence of each fuel property and, thus, develop a model for all selected fuels. Variation in EGR rates, injection and air patterns have significant effects on the combustion in the fuels under investigation.
Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1391
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Fuel Properties and Sensitivity Analysis of Non-Aromatic and Aromatic Fuels Used in a Single Cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0333
Fuel properties are always considered as one of the main factors to diesel engines concerning performance and emission discussions. There are still challenges for researchers to identify the most correlating and non-correlating fuel properties and their effects on engine behavior. Statistical analyses have been applied in this study to derive the most un-correlating properties. In parallel, sensitivity analysis was performed for the fuel properties as well as to the emission and performance of the engine. On one hand, two different analyses were implemented; one with consideration of both, non-aromatic and aromatic fuels, and the other were performed separately for each individual fuel group. The results offer a different influence on each type of analysis. Finally, by considering both methods, most common correlating and non-correlating properties have been derived.
Journal Article

Optical and Thermodynamic Investigations of Reference Fuels for Future Combustion Systems

2010-10-25
2010-01-2193
The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. An investigation program is carried out to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. In this paper, fundamental results of the Diesel engine relevant combustion are presented. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different reference fuels have been investigated. The fundamental effects of different physical and chemical properties on emission formation and engine performance are investigated using a thermodynamic diesel single cylinder research engine and an optically-accessible combustion vessel. Depending on the chain length and molecular structure, fuel compounds vary in cetane number, boiling temperature etc. Therefore, different hydrocarbons including n-heptane, n-dodecane, and l-decanol were investigated.
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