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Technical Paper

Development of an Open Source C++ Toolkit for Full-Scale Diesel Particulate Filter Simulation

2009-09-13
2009-24-0137
Multi-dimensional simulation of hydrodynamics in full-scale wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters by GpenFQAM®, an open-source C++ object-oriented CFD code, is presented. A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver has been developed by authors to simulate flows through porous media and it has been tested for the simulation of diesel particulate filters; errors caused by discretization of filter monoliths have been corrected by the formulation of a correction factor, that has been included in the solver. A set of experimental data, available from literature, has been used for code validation.
Technical Paper

Modeling of silencers for internal combustion engines: 1D-3D coupling, network of 1D elements and a generic 3D cell approach

2009-09-13
2009-24-0133
Increasing demands on the capabilities of engine simulation and the ability to accurately predict both performance and acoustics has lead to the development of multiple approaches, ranging from fully 3D to simplified 1D models. In this work it will be described the development and application of hybrid 1D-3D approaches and an innovative one based on the 3D cell element. This is designed to model the acoustics of intake and exhaust system components used in internal combustion engines. Models of components are built using a network or grid of 3D cells based primarily on the geometry of the system. This means that these models can be built without fundamental knowledge of acoustically equivalent systems making their range of application larger as well as making them simpler to construct. Due to the 3D nature of these models it is also possible to predict higher order modes and improve the accuracy of models at high frequencies compared to conventional plane wave approaches.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Dimensional Parallel Solver for Full-Scale DPF Modeling in OpenFOAM®

2009-06-15
2009-01-1965
A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver for reacting and compressible flows through porous media has been developed in the OpenFOAM® (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) CFD Toolbox. With respect to the macroscopic model for porous media originally available in OpenFOAM®, a different mathematical approach has been followed: the new implemented solver makes use of the physical normal components resulting from the velocity expansion in the unit orthogonal vector basis to compute the Darcy pressure drop across the porous medium. Also, an additional sink term to account for the increased flow friction over the porous wall has been included into the momentum equation. In the new solver, the pressure correction equation is still able to achieve a faster convergency at very low permeability of the medium, also when it is associated with grid non-orthogonality.
Journal Article

A Coupled 1D-multiD Nonlinear Simulation of I.C. Engine Silencers with Perforates and Sound-Absorbing Material

2009-04-20
2009-01-0305
Nowadays a great attention is paid to the level and quality of noise radiated from the tailpipe end of intake and exhaust systems, to control the gas dynamic noise emitted by the engine as well as the characteristics of the cabin interior sound. The muffler geometry can be optimized consequently, to attenuate or remark certain spectral components of the engine noise, according to the result expected. Evidently the design of complex silencing systems is a time-consuming operation, which must be carried out by means of concurrent experimental measurements and numerical simulations. In particular, 1D and multiD linear/non-linear simulation codes can be applied to predict the silencer behavior in the time and frequency domain. This paper describes the development of a 1D-multiD integrated approach for the simulation of complex muffler configurations such as reverse chambers with inlet and outlet pipe extensions and perforated silencers with the addition of sound absorbing material.
Journal Article

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Reacting Flows inside Three-Way Catalytic Converters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1510
In this work a detailed model to simulate the transient behavior of catalytic converters is presented. The model is able to predict the unsteady and reacting flows in the exhaust ducts, by solving the system of conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and transport of reacting chemical species. The en-gine and the intake system have not been included in the simulation, imposing the measured values of mass flow, gas temperature and chemical composition as a boundary condition at the inlet of the exhaust system. A detailed analysis of the diffusion stage triggering is proposed along with simplifications of the physics, finalized to the reduction of the calculation time. Submodels for water condensation and its following evaporation on the monolith surface have been taken into account as well as oxygen storage promoted by ceria oxides.
Journal Article

Modeling of Silencers for I.C. Engine Intake and Exhaust Systems by Means of an Integrated 1D-multiD Approach

2008-04-14
2008-01-0677
This paper describes the development of a fully 1D and of a 1D-multiD integrated approach for the simulation of complex muffler configurations. The fully 1D approach aims to model the muffler recurring to an equivalent net of 1D pipes. An expansion chamber with offset inlet and outlet pipes was modeled with this preocedure and the resuts compared to CFD simulations, pointing out some critical aspects in the TL prediction. The HLLC Riemann solver and its extension to the second order were implemented both in the 1D and multiD models and exploited to handle the interface between the calculation domains. The integrated 1D-multiD approach was used afterwards to predict the transmission loss of more complex geometries such as series chambers with extended inlet and outlet pipes and with flow reversals. A new procedure has been adopted to calculate the transmission loss, imposing a pressure impulse at the inlet and evaluating the response of the muffler.
Journal Article

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of the Soot Deposition Mechanism in Diesel Particulate Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0444
A computational, three-dimensional approach to investigate the behavior of diesel soot particles in the micro-channels of wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters is presented. The KIVA3V CFD code, already extended to solve the 2D conservation equations for porous media materials [1], has been enhanced to solve in 2-D and 3-D the governing equations for reacting and compressible flows through porous media in non axes-symmetric geometries. With respect to previous work [1], a different mathematical approach has been followed in the implementation of the numerical solver for porous media, in order to achieve a faster convergency as source terms were added to the governing equations. The Darcy pressure drop has been included in the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation has been extended to account for the thermal exchange between the gas flow and the porous wall.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Validation of a Combustion Model with Detailed Chemistry for Knock Predictions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0938
Aim of this work is to develop a general purpose model for combustion and knocking prediction in SI engines, by coupling a thermo-fluid dynamic model for engine simulation with a general detailed kinetic scheme, including the low-temperature oxidation mechanism, for the prediction of the auto-ignition behavior of hydrocarbons. A quasi-D approach is used to describe the in-cylinder thermodynamic processes, applying the conservation of mass and energy over the cylinder volume, modeled as a single open system. The complex chemistry model has been embedded into the code, by using the same integration algorithm for the conservation equations and the reacting species, and taking into account their mutual interaction in the energy balance. A flame area evolution predictive approach is used to evaluate the turbulent flame front propagation as function of the engine operating parameters.
Technical Paper

Integrated 1D-MultiD Fluid Dynamic Models for the Simulation of I.C.E. Intake and Exhaust Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0495
This work describes the development, application and coupling of two different numerical codes, respectively based on a 1D (Gasdyn) and 3D (OpenFOAM) schematization of the geometrical domain. They have been adopted for the prediction of the wave motion inside the intake and the exhaust systems of internal combustion engines. The HLLC Riemann solver has been implemented both in the CFD and the 1D codes to solve the Euler system of equations, in order to operate with the same solver on the different calculation domains. Moreover, the HLLC solver has been applied to treat the boundary conditions at the interface between the two domains, in such a way to allow the propagation of flow disuniformities through the domain interface, without affecting the solution accuracy. The hybrid approach was used for the simulation of two different test cases: a complex 5 into 1 pipe junction of a high performance V10 engine and a Venturi tube plus a Helmholtz resonator of a single cylinder S.I. engine.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modeling of Knock Properties in Internal Combustion Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3239
This work presents a general model for the prediction of octane numbers and knock propensity of different fuels in SI engines. A detailed kinetic scheme of hydrocarbon oxidation is coupled with a two zone, 1-D thermo-fluid dynamic simulation code (GASDYN) [1]. The validation of the kinetic scheme is discussed on the basis of recent experimental measurements. CFR engine simulations for RON and MON evaluation are presented first to demonstrate the capabilities of the coupled model. The model is then used to compare the knock propensity of a gasoline “surrogate” (a pure hydrocarbon mixture) and PRFs in a current commercial engine, resulting in a simulation of “real world” octane number determination, such as Bench Octane Number (BON). The simulation results agree qualitatively with typical experimental trends.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of the Hydrodynamics and of the Regeneration Mechanism in Continuous Regenerating Traps

2006-09-14
2006-01-3011
The present work focuses on the simulation of the hydrodynamics, transient filtration/loading and catalytic/NO2-assisted regeneration of Diesel after-treatment systems. A 1D unsteady model for compressible and reacting flows for the numerical simulation of the behavior of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOCs) and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) has been developed. The numerical model is able to keep track of the amount of soot in the flow; the increasing of back-pressure through the exhaust system (mainly due to the Diesel Particulate Filter) can be predicted by the calculation of the permeability variation of the porous wall, as the soot particles goes inside the DPF. A sub-model for the regeneration of the collected soot has been developed: the collected particulate is oxidized by the Oxygen (O2) and by the Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2).
Technical Paper

A 1D Unsteady Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Approach for the Simulation of the Hydrodynamics of Diesel Particulate Filters

2006-04-03
2006-01-0262
A new approach for the fluid-dynamic simulation of the Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) has been developed. A mathematical model has been formulated as a system of nonlinear partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for unsteady, compressible and reacting flows, in order to predict the hydrodynamic characteristics of the DPF and to study the soot deposition mechanism. In particular, the mass conservation equations have been solved for each chemical component considered, and the advection of information concerning the chemical composition of the gas has been figured out for each computational mesh. A sub-model for the prediction of the soot cake formation has been developed and predictions of soot deposition profiles have been calculated for different loading conditions. The results of the simulations, namely the calculated pressure drop, have been compared with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Attenuation Characteristics of I.C. Engine Silencers by 1-D and Multi-D Simulation Models

2006-04-03
2006-01-1541
This paper describes the development, application and comparison of two different non-linear numerical codes, respectively based on a 1D and 3D schematization of the geometrical domain, for the prediction of the acoustic behavior of common silencing devices for i.c. engine pulse noise abatement. A white noise approach has been adopted and applied to predict the attenuation curves of silencers in the frequency domain, while a non-reflecting boundary condition was used to represent an anechoic termination. Expansion chambers, Helmholtz and column resonators, Herschel-Quincke tubes have been simulated by both the 1D and the 3D codes and the results compared to the available linear acoustic analytical solutions. Finally, a hybrid approach, in which the CFD code has been integrated with the 1D model, is described and applied to the simulation of a single cylinder engine. The computed results are compared to the measured pressure waves and emitted sound pressure level spectra.
Technical Paper

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modelling of a S.I. Engine Exhaust System for the Prediction of Warm-Up and Emission Conversion during a NEDC Cycle

2005-09-11
2005-24-073
This work describes an experimental and numerical investigation of the thermal transient of i.c. engine exhaust systems. A prototype of exhaust system has been investigated during a NEDC cycle in two different configurations. Firstly an uncoated catalyst has been adopted to consider only the effect of the gas-wall heat transfer. The measurements have been repeated on the same exhaust system equipped with a coated catalyst to point out the contribution of the chemical reactions to the thermal transient of the system. The measured values have been compared to the predicted results carried out with a 1D thermo fluid dynamic code, developed in-house to account for the thermal transient of the system and the chemical reactions occurring in the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis and 1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of a High Performance Lamborghini V10 S.I. Engine

2005-09-11
2005-24-081
This paper describes some recent advances in the field of I.C. engine modeling and simulation, concerning the development and application of a 1D thermo-fluid dynamic research code. An extensive experimental analysis has been concurrently carried out, to support the development and validation of the simulation code. A four-stroke, 10V-cylinder, 5.0 liters automotive S.I. engine has been modeled, in order to predict not only the wave motion in the system and its influence on the cylinder gas exchange process, but also the in-cylinder pressure to get a good prediction of pollutant emission concentration along the exhaust system. The gas composition in the exhaust pipe system is dictated by the cylinder discharge process, after the calculation of the combustion process via a thermodynamic multi-zone model, based on a fractal approach to predict the turbulent combustion.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modeling and Experimental Investigation of a Turbocharged Common Rail DI Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0689
The paper describes the results of a parallel 1D thermo-fluid dynamic simulation and experimental investigation of a DI turbocharged Diesel engine. The attention has been focused on the overall engine performances (air flow, torque, power, fuel consumption) as well as on the emissions (NO and particulate) along the after-treatment system, which presents a particulate filter. The 1D research code GASDYN for the simulation of the whole engine system has been enhanced by the introduction of a multi-zone quasi-dimensional combustion model for direct injection Diesel engines. The effect of multiple injections is taken into account (pilot and main injection). The prediction of NO and soot has been carried out respectively by means of a super-extended Zeldovich mechanism and by the Hiroyasu kinetic approach.
Technical Paper

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of a High Performance Lamborghini V12 S.I. Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0692
This paper describes the development and application of the 1D thermo-fluid dynamic research code GASDYN to the simulation of a Lamborghini 12 cylinder, V 60°, 6.2 L automotive S.I. engine. The model has been adopted to carry out an integrated simulation (thermodynamic, fluid dynamic and chemical) of the engine coupled to its intake and exhaust manifolds, in order to predict not only the wave motion in the ducts and its influence on the cylinder gas exchange process, but also the in-cylinder combustion process and the pollutant emission concentration along the exhaust system. The gas composition in the exhaust pipe system is dictated by the cylinder discharge process, after the calculation of the combustion via a thermodynamic multi-zone model, based on a “fractal geometry” approach.
Technical Paper

Prediction of S.I. Engine Emissions During an ECE Driving Cycle via Integrated Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1001
The paper describes the research work carried out on the thermo-fluid dynamic modeling of an S.I. engine coupled to the vehicle in order to predict the engine and tailpipe emissions during the ECE European driving cycle. The numerical code GASDYN has been extended to simulate the engine + vehicle operation during the first 90 seconds of the NEDC driving cycle, taking account of the engine and exhaust system warm-up after the cold start. The chemical composition of the engine exhaust gas is calculated by means of a thermodynamic multi-zone combustion model, augmented by kinetic emission sub-models for the prediction of pollutant emissions. A simple procedure has been implemented to model the vehicle dynamic behavior (one degree of freedom model). A closed-loop control strategy (proportional-derivative) has been introduced to determine the throttle opening angle, corresponding to the engine operating point when the vehicle is following the ECE cycle.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Simulation Model for the Prediction of GDI Engine Cylinder Emissions and Exhaust After-Treatment System Performance

2004-03-08
2004-01-0043
The paper describes the development and validation of a quasi-dimensional multi-zone combustion model for Gasoline Direct Injection engines. The model has been embedded in the 1D thermo-fluid-dynamic code for the simulation of the whole engine system named GASDYN and developed by the authors [1, 2 and 3]. The GDI engine combustion model solves mass, energy and species equations using a 4th order Runge-Kutta integration method; the fuel spray is initially divided into a number of zones fixed regardless of the injected amount and the time step, considering the following break-up, droplet evaporation and air entrainment in each single zone. Experimental correlations have been used for the spray penetration and spatial information. Once the ignition begins it is assumed that the flame propagates spherically, evaluating its velocity by means of a fractal combustion approach and considering the local air-fuel ratio, which is the result of the spray evolution within the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Pollutant Emissions from a S.I. Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0006
Nowadays 1D fluid dynamic models are widely used by engine designers, since they can give sufficiently accurate predictions in short times, allowing to support the optimization and development work of any prototype. According to the last requirements in terms of pollutant emission control, some enhancements have been introduced in the 1D code GASDYN, to improve its ability in predicting the composition of the exhaust gas discharged by the cylinders and the transport of the chemical species along the exhaust system. The main aspects of the methods adopted to model the combustion process and the related formation of pollutants are described in the paper. To account for the burnt gas stratification, two different approaches have been proposed, depending on the expected turbulence levels inside the combustion chamber. The reliability of the simulation of the pollutant formation process has been enhanced by the integration of the thermodynamic module with the Chemkin code.
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