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Thermodynamics of Incompressible and Compressible Fluid Flow

2019-04-11
CURRENT
AIR1168/1A
The fluid flow treated in this section is isothermal, subsonic, and incompressible. The effects of heat addition, work on the fluid, variation in sonic velocity, and changes in elevation are neglected. An incompressible fluid is one in which a change in pressure causes no resulting change in fluid density. The assumption that liquids are incompressible introduces no appreciable error in calculations, but the assumption that a gas is incompressible introduces an error of a magnitude that is dependent on the fluid velocity and on the loss coefficient of the particular duct section or piece of equipment. Fig. 1A-1 shows the error in pressure drop resulting from assuming that air is incompressible. With reasonably small loss coefficients and the accuracy that is usually required in most calculations, compressible fluids may be treated as incompressible for velocities less than Mach 0.2.
Standard

Air Quality for Commercial Aircraft Cabin Particulate Contaminants

2018-10-17
WIP
AIR4766/1A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers airbone particulate contaminants that may be present in commercial aircraft cabin air during operation. Discussions cover sources of contaminants, methods of control and design recommendations. Air quality, ventilation requirements and standards are also discussed.
Standard

Environmental Control System Contamination

2018-06-14
WIP
AIR1539C
This publication will be limited to a discussion of liquid and particulate contaminants which enter the aircraft through the environmental control system (ECS). Gaseous contaminants such as ozone, fuel vapors, sulphates, etc., are not covered in this AIR. It will cover all contamination sources which interface with ECS, and the effects of this contamination on equipment. Methods of control will be limited to the equipment and interfacing ducting which normally falls within the responsibility of the ECS designer.
Standard

Air Conditioning Systems for Subsonic Airplanes

2018-06-14
WIP
ARP85G
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendaitons for subsonic airpolane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a. A supply of fresh air from at least two sources with independent control valves b. A means for heating c. A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers) d. A means for removign excess moisture from the air supply e. A ventilation subsystem f. A temperature control subsystem g.
Standard

Aircraft Turbine Engine Pneumatic Component Contaminated Air Endurance Test

2017-09-05
CURRENT
ARP4014A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes a method of conducting an endurance test using contaminated air when the applicable specification requires non-recirculation of the contaminants. The objective of the test is to determine the resistance of the engine mounted components to wear or damage caused by the contaminated air. The method described herein calls for non-recirculation of the contaminants and is intended to provide a uniform distribution of the contaminant at the inlet to the Unit Under Test (UUT). The UUT may require the use of a hydraulic fluid for actuation of components within the test unit. Contamination of the test hydraulic fluid is not part of this recommended practice. If contaminated hydraulic fluid is required by the applicable test specification, refer to MAP749.
Standard

Aircraft Humidification

2016-10-21
WIP
AIR1609B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.
Standard

Liquid Cooling Systems

2016-09-10
WIP
AIR1811B
The purpose of this Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide guidelines for the selection and design of airborne liquid cooling systems. This publication is applicable to liquid cooling systems of the closed loop type and the expendable coolant type in which the primary function is transporting of heat from its source to a heat sink. Most liquid cooling system applications are oriented toward the cooling of electronics. Liquid cooling techniques, heat sinks, design features, selection of coolants, corrosion control, and servicing requirements for these systems are presented. Information on vapor compression refrigeration systems, which are a type of cooling system, is found in Reference 1.
Standard

Guide for Qualification Testing of Aircraft Air Valves

2015-05-29
CURRENT
ARP986D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines recommended analysis and test procedures for qualification of pneumatically, electrically, manually, and hydraulically actuated air valves. They may be further defined as valves that function in response to externally applied forces or in response to variations in upstream and/or downstream duct air conditions in order to maintain a calibrated duct air condition (e.g., air flow, air pressure, air temperature, air pressure ratio, or air shutoff). Qualification testing performed on the airplane to verify compatibility of the valve function and stability as part of a complete system is outside the scope of this document. Refer to ARP1270 for design and certification requirements for cabin pressurization control system components. As this document is only a guide, it does not supersede or relieve any requirements contained in detailed Customer specifications.
Standard

Heater, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

2013-02-14
CURRENT
AS8040B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters used in the following applications: a Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b Wing and empennage anti-icing c Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d Aircraft de-icing
Standard

Spacecraft Life Support Systems

2012-10-15
CURRENT
AIR1168/14A
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
Standard

Air Conditioning Systems for Subsonic Airplanes

2012-10-09
CURRENT
ARP85F
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendations for subsonic airplane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a A supply of outside air with independent control valve(s). b A means for heating c A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers) d A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply e A ventilation subsystem f A temperature control subsystem g A pressure control subsystem Other system components for treating cabin air such as filtration and humidification are included, as are the ancillary functions of equipment cooling and cargo compartment conditioning.
Standard

Aerospace Pressurization System Design

2011-07-25
CURRENT
AIR1168/7A
The pressurization system design considerations presented in this AIR deal with human physiological requirements, characteristics of pressurization air sources, methods of controlling cabin pressure, cabin leakage control, leakage calculation methods, and methods of emergency cabin pressure release.
Standard

Environmental Control System Contamination

2007-09-26
CURRENT
AIR1539B
This publication will be limited to a discussion of liquid and particulate contaminants which enter the aircraft through the environmental control system (ECS). Gaseous contaminants such as ozone, fuel vapors, sulphates, etc., are not covered in this AIR. It will cover all contamination sources which interface with ECS, and the effects of this contamination on equipment. Methods of control will be limited to the equipment and interfacing ducting which normally falls within the responsibility of the ECS designer.
Standard

Air Quality for Commercial Aircraft Cabin Particulate Contaminants

2005-02-18
CURRENT
AIR4766/1
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers airbone particulate contaminants that may be present in commercial aircraft cabin air during operation. Discussions cover sources of contaminants, methods of control and design recommendations. Air quality, ventilation requirements and standards are also discussed.
Standard

Aircraft Cabin Pressurization Control Criteria

2000-04-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1270A
These recommendations cover the basic criteria for the design of aircraft cabin pressurization control systems as follows: (1) To ensure aircraft safety. (2) Physiology and limits which govern maximum permissible pressure time relations as related to aircraft passenger comfort. (3) General pressurization control system performance requirements designed to satisfy (2). (4) Technical considerations relevant to satisfying (3).
Standard

Testing of Airplane Installed Environmental Control Systems (ECS)

1999-03-01
CURRENT
ARP217D
This document deals with ground and flight test of airplane installed Environmental Control Systems (ECS), Figure 1. The ECS provide an environment, controlled within specified operational limits of comfort and safety, for humans, animals, and equipment. These limits include the following: pressure, temperature, humidity, ventilation air velocity, ventilation rate, wall temperature, audible noise, vibration, and environment composition (ozone, contaminants, etc.). The ECS are composed of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply, distribute, recycle and exhaust air to maintain the desired environment.
Standard

Environmental Control Systems for Helicopters

1998-01-01
CURRENT
ARP292C
This ARP discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, environmental conditions, and design considerations for helicopter environmental control systems (ECS). The helicopter ECS comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls, and indicators which supply and distribute dehumidified conditioned air for ventilation, cooling and heating of the occupied compartments, and cooling of the avionics. The principal features of the system are: a A controlled fresh air supply b A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers) c A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply d A means for heating e A temperature control system f A conditioned air distribution system The ARP is applicable to both civil and military helicopters where an ECS is specified; however, certain requirements peculiar to military applications, such as nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, are not covered.
Standard

Environmental Control System Contamination

1997-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1539A
This publication will be limited to a discussion of liquid and particulate contaminants which enter the aircraft through the environmental control system (ECS). Gaseous contaminants such as ozone, fuel vapors, sulphates, etc., are not covered in this AIR. It will cover all contamination sources which interface with ECS, and the effects of this contamination on equipment. Methods of control will be limited to the equipment and interfacing ducting which normally falls within the responsibility of the ECS designer.
Standard

General Requirements for Application of Vapor Cycle Refrigeration Systems for Aircraft

1997-10-01
HISTORICAL
ARP731B
Recommendations of this ARP refer specifically to the application of closed cycle vapor cycle refrigeration systems as a source of cooling in an aircraft air conditioning system. General recommendations for an air conditioning system which may include a vapor cycle system as a cooling source are included in ARP85, Air Conditioning Equipment, General Requirements for Subsonic Airplanes, ARP292, Air Conditioning, Helicopters, General Requirements For, and AIR806, Air Conditioning Design Information for Cargo and High Density Passenger Transport Airplanes, and are not included herein. Vapor cycle refrigeration system design recommendations are presented in this ARP in the following general areas: a SYSTEM Design Recommendations: (See Section 3) b COMPONENT Design Recommendations: (See Section 4) c Desirable Design Features: (See Section 5)
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