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Aircraft Thermal Management System Engineering

2020-10-26
CURRENT
AIR5744
The intent of this report is to encourage that the thermal management system architecture be designed from a global platform perspective. Separate procurements for air vehicle, propulsion system, and avionics have contributed to the development of aircraft that are sub-optimized from a thermal management viewpoint. In order to maximize the capabilities of the aircraft for mission performance and desired growth capability, overall system efficiency and effectiveness should be considered. This document provides general information about aircraft Thermal Management System Engineering (TMSE). The document also discusses approaches to processes and methodologies for validation and verification of thermal management system engineering. Thermal integration between the air vehicle, propulsion system, and avionics can be particularly important from a thermal management standpoint.
Standard

Environmental Control System Contamination

2020-05-29
CURRENT
AIR1539C
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) includes a discussion of liquid and particulate contaminants which enter the aircraft through the environmental control system (ECS). Gaseous contaminants such as ozone, fuel vapors, sulphates, etc. are also covered in this AIR. This publication is concerned with contamination sources which interface with ECS and fuel tank inerting systems, and the effects of this contamination on equipment. Methods of control will be limited to the equipment and interfacing ducting which normally falls within the responsibility of the ECS designer.
Standard

Environmental Systems Schematic Symbols

2020-05-20
CURRENT
ARP780C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides symbols to schematically represent aerospace vehicle environmental system components on functional flow schematic drawings and graphical computerized output. The symbols are for use on simplified diagrams that provide basic information about an environmental system. Symbols are provided to represent basic types of components used in environmental systems. Simple variations of basic symbol types are provided. Words on the schematic diagram, special symbol codes, or symbols that combine basic symbol types (Section 5) can be used to augment the basic symbols when appropriate. Special or combined symbols not contained in this document should be defined on the schematic diagram. An example of a complete schematic is given in Section 6. A bibliography of other documents on environmental system symbols is found in Appendix A.
Standard

Environmental Control Systems for Rotorcraft

2020-05-12
CURRENT
ARP292D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, environmental conditions, and design considerations for rotorcraft environmental control systems (ECS). The rotorcraft ECS comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls, and indicators which supply and distribute dehumidified conditioned air for ventilation, cooling and heating of the occupied compartments, and cooling of the avionics. The principal features of the system are: a A controlled fresh air supply b A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers) c A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply d A means for heating e A temperature control system f A conditioned air distribution system The ARP is applicable to both civil and military rotorcraft where an ECS is specified; however, certain requirements peculiar to military applications—such as nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) protection—are not covered.
Standard

Heater and Accessories, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

2019-10-01
CURRENT
AS8040C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters and accessories used in, but not limited to, the following applications: a Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b Wing and empennage anti-icing c Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d Aircraft deicing
Standard

Air Conditioning Systems for Subsonic Airplanes

2019-09-25
CURRENT
ARP85G
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendations for subsonic airplane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing, and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a A supply of outside air with independent control valve(s). b A means for heating. c A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers). d A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply. e A ventilation subsystem. f A temperature control subsystem. g A pressure control subsystem. Other system components for treating cabin air, such as filtration and humidification, are included, as are the ancillary functions of equipment cooling and cargo compartment conditioning.
Standard

Animal Environment in Cargo Compartments

2019-06-05
WIP
AIR1600B
The environmental factors of prime importance in the transport of animals in aircraft are air temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide concentration, and of course space (or volume) limitations. Secondary factors are air velocity, noise, lighting, etc. Pressure isnot addressed herein as pressure levels and rates of change are totally dictated by human occupancy requirements. Some basic governmental documents, such as References 1, 2 and 3, define overall requirements for animal transportation, but with very limited data on environmental requirements. Reference 4 gives some airplane characteristics measured during animal transportation from the USA to foreign destinations. Temperature and humidity profiles are indicative of airplane characteristics. This report presents information on the temperature, humidity, ventilation, and carbon dioxide limitations and the metabolic heat release rates for animals which will allow the determination of the environment required by th animals.
Standard

Thermodynamics of Incompressible and Compressible Fluid Flow

2019-04-11
CURRENT
AIR1168/1A
The fluid flow treated in this section is isothermal, subsonic, and incompressible. The effects of heat addition, work on the fluid, variation in sonic velocity, and changes in elevation are neglected. An incompressible fluid is one in which a change in pressure causes no resulting change in fluid density. The assumption that liquids are incompressible introduces no appreciable error in calculations, but the assumption that a gas is incompressible introduces an error of a magnitude that is dependent on the fluid velocity and on the loss coefficient of the particular duct section or piece of equipment. Fig. 1A-1 shows the error in pressure drop resulting from assuming that air is incompressible. With reasonably small loss coefficients and the accuracy that is usually required in most calculations, compressible fluids may be treated as incompressible for velocities less than Mach 0.2.
Standard

Air Quality for Commercial Aircraft Cabin Particulate Contaminants

2018-10-17
WIP
AIR4766/1A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers airbone particulate contaminants that may be present in commercial aircraft cabin air during operation. Discussions cover sources of contaminants, methods of control and design recommendations. Air quality, ventilation requirements and standards are also discussed.
Standard

Aircraft Compartment Automatic Temperature Control Systems

2018-09-24
WIP
ARP89E
The recommendations of this SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) for aircraft compartment automatic temperature control systems are primarily intended to be applicable to occupied or unoccupied compartments of civil and military aircraft.
Standard

Aircraft Turbine Engine Pneumatic Component Contaminated Air Endurance Test

2017-09-05
CURRENT
ARP4014A
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes a method of conducting an endurance test using contaminated air when the applicable specification requires non-recirculation of the contaminants. The objective of the test is to determine the resistance of the engine mounted components to wear or damage caused by the contaminated air. The method described herein calls for non-recirculation of the contaminants and is intended to provide a uniform distribution of the contaminant at the inlet to the Unit Under Test (UUT). The UUT may require the use of a hydraulic fluid for actuation of components within the test unit. Contamination of the test hydraulic fluid is not part of this recommended practice. If contaminated hydraulic fluid is required by the applicable test specification, refer to MAP749.
Standard

Thermophysical Characteristics of Working Fluids and Heat Transfer Fluids

2017-05-19
CURRENT
AIR1168/10A
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - Thermodynamic Characteristics of Working Fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms. 2F - Properties of Heat Transfer Fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR1168/9: 2A-Properties of the Natural Environment 2B-Properties of Gases 2C-Properties of Liquids 2D-Properties of Solids
Standard

Compartment Decompression Analysis

2017-01-05
CURRENT
AIR5661A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides data and general analysis methods for calculation of internal and external, pressurized and unpressurized airplane compartment pressures during rapid discharge of cabin pressure. References to the applicable current FAA and EASA rules and advisory material are provided. While rules and interpretations can be expected to evolve, numerous airplanes have been approved under current and past rules that will have a continuing need for analysis of production and field modifications, alterations and repairs. The data and basic principles provided by this report are adaptable to any compartment decompression analysis requirement.
Standard

Aircraft Humidification

2016-10-21
WIP
AIR1609B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the design parameters for various methods of humidification applicable to aircraft, the physiological aspects of low humidities, the possible benefits of controlling cabin humidity, the penalties associated with humidification, and the problems which must be solved for practical aircraft humidification systems. The design information is applicable to commercial and military aircraft. The physiological aspects cover all aircraft environmental control applications.
Standard

Liquid Cooling Systems

2016-09-10
WIP
AIR1811B
The purpose of this Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide guidelines for the selection and design of airborne liquid cooling systems. This publication is applicable to liquid cooling systems of the closed loop type and the expendable coolant type in which the primary function is transporting of heat from its source to a heat sink. Most liquid cooling system applications are oriented toward the cooling of electronics. Liquid cooling techniques, heat sinks, design features, selection of coolants, corrosion control, and servicing requirements for these systems are presented. Information on vapor compression refrigeration systems, which are a type of cooling system, is found in Reference 1.
Standard

Acoustical Considerations for Aircraft Environmental Control System Design

2016-08-11
CURRENT
AIR1826A
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is limited in scope to the general consideration of environmental control system noise and its effect on occupant comfort. Additional information on the control of environmental control system noise may be found in 2.3 and in the documents referenced throughout the text. This document does not contain sufficient direction and detail to accomplish effective and complete acoustic designs.
Standard

Heat Sinks for Airborne Vehicles

2015-11-19
CURRENT
AIR1957A
This document summarizes types of heat sinks and considerations in relation to the general requirements of aircraft heat sources, and it provides information to achieve efficient utilization and management of these heat sinks. In this document, a heat sink is defined as a body or substance used for removal of the heat generated by thermodynamic processes. This document provides general data about airborne heat sources, heat sinks, and modes of heat transfer. The document also discusses approaches to control the use of heat sinks and techniques for analysis and verification of heat sink management. The heat sinks are for aircraft operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds.
Standard

Engine Bleed Air Systems for Aircraft

2015-07-13
CURRENT
ARP1796B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for military and commercial aircraft systems within the Air Transport Association (ATA) ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic. This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, ice protection, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, on board oxygen generating systems (OBOGS), on board inert gas generating systems (OBIGGS), and other pneumatic demands. The engine bleed air system includes components for preconditioning the compressed air (temperature, pressure or flow regulation), ducting to distribute high or low pressure air to the using systems, and sensors/instruments to indicate temperature and pressure levels within the system.
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