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Aircraft Fuel System Design Guidelines

2019-12-05
CURRENT
AIR7975
This document describes the major design drivers and considerations when designing a fuel system for a large commercial aircraft. It discusses the design at a system/aircraft level, and is not intended as a design manual for individual system components, though it does refer out to other SAE specifications where more detail on specific components and sub systems is given. It does include examples of a number of calculations associated with sizing of fuel systems, based on those given in NAV-AIR-06-5-504, as well as an appendix summarizing basic fluid mechanical equations which are key for fuel system design. It is acknowledged that most of these calculations would today be performed by modelling tools, rather than by hand, but it is considered important for the designer to understand the principles. It is intended that later issues of this document will include appendices which give specific considerations for military aircraft, smaller commercial aircraft, and rotorcraft.
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Method-Pressure Drop Tests for Fuel System Components

2019-05-23
WIP
ARP868D
This document provides recommended methods and describes associated equipment and test setups to assist in understanding and conducting pressure drop tets on fuel system components. Backgroundn information and suggestions are provided as means of improving accuracy and repeatability of test results. Although written specifically for fuel system components, the methods, equipment and suggestions presented herein apply equally to pressure drop tests of other liquid-handling devices.
Standard

Fuel System Design Considerations for Composite Based Fuel Components

2018-11-19
WIP
AIR7493
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a compilation of engineering design guidelines and reference data useful to ensure composite materials used in fuel system components are compatible with an aircraft fuel system. This AIR is not a complete design manual, but offers insight into key aspects of composition design that must be adequately researched and verified before being used in a fuel system.
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Optical equipment safety in fuel tanks

2018-11-15
WIP
ARP7977
This project aims to develop a framework of requirements which support safe installation and operation of optical devices within an aircraft fuel tank, specifically: 1: To determine optical power and energy limits which ensure safe operation of optical installations within an aircraft fuel tank over aircraft life and under all phases of flight, taking the limits provided in IEC 60079-28:20015 as a starting point. 2: To demonstrate optical and electrical power and energy equivalences, where possible. 3: To determine requirements for optical installations, including bonding and electrostatic discharge for non-conductive components such as optical fibres. 4: To provide guidelines for analysis of the hazards presented by the typical internal components of optical devices, such as failure modes of photo diodes and cells.
Standard

Design and Operating Requirements of the Onboard Aircraft Refueling System and Associated Ground Refueling Equipment Interface

2018-03-18
CURRENT
AS5751
This SAE Aerospace Specification (AS) is applicable to all aircraft. This AS defines the minimum design and operating requirements for the aircraft refueling interface. These requirements establish the minimum criteria for the aircraft design that provides practical standardized refueling system requirements, provides minimum standardized criteria for the operation and performance of any aircraft refueling equipment, and establishes an integrated minimum performance for aircraft refueling operations. This standardization provides the minimum design criteria to assure full compatibility between the aircraft refueling system connection point(s), aircraft operating characteristics, and the design and operation of ground based aircraft refueling equipment in all steady state and dynamic refueling and defueling conditions. The criteria that shall be used to test the operation and performance of the aircraft refueling system and equipment are also specified.
Standard

Electrical Bonding of Aircraft Fuel Systems

2017-10-20
WIP
AIR5128B
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is limited to the subject of aircraft fuel systems and the questions concerning the requirements for electrical bonding of the various components of the system as related to Static Electric Charges, Fault Current, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Lightning Strikes (Direct and Indirect Effects). This AIR contains engineering guidelines for the design, installation, testing (measurement) and inspection of electrical bonds.
Standard

Capacitive Fuel Gauging System Accuracies

2016-08-12
CURRENT
AIR1184B
This report is intended to identify the various errors typically encountered in capacitance fuel quantity measurement systems. In addition to identification of error sources, it describes the basic factors which cause the errors. When coupled with appraisals of the relative costs of minimizing the errors, this knowledge will furnish a tool with which to optimize gauging system accuracy, and thus, to obtain the optimum overall system within the constraints imposed by both design and budgetary considerations. Since the subject of fuel measurement accuracy using capacitance based sensing is quite complex, no attempt is made herein to present a fully-comprehensive evaluation of all factors affecting gauging system accuracy. Rather, the major contributors to gauging system inaccuracy are discussed and emphasis is given to simplicity and clarity, somewhat at the expense of completeness. An overview of capacitive fuel gauging operation can be found in AIR5691.
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Fuel Level Control Valves and Systems

2016-05-17
CURRENT
AIR1660C
A fuel level control valve/system controls the quantity of fuel in a tank being filled or emptied on the aircraft. This document provides a general familiarization with these mechanisms (e.g., forms they take, functions, system design considerations). This document provides the aircraft fuel system designer with information about these mechanisms/devices, so that he can prescribe the types of level control valves/systems which are best suited for his particular fuel system configuration. The scope has been expanded as different aircraft manufacturers may use different type of fuel system architectures. Their refueling and defueling systems may take different configurations, may require different types of fuel control valves and may require different types of interface with the onboard Fuel Measurement System. They must also limit pressure surges and be compatible with ground refueling equipment which have varying surge potentials and create surges.
Standard

Fuel Thermal Management Systems

2016-04-21
WIP
AIR6380
Overview of thermal management system Key requirements and design considerations for thermal management system Lessons learned
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Glossary of Terms - Aircraft Ground Refueling

2015-09-23
WIP
AIR4783A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) presents a glossary of terms commonly utilized in the ground delivery of fuel to an aircraft and some terms relating to the aircraft being refueled. The purpose of this document is to provide background material for educational purposes to persons designing, building, and using aircraft ground refueling delivery systems.
Standard

Engine Fuel System and Component Icing Test

2015-06-25
WIP
ARP6340
This ARP provides recommended practice on the considerations and methodology to demonstrate acceptable performance of the Engine components / fuel system, and APU, whilst operating throughout the flight cycle / engine duty for continuous operation with iced fuel and short duration operation with a snowshower resulting from release of accreted ice from fuel washed surfaces, where no anti-icing additives are present (e.g. Fuel System Icing Inhibitor FSII or alternative). Two scenarios must be considered when demonstrating the capability of Engine components / fuel system, and APU to operate with fuel borne ice to satisfy certification regulations applications in support of FAA Part 23 and Part 25, CFR Part 33, and corresponding EASA CS-E regulations, and equivalent Military application requirements.
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Fuel System Definitions and Glossary of Terms

2015-05-20
WIP
AIR6510
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) comprises the technical terms and nomenclature, together with their definitions and abbreviations that are used in Aircraft Fuel Systems.
Standard

FUEL LEVEL POINT SENSING

2015-04-21
WIP
AIR6325
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to provide comprehensive reference and background information pertaining to aircraft point level sensing
Standard

Fluid-System-Component Specification Preparation Criteria

2013-10-04
CURRENT
AIR1082C
The importance of adequate component procurement specifications to the success of a hardware development program cannot be overemphasized. Specifications which are too stringent can be as detrimental as specifications which are too lax. Performance specifications must not only identify all of the component requirements, but they must also include sufficient quality assurance provisions so that compliance can be verified. It should be understood that in almost every case specifications for components will ultimately become part of a BINDING, WRITTEN CONTRACT (PO). The purpose of this document is to describe types of specifications, provide guidance for the preparation of fluid component specifications, and identify documents commonly referenced in fluid component specifications.
Standard

Composite Fuel Tanks, Fuel System Design Considerations

2012-12-11
CURRENT
AIR5774
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is a compilation of engineering references and data useful to the technical community that can be used to ensure fuel system compatibility with composite structure. This AIR is not a complete detailed design guide and is not intended to satisfy all potential fuel system applications. Extensive research, design, and development are required for each individual application.
Standard

Impact of Changes in Test Dust Contaminants and Particle Counter Calibration on Laboratory Filter Element Performance and Fluid Cleanliness Classes

2012-01-03
CURRENT
AIR5455A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses the impact of the ISO Test Dusts, chosen as replacement contaminants for the Arizona Test Dusts (AC Test Dusts), and the ISO calibration procedure ISO 11171 for automatic particle counters, which replaces the calibration procedure ISO 4402 (1991), on laboratory performance of filter elements utilized in aerospace lubrication, hydraulic and fuel systems, and fluid cleanliness levels determined with automatic particle counters.
Standard

Nozzles and Ports – Gravity Fueling Interface Standards for Civil Aircraft

2012-01-03
CURRENT
AS1852D
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the maximum allowable free opening dimensions for airframe fueling ports on civil aircraft that require the exclusive use of gasoline as an engine fuel, and the minimum free opening dimensions for airframe fueling ports on civil aircraft that operate with turbine fuels as the primary fuel type and with gasoline as the emergency fuel type. This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) also defines the features and dimensions for airframe refueling ports on civil aircraft that require the exclusive use of turbine fuel as an engine fuel. In addition, this document defines the minimum fuel nozzle spout dimensions for turbine fuel ground service equipment, and the maximum fuel nozzle spout diameter for gasoline ground service equipment.
Standard

Nozzles and Ports - Gravity Fueling Interface Standard for Civil Aircraft

2006-03-24
HISTORICAL
AS1852C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the maximum allowable free opening dimensions for airframe fueling ports on civil aircraft that require the exclusive use of gasoline as an engine fuel, and the minimum free opening dimensions for airframe fueling ports on civil aircraft that operate with turbine fuels as the primary fuel type and with gasoline as the emergency fuel type. This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) also defines the features and dimensions for airframe refueling ports on civil aircraft that require the exclusive use of turbine fuel as an engine fuel. In addition, this document defines the minimum fuel nozzle spout dimensions for turbine fuel ground service equipment, and the maximum fuel nozzle spout diameter for gasoline ground service equipment.
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