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Journal Article

Review of Prior Studies of Fuel Effects on Vehicle Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1181
A literature review was conducted to survey recent research on the effects of fuel properties on exhaust emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles, on-road and off-road. Most of the literature has been published in SAE papers, although data have also been reported in other journals and government reports. A full report and database are available from the Coordinating Research Council (www.crcao.org). The review identified areas of agreement and disagreement in the literature and evaluated the adequacy of experimental design and analysis of results. Areas where additional research would be helpful in defining fuel effects are also identified. In many of the research programs carried out to evaluate the effect of new blendstocks, the fuel components were splash blended in fully formulated fuels. This approach makes it extremely difficult to determine the exact cause of the emissions benefit or debit.
Technical Paper

Development of a Semi-Detailed Kinetics Mechanism for the Autoignition of Iso-Octane

1996-10-01
962107
A reduced autoignition mechanism for iso-octane has been developed by identifying paths to formation of the stable species measured during motoring knock experiments and eliminating paths to formation of species that were not measured. The resulting mechanism includes low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature reactions and consists of 103 species and 131 reactions. This mechanism differs from detailed models not only in the number of reactions and species, but most importantly, in the nature and rates of the degenerate chain branching reactions. To implement this mechanism, a knock subroutine has been added to a quasidimensional spark ignition engine model that accounts for heat losses, blowby, etc. Thus, errors in the reactivity predictions can be assigned almost exclusively to the kinetics. Numerical predictions of the exhaust composition during motoring knock are compared with experimental measurements as a function of compression ratio for several operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Reformulation and Vehicle Technology Effects on Emissions - Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1995-10-01
952509
Engine-out and tailpipe exhaust, and hot soak evaporative emissions of two reformulated test gasolines and an Industry Average reference gasoline were compared in four vehicle fleets designed for progressively lower emission standards. The two reformulated gasolines included: 1) a gasoline meeting 1996 California Phase 2 regulatory requirements, and 2) a gasoline blended to the same specifications but without an oxygenated component. These two gasolines were compared with the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program's (AQIRP) Industry Average gasoline representing 1988 national average composition. The vehicle fleets were the AQIRP Older (1983 to 85MY) and Current (1989MY) vehicle fleets used in prior studies, and two new AQIRP test fleets, one designed to 1994 Federal Tier 1 standards and a prototype Advanced Technology fleet designed for lower emission levels of 1995 and later.
Technical Paper

Emissions with E85 and Gasolines in Flexible/Variable Fuel Vehicles - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1995-10-01
952508
Exhaust and evaporative emissions from three flexible/variable fuel vehicles (FFV/VFV) were measured as the vehicles operated on E85 fuel (a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) or on gasoline. One vehicle was a production vehicle designed for ethanol fuels and sold in 1992-93 and the other two vehicles were prototypes which were recalibrated 1992 model year methanol FFV's. The gasolines tested were Industry Average Fuel A and a reformulated gasoline Fuel C2 that met California 1996 regulatory requirements. The gasoline component of Fuel E85 was based on the reformulated gasoline. The major findings from this three-vehicle program were that E85 reduced NOx 49% compared to Fuel A and 37% compared to Fuel C2, but increased total toxics 108% (5 mg/mi) and 255% (20 mg/mi), respectively, primarily by increasing acetaldehyde. The NOx effect was significant for both engine-out and tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of CNG and Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust Emissions: Mass and Composition - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1995-10-01
952507
Exhaust emissions of three vehicles fueled with compressed natural gas (CNG) were compared with emissions of three counterpart gasoline vehicles. The natural gas vehicles were tested on four CNG fuels covering a wide range of pipeline natural gas compositions. The gasoline vehicles were tested on AQIRP Industry Average gasoline and a reformulated gasoline meeting California 1996 regulatory requirements. Nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and toxic air pollutant emissions of the CNG vehicles were about one-tenth those of their counterpart gasoline vehicles, while methane emissions were about ten times those of the gasoline vehicles. Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were more variable among the three vehicle pairs. CO emissions ranged from 20 to 80% lower with CNG than with gasoline, and NOx ranged from 80% lower with CNG to equivalent to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline Properties (T50, T90, and Sulfur) on Exhaust Hydrocarbon Emissions of Current and Future Vehicles: Speciation Analysis - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1995-10-01
952505
Species analyses have been performed on engine-out and tailpipe hydrocarbon mass emissions to help understand why fuels with higher T50 and/or T90 distillation temperatures produce higher engine-out and tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions and why fuels with higher T90 distillation temperatures produce higher engine-out and tailpipe specific reactivities. Species analyses were also performed to examine the effects of fuel sulfur level on engine-out and tailpipe species and specific reactivities. These analyses were performed on three different test-vehicle fleets representing varying levels of emissions control technology and the effect of emissions control technology was examined. Individual hydrocarbon species concentrations in both the engine-out and tailpipe were found to correlate linearly with the concentrations of the same species in the fuel, implying that a small fraction of the fuel escapes the combustion process and conversion over the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline Properties (T50, T90, and Sulfur) on Exhaust Hydrocarbon Emissions of Current and Future Vehicles: Modal Analysis - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1995-10-01
952504
Modal analyses have been performed on engine-out and tailpipe hydrocarbon mass emissions to help understand why fuels with higher T50 and/or T90 distillation temperatures produce somewhat higher engine-out hydrocarbon emissions and substantially higher tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions. Modal analyses were also performed to examine how increased fuel sulfur increases tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions and to identify which gasoline properties in this study are responsible for the lower tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions with reformulated gasolines. These analyses were performed on three different test vehicle fleets representing varying levels of emissions control technology. The modal analyses showed that the substantially higher tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions from fuels with high T50 and/or T90 distillation temperatures result primarily from these fuels producing substantially higher engine-out hydrocarbon emissions during the first cycle of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP).
Technical Paper

Autoignition Chemistry of the Hexane Isomers: An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study

1995-10-01
952406
Autoignition of the five distinct isomers of hexane is studied experimentally under motored engine conditions and computationally using a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism. Computed and experimental results are compared and used to help understand the chemical factors leading to engine knock in spark-ignited engines and the molecular structure factors contributing to octane rating for hydrocarbon fuels. The kinetic model reproduces observed variations in critical compression ratio with fuel structure, and it also provides intermediate and final product species concentrations in much better agreement with observed results than has been possible previously. In addition, the computed results provide insights into the kinetic origins of fuel octane sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline Olefin Composition on Predicted Ozone in 2005/2010 - Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1994-03-01
940579
The effect of gasoline olefin composition and content on urban ozone was estimated using the Urban Airshed Model (UAM), emission measurements for a base fuel, and projected emissions for two hypothetical fuels with reduced olefin content. The projected emissions for the hypothetical fuels were developed using regressions developed from Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) Phase I testing, a vapor headspace model and other information. Ozone modeling was conducted for Los Angeles in year 2010 and Dallas-Fort Worth and New York in year 2005. When all olefins were removed from the base fuel, the light-duty vehicle contribution to peak hourly ozone was reduced by 8 to 12%. This corresponds to a projected reduction of 0.6 to 0.8% in total peak ozone from all sources. Removing only light (C5) olefins provided 67 to 78% of the peak ozone benefit from removal of all olefins.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline Sulfur Level on Exhaust Mass and Speciated Emissions: The Question of Linearity - Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Program

1993-10-01
932727
Effects of gasoline sulfur content on emissions were measured in a fleet of ten 1989 model year vehicles. Two ranges of sulfur content were examined. In a set of five fuels, reducing sulfur from 450 to 50 ppm, reduced fleet average tailpipe emissions of HC, NMHC and CO each by about 18%, and reduced NOx 8%. The largest effect on HC and CO emissions was observed in FTP Bag 2. This and the absence of any significant effect on engine emissions indicate that sulfur affected the performance of the catalytic converters. The response of HC and NMHC to fuel sulfur content was non-linear and increased as sulfur level was reduced. In the second set of three fuels, reducing sulfur from 50 to 10 ppm reduced HC and NMHC by 6% and CO by 10%, but had no significant effect on NOx. The effects on HC, NMHC and NOx were not significantly different from predictions based on the prior fuel set. The reduction in CO was larger than predicted.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Mass Exhaust Emissions During Various Modes of Vehicle Operation

1993-10-01
932726
The analysis of data from the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) study of the effect of aromatics, MTBE, olefins, and T90 on mass exhaust emissions from current (1989) vehicles was extended to include individual vehicles during individual operating modes. The results of the modal data analysis agree with and complement results which have been reported previously by AQIRP. Beyond this, attention is focused on three fuel compositional changes where the effect on emissions shows a reversal in sign depending on the vehicle operating mode chosen.
Technical Paper

Effects of Heavy Hydrocarbons in Gasoline on Exhaust Mass Emissions, Air Toxics, and Calculated Reactivity - Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1993-10-01
932723
Emission effects of gasoline hydrocarbon components distilling above 300°F were investigated to determine whether the effect of 90% distillation temperature (T90) found in an earlier Auto/Oil Program study is due to fuel distillation properties or to hydrocarbon composition, and also to determine whether the T90 effect is linear. Twenty-six fuels were tested in two sets. In Matrix A, the independent variables were catalytically cracked (FCC) and reformate stocks with nominal distillation ranges of 300 to 350, 350 to 400 and 400+°F. In Matrix B, the independent variables were a reformate stock (320 to 370°F), a heavy alkylate (330 to 475°F), and a light alkylate distilling below 300°F, which was used to vary fuel T50 at fixed levels of T90. Exhaust mass and speciation were measured using ten 1989 vehicles of the Auto/Oil Current Fleet. Tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions were found to increase nonlinearly with progressive addition of the heavier components.
Technical Paper

Fuel Composition Effects on Automotive Fuel Economy - Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1993-03-01
930138
Fuel economy measurements from portions of Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program were analyzed. The following fuel variables were examined: aromatics, olefins, T90, RVP, and various oxygenates (MTBE, ETBE and ethanol). Two vehicle fleets were tested: twenty 1989 vehicles and fourteen 1983-1985 vehicles. Three measures of fuel economy were analyzed. EPA Fuel Economy used the calculation defined in the Federal Register and is an attempt to correct for changes in fuel properties. Volumetric Fuel Economy is based on a carbon balance calculation and is a measure of the actual volume of gasoline burned. Energy Specific Fuel Economy is a measure of fuel economy based on energy content. The following fuel changes resulted in reductions of Volumetric Fuel Economy in both fleets: reduced aromatics, reduced olefins, reduced T90, and addition of oxygenates. Changes in RVP did not have a significant effect on fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Autoignition Chemistries of Primary Reference Fuels, Olefin/Paraffin Binary Mixtures, and Non-Linear Octane Blending

1992-10-01
922325
The chemistries controlling autoignition of primary reference fuels (n-heptane/isooctane binary mixtures) and binary olefin/paraffin mixtures have been inferred from experimental motored-engine measurements. For all n-heptane/isooctane and olefin/paraffin mixtures, each component of the mixture reacted via parallel intramolecular mechanisms with the only interactions being via small labile radicals. The octane qualities of the neat components appears to be dictated not by the initial reaction rate of the fuel, but by the reaction rate of the subsequent fuel-product reactions. In contrast, the blending octane quality of a component appears to be dictated more by the rate of the initial fuel reactions. The abnormally high blending octane qualities of olefins result from them having high rates of initial fuel reaction combined with slow rates of subsequent fuel-product reactions.
Technical Paper

Speciation and Calculated Reactivity of Automotive Exhaust Emissions and Their Relation to Fuel Properties - Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1992-02-01
920325
Speciated exhaust emission data from Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program are presented and analyzed. Eighteen fuels were tested which varied in four fuel parameters: aromatics, MTBE content, olefins, and T90. These fuels were tested in two fleets of vehicles. One consisted of twenty 1989 vehicles and the other consisted of fourteen 1983-1985 vehicles. The 1990 version of Carter reactivity factors were used to calculate reactivities for each of these tests. Two types of reactivities were calculated. The first was Specific Reactivity and has units of grams ozone per gram NMOG (non-methane organic gas). The second was Ozone Forming Potential and has units of grams ozone per mile. Both types of reactivities were calculated using Carter's MIR (Maximum Incremental Reactivity) as well as MOR (Maximum Ozone Reactivity) factors.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oxygenated Fuels and RVP on Automotive Emissions - Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Program

1992-02-01
920326
Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured as a function of gasoline composition and fuel vapor pressure in a fleet of 20 1989 vehicles. Eleven fuels were evaluated; four hydrocarbon only, four splash blended ethanol fuels (10 vol %), two methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) blends (15 vol %) and one ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) blend (17 vol %). Reid vapor pressures were between 7.8 and 9.6 psi. Exhaust emission results indicated that a reduction in fuel Reid vapor pressure of one psi reduced exhaust HC and CO. Adding oxygenates reduced exhaust HC and CO but increased NOx. Results of evaporative emissions tests on nineteen vehicles indicated a reduction in diurnal emissions with reduced Reid vapor pressure in the non-oxygenated and ethanol blended fuels. However, no reduction in diurnal emissions with the MTBE fuel due to Reid vapor pressure reduction was observed. Reducing Reid vapor pressure had no statistically significant effect on hot soak emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline Composition on Vehicle Engine-Out and Tailpipe Hydrocarbon Emissions - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1992-02-01
920329
In this pilot study conducted by the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program, engine-out and tailpipe speciated hydrocarbon emissions were obtained for three vehicles operated over the Federal Test Procedure on two different fuels, both of which were speciated. The fates of the fuel species were traced across the engine and across the catalyst, and relationships were developed between engine-out and tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions and fuel composition. These relationships allowed separating the fuel's contribution to engine-out and tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions into two parts, unreacted fuel and partial oxidation products. Specific ozone reactivities and toxic air pollutants were analyzed for both engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Vehicle-to-vehicle, fuel-to-fuel, and bag-to-bag differences have been highlighted.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Methanol/Gasoline Blends on Automobile Emissions

1992-02-01
920327
This report presents the Auto/Oil AQIRP results of a methanol fueled vehicle emission study. Nineteen early prototype flexible/variable fueled vehicles (FFV/VFV) were emission tested with industry average gasoline (M0), an 85% methanol-gasoline blend (M85), and a splash-blend of M85 with M0 (gasoline) giving 10% methanol (M10). Vehicle emissions were analyzed for the FTP exhaust emissions, SHED diurnal and hot soak evaporative emissions, and running loss evaporative emissions. Measurements were made for HC, CO and NOx emissions and up to 151 organic emission species, including air toxic components. M0 and M10 emissions were very similar except for elevated M10 evaporative emissions resulting from the high M10 fuel vapor pressure. M85 showed lower exhaust emissions than M0 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbon), OMHCE (organic material hydrocarbon equivalent), CO and most species. M85 had higher exhaust emissions for NMOG (non-methane organic gases), NOx, methanol and formaldehyde.
Technical Paper

Toxic Air Pollutant Vehicle Exhaust Emissions with Reformulated Gasolines

1991-10-01
912324
This paper presents results derived from Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. The Clean Air Act-defined mobile source toxic air pollutants benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have been measured in exhaust from twenty current model vehicles and fourteen older model vehicles during testing with 18 gasolines of varying composition. The gasoline fuel compositional variables evaluated included aromatic content, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) content, olefin content, and the 90% distillation temperature (T90). The four fuel parameters were varied at target values of 45 and 20 vol % total aromatics, 0 and 15 vol % MTBE, 20 and 5 vol % total olefins and 360 and 280 °F 90% distillation temperature. An industry average fuel and an emissions certification test fuel were tested as reference fuels. In the current fleet, benzene levels were lowered when either fuel aromatics or T90 were reduced.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Aromatics, MTBE, Olefins and T90 on Mass Exhaust Emissions from Current and Older Vehicles - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1991-10-01
912322
Exhaust emissions were measured as a function of gasoline composition in two fleets of vehicles - 20 1989 vehicles and 14 1983-1985 vehicles. Eighteen different gasolines were tested which varied in aromatic, olefin, and MTBE content and in the 90 percent distillation temperature (T90). Subject to the cautions and qualifications described in the body of this paper, mass exhaust emissions in both fleets of vehicles were affected by changes in fuel composition. Responses to changes in MTBE and olefins were similar in both fleets: adding MTBE reduced emissions of HC and CO, and reducing olefins lowered emissions of NOx while raising emissions of HC. In the current fleet, reducing aromatics lowered HC and CO, while in the older fleet, reducing aromatics raised HC and lowered NOx. In the current fleet, lowering T90 reduced HC over 20%, while raising NOx slightly. In the older fleet, lowering T90 reduced HC by only 6%.
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