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Journal Article

Progress of Direct Injection and Jet Ignition in Throttle-Controlled Engines

2019-01-09
2019-26-0045
Direct injection and jet ignition is becoming popular in electrically assisted, turbocharged, F1 engines because of the pressure to reduce fuel consumption. Operation from homogeneous stoichiometric up to lean of stoichiometry stratified about λ = 1.5, occurs with fast combustion of reduced cyclic variability thanks to the enhanced ignition by multiple jets of hot, partially reacting products travelling through the combustion chamber. The fuel consumption has thus been drastically reduced in an engine that is, however, still mostly throttle controlled. The aim of the present paper is to show the advantages of direct injection and jet ignition based on model simulations of the operation of a high-performance throttle-controlled engine featuring rotary valves.
Book

Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing

2018-08-01
Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments from endurance racing may be more impactful for fuel efficiency improvements. Hybrid powertrains are a critical area of research for automakers and are being tested on the toughest of scales. Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing brings together ten vital SAE technical papers and SAE Automotive Engineering magazine articles surrounding the advancements of hybrid powertrains in motorsports.
Technical Paper

The Future of the Internal Combustion Engine After “Diesel-Gate”

2017-07-10
2017-28-1933
The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Braking of a 2015 LMP1-H Racing Car

2015-09-27
2015-01-2659
Regenerative braking coupled to small high power density engines are becoming more and more popular in motorsport applications delivering improved performances while increasing similarities and synergies in between road and track applications. Computer aided engineering (CAE) tools integrated with the telemetry data of the car are an important component of the product development. This paper presents the CAE model developed to describe the race track operation of a LMP1-H racing car covering one lap of the Le Mans circuit. The friction and regenerative braking is discussed.
Technical Paper

Two Stroke Direct Injection Jet Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

2015-09-15
2015-01-2424
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) require simple and reliable engines of high power to weight ratio. Wankel and two stroke engines offer many advantages over four stroke engines. A two stroke engines featuring crank case scavenging, precise oiling, direct injection and jet ignition is analyzed here by using CAD, CFD and CAE tools. Results of simulations of engine performances are shown in details. The CFD analysis is used to study fuel injection, mixing and combustion. The CAE model then returns the engine performances over the full range of loads and speeds with the combustion parameters given as an input. The use of asymmetric rather than symmetric port timing and supercharging scavenging is finally suggested as the best avenue to further improve power density and fuel conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

CAD/CFD/CAE Modelling of Wankel Engines for UAV

2015-09-15
2015-01-2466
The Wankel engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) applications delivers advantages vs. piston engines of simplicity, smoothness, compactness and high power-to-weight ratio. The use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) tools may permit to address the major downfalls of these engines, namely the slow and incomplete combustion due to the low temperatures and the rotating combustion chambers. The paper proposes the results of CAD/CFD/CAE modelling of a Wankel engine featuring tangential jet ignition to produce faster and more complete combustion.
Technical Paper

Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuelling of a Naturally Aspirated Four Stroke Engine with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Spark or Jet Ignition

2015-04-14
2015-01-0325
The paper discusses the benefits of a four stroke engine having one intake and one exhaust rotary valve. The rotary valve has a speed of rotation half the crankshaft and defines an open passage that may permit up to extremely sharp opening or closing and very large gas exchange areas. This design also permits central direct injection and ignition by spark or jets. The dual rotary valve design is applied to a naturally aspirated V-four engine of 1000cc displacement, gasoline, methane or hydrogen fuelled with central direct injection and spark ignition. The engine is modeled by using a 1D engine & gas dynamics simulation software package to assess the potentials of the solution. The novelty in the proposed dual rotary valve system is the combustion chamber of good shape and high compression ratio with central direct injector and spark plug or jet ignition, coupled to the large gas exchange areas of the rotary system.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG Combustion on Engine Performance and Emission

2015-03-10
2015-01-0009
With the purpose of reducing emission level while maintaining the high torque character of diesel engine, various solutions have been proposed by researchers over the world. One of the most attractive methods is to use dual fuel technique with premixed gaseous fuel ignited by a relatively small amount of diesel. In this study, Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, was premixed with intake air and used as the main fuel, and diesel fuel was used as ignition source to initiate the combustion. By varying the proportion of diesel and CH4, the combustion and emissions characteristics of the dual fuel (diesel/CH4) combustion system were investigated. Different cases of CFD studies with various concentration of CH4 were carried out. A validated 3D quarter chamber model of a single cylinder engine (diesel fuel only) generated by using AVL Fire ESE was modified into dual fuel mode in this study.
Technical Paper

A Novel Wankel Engine Featuring Jet Ignition and Port or Direct Injection for Faster and More Complete Combustion Especially Designed for Gaseous Fuels

2015-03-10
2015-01-0007
Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles using a traditional ICE that has been modified to use hydrogen fuel are an important mid-term technology on the path to the hydrogen economy. Hydrogen-powered ICEs that can run on pure hydrogen or a blend of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) are a way of addressing the widespread lack of hydrogen fuelling infrastructure in the near term. Hydrogen-powered ICEs have operating advantages as all weather conditions performances, no warm-up, no cold-start issues and being more fuel efficient than conventional spark-ignition engines. The Wankel engine is one of the best ICE to be converted to run hydrogen. The paper presents some details of an initial investigation of the CAD and CAE modeling of a novel design where two jet ignition devices per rotor are replacing the traditional two spark plugs for a faster and more complete combustion.
Technical Paper

Turbo/Supercharged Two/Four Stroke Engines with One Intake and One Exhaust Horizontal Rotary Valve per Cylinder and Central Direct Injection and Ignition

2015-01-14
2015-26-0031
The present paper is an introduction to a novel rotary valve engine design addressing the major downfalls of past rotary valves applications while permitting the typical advantages of the rotary valves. Advantages of the solution are the nearly optimal gas exchange, mixture formation, ignition and combustion evolution thanks to the large gas exchange areas from the two horizontal valves per engine cylinder, the good shape of the combustion chamber, the opportunity to place a direct fuel injector and a spark or jet ignition device at the centre of the chamber. The novel engine design also permits higher speed of rotation not having reciprocating poppet valves and the reduced friction losses of the rotating only distribution. This translates in better volumetric efficiencies, combustion rates and brake mean effective pressures for improved power density and fuel efficiency. Additional advantages are the reduced weight and the better packaging.
Technical Paper

Hydro-Pneumatic Driveline for Passenger Car Applications

2014-09-28
2014-01-2536
Real driving cycles are characterized by a sequence of accelerations, cruises, decelerations and engine idling. Recovering the braking energy is the most effective way to reduce the propulsive energy supply by the thermal engine. The fuel energy saving may be much larger than the propulsive energy saving because the ICE energy supply may be cut where the engine operates less efficiently and because the ICE can be made smaller. The present paper discusses the state of the art of hydro-pneumatic drivelines now becoming popular also for passenger cars and light duty vehicle applications permitting series and parallel hybrid operation. The papers presents the thermal engine operation when a passenger car fitted with the hydro-pneumatic hybrid driveline covers the hot new European driving cycle. From a reference fuel consumption of 4.71 liters/100 km with a traditional driveline, the fuel consumption reduces to 2.91 liters/100 km.
Technical Paper

Reduced Warm-Up and Recovery of the Exhaust and Coolant Heat with a Single Loop Turbo Steamer Integrated with the Engine Architecture in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2013-11-27
2013-01-2827
The paper considers a novel waste heat recovery (WHR) system integrated with the engine architecture in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) platform. The novel WHR system uses water as the working media and recovers both the internal combustion engine coolant and exhaust energy in a single loop. Results of preliminary simulations show a 6% better fuel economy over the cold start UDDS cycle only considering the better fuel usage with the WHR after the quicker warm-up but neglecting the reduced friction losses for the warmer temperatures over the full cycle.
Technical Paper

CNG Fueling Strategies for Commercial Vehicles Engines-A Literature Review

2013-11-27
2013-01-2812
The paper presents a survey of the opportunities to convert compression ignition heavy duty truck engines to work on single or dual fuel modes with CNG. In one popular option, the compression ignition engine is converted to spark ignition with throttle load control and port injection of the CNG. In another option of increasing popularity, the LNG is directly injected and ignited by direct injection of pilot Diesel. This latter option with direct injection of natural gas and diesel through separate injectors that are fully independent in their operation is determined to be the most promising, as it is expected to deliver better power density and similar part load fuel economy to Diesel.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Regenerative Braking Efficiency of a Latest Electric Vehicle

2013-11-27
2013-01-2872
Kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) placed on one axle coupled to a traditional thermal engine on the other axle is possibly the best solution presently available to dramatically improve the fuel economy while providing better performances within strict budget constraints. Different KERS may be built purely electric, purely mechanic, or hybrid mechanic/electric differing for round trip efficiency, packaging, weights, costs and requirement of further research and development. The paper presents an experimental analysis of the energy flow to and from the battery of a latest Nissan Leaf covering the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). This analysis provides a state-of-the-art benchmark of the propulsion and regenerative braking efficiencies of electric vehicles with off-the-shelve technologies.
Technical Paper

Advances in Combustion Systems for Gas Engines

2013-11-27
2013-01-2751
The paper presents a novel concept of a very efficient transportation engines for operation with CNG, LNG or LPG. The paper considers the options of single fuel design with jet ignition and dual fuel design with Diesel and gas. In the first option gas fuel is injected into the main chamber by a direct injector and ignited by jet ignition. In the second option gas fuel is injected into the main chamber by a direct injector and ignited by the direct injection of a small quantity of Diesel fuel. Injection and ignition may be tuned to control the amount of premixed and diffusion combustion to produce the best fuel conversion efficiency vs. load and speed requirements within the prescribed pressure and temperature constraints.
Technical Paper

A Novel Valve-Less Supercharged Small Two Stroke Engine of Top Brake Efficiency Above 36% and Power Density above 100 KW/Liter

2013-11-27
2013-01-2772
The paper presents a novel design for a two stroke thermal engine that delivers excellent fuel economy and low emissions within the constraints of today's cost, weight and size. The engine features asymmetrical port timing through a novel translating and rotating piston mechanism. The engine is externally scavenged and supercharged, has wet sump and oil pressure lubrication, direct injection, it is lightweight, easy to build, with minimal number of parts, low production cost, ability to be balanced and compact design. The two stroke mechanism produces a linear motion of the pistons as well as an elliptical path on the surface of the cylinder. This allows the piston to sweep as well as travel past the ports. Suitable slots around the raised lip of the piston generate the asymmetry that makes the exhaust port to open first and to close first. The inlet port remains open to complete the cylinder charging and allow supercharging. Direct fuel injection is adopted for best results.
Technical Paper

Advances in Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Gas Engines

2013-09-24
2013-01-2433
The paper presents a novel concept of very efficient transportation engines for operation with CNG, LNG or LPG. The combustion system permits mixed diesel/gasoline-like operation changing the load by quantity of fuel injected and modulating the premixed and diffusion combustion phases for high fuel energy transfer to piston work. A waste heat recovery system (WHRS) is then recovering the intercooler and engine coolant energy plus the exhaust energy. The WHRS uses a power turbine on the exhaust and a steam turbine feed by a single loop turbo-steamer. The WHRS is the enabler of much faster warm up of the engine and further improvements of the top fuel conversion efficiency to above 50% for the specific case with reduced fuel efficiency penalties changing the load or the speed.
Technical Paper

100% LPG Long Haul Truck Conversion - Economy and Environmental Benefits

2012-09-24
2012-01-1983
Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT), a Ballarat Australia based company, has developed the World's first diesel to 100% LPG conversion for heavy haul trucks. There is no diesel required or utilized on the trucks. The engine is converted with minimal changes into a spark ignition engine with equivalent power and torque of the diesel. The patented technology is now deployed in 2 Mercedes Actros trucks. The power output in engine dynamometer testing exceeds that of the diesel (in excess of 370 kW power and 2700 Nm torque). In on-road application the power curve is matched to the diesel specifications to avoid potential downstream power-train stress. Testing at the Department of Transport Energy & Infrastructure, Regency Park, SA have shown the Euro 3 truck converted to LPG is between Euro 4 and Euro 5 NOx levels, CO2 levels 10% better than diesel on DT80 test and about even with diesel on CUEDC tests.
Technical Paper

KERS Braking for 2014 F1 Cars

2012-09-17
2012-01-1802
Small, high power density turbocharged engines coupled to kinetic energy recovery systems are one of the key areas of development for both passenger and racing cars. In passenger cars, the KERS may reduce the amount of thermal energy needed to reaccelerate the car following a deceleration recovering part of the braking energy. This translates in a first, significant fuel energy saving. Also considering the KERS torque boost increasing the total torque available to accelerate the car, large engines working at very low brake mean effective pressures and efficiencies over driving cycles may also be replaced by small higher power density engines working at much higher brake mean effective pressures and therefore much higher part load efficiencies. In racing cars, the coupling of small engines to KERS may improve the perception of racing being more environmentally friendly. The KERS is more a performance boost than a fuel saving device, permitting about same lap times with smaller engines.
Technical Paper

Design of Rankine Cycle Systems to Deliver Fuel Economy Benefits over Cold Start Driving Cycles

2012-09-10
2012-01-1713
Prior papers have shown the potentials of gasoline-like internal combustion engines fitted with waste heat recovery systems (WHR) to deliver Diesel-like steady state fuel conversion efficiencies recovering the exhaust and the coolant waste heat with off-the-shelf components. In addition to the pros of the technology significantly increasing steady state efficiencies - up to 5 % in absolute values and much more in relative values - these papers also mentioned the cons of the technology, increased back pressures, increased weight, more complex packaging, more complex control, troublesome transient operation, and finally the cold start issues that prevent the uptake of the technology. This paper further explores the option to use Rankine cycle systems to improve the fuel economy of vehicles under normal driving conditions. A single Rankine cycle system is integrated here with the engine design.
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