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Technical Paper

The Effect of Friction Modifiers and DI Package on Friction Reduction Potential of Next Generation Engine Oils: Part II Aged Oils

Engine oil plays an important role in improving fuel economy of vehicles by reducing frictional losses in an engine. Our previous investigation explored the friction reduction potential of next generation engine oils by looking into the effects of friction modifiers and dispersant Inhibitor packages when engine oil was fresh. However, engine oil starts aging the moment engine start firing because of high temperature and interactions with combustion gases. Therefore, it is more relevant to investigate friction characteristics of aged oils. In this investigation, oils were aged for 5000 miles in taxi cab application.
Journal Article

Enhanced Anti-Wear Performance Induced by Innovative Base Oil in Low Viscosity Engine Oil

The oil and additive industry is challenged to meet future automotive legislations aimed at reducing worldwide CO2 emissions levels. The most efficient solution used to date has been to decrease oil viscosity leading to the introduction of new SAE grades. However this solution may soon reach its limit due to potential issues related to wear with lower engine oil viscosities. In this paper, an innovative solution is proposed that combines the use of a new tailor-made polyalkylene glycol (PAG) with specific anti-wear additives. Valvetrain wear measurements using radionuclide technique demonstrates the robustness of this solution. The wear performance was also confirmed in Sequence IVA test. An extensive tribological evaluation (film formation, wear and tribofilm surface analysis) of the interactions between the base oil and the anti-wear additives lead us to propose an underlying mechanism that can explain this performance benefit.
Technical Paper

Engine Friction and Wear Performances with Polyalkylene Glycol Engine Oils

The application of polyalkylene glycol (PAG) as a base stock for engine oil formulation has been explored for substantial fuel economy gain over traditional formulations with mineral oils. Various PAG chemistries were explored depending on feed stock material used for manufacturing. All formulations except one have the same additive package. The friction performance of these oils was evaluated in a motored single cylinder engine with current production engine hardware in the temperature range 40°C-120°C and in the speed range of 500 RPM-2500 RPM. PAG formulations showed up to 50% friction reduction over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil depending on temperature, speed, and oil chemistry. Friction evaluation in a motored I-4 engine showed up to 11% friction reduction in the temperature range 40°C-100°C over GF-5 oil. The paper will share results on ASTM Sequence VID fuel economy, Sequence IVA wear, and Sequence VG sludge and varnish tests. Chassis roll fuel economy data will also be shared.
Journal Article

Effect of Different B20 Fuels on Laboratory-Aged Engine Oil Properties

Biodiesel-blended fuel is increasingly becoming available for diesel engines. Due to seasonal and economic factors, biodiesel available in filling stations can be sourced from varying feedstocks. Moreover, biodiesel may not contain the minimum oxidative stability required by the time it is used by the automotive consumer. With fuel dilution of engine oil accelerated by post-injection of fuel for regeneration of diesel particulate filters, it is necessary to investigate whether different biodiesel feedstocks or stabilities can affect engine oil properties. In this work, SAE 15W-40 CJ-4 is diluted with B20 fuel, where the B20 was prepared with soy methyl ester (SME) B100 with high Rancimat oxidative stability, SME B100 with low oxidative stability, and lard methyl ester (LME). The oils were then subjected to laboratory aging simulating severe drive cycles. At intermediate aging times, samples were obtained and additional B20 was added to simulate on-going fuel dilution.
Journal Article

Development and Testing of an Innovative Oil Condition Sensor

In order to detect degradation of engine oil lubricant, bench testing along with a number of diesel-powered Ford trucks were instruments and tested. The purpose of the bench testing was primarily to determine performance aspects such as repeatability, hysteresis effects and so on. Vehicle testing was conducted by designing and installing a separate oil reservoir along with a circulation system which was mounted in the vicinity of the oil pan. An innovative oil sensor was directly installed on the reservoir which can measure five (5) independent oil parameters (viscosity, density, permittivity, conductance, temperature). In addition, the concept is capable of detecting the oil level continuously during normal engine operation. The sensing system consists of an ultrasonic transducer for the oil level detection as well as a Tuning Fork mechanical resonator for the oil condition measurement.
Technical Paper

Development of a Piston Ring-Cylinder Bore Wear Model

In an internal combustion engine, the wear in the piston ring/cylinder bore contact initially increases rapidly due to run-in and then attains a steady state during which the engine spends most of its useful life. This paper describes the development of an abrasive wear model for both cylinder bore and piston rings for the steady state period. The model took into account shear thinning of the lubricant, but it did not consider the effects of transient operations, geometry changes due to bore distortions, ring twist, ring motion, and corrosion. The model predicted the bore wear depth distribution from the top dead center (TDC) to the bottom dead center (BDC) and ring wear depth under different operating conditions. The maximum bore wear depth was predicted to occur at about 20 degrees after TDC where the combustion gas pressure reached its peak value. The model predicted an increase in bore and ring wear depth with increasing engine speed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Tribological Performance of Ceramic Roller Followers

Tribological properties of three different ceramic materials i.e., reacted silicon nitride, pressureless sintered silicon nitride and alumina-titanium carbide composites were investigated as cam roller followers using a motorized valve train apparatus. One pair of each ceramic rollers and one pair of 52100 steel rollers were tested against a nodular cast iron camshaft. The contact areas were lubricated by a jet of mineral oil at 88°C. The tests were conducted at camshaft speeds of 250 and 3000 r.p.m which approximate idling and rated operating speeds of an engine. The experiments were conducted for a period of 900 hours. At the end of each 100 hours of testing, the wear on the cam lobes and the ceramic rollers were measured. Also replicas were taken from the worn surfaces of ceramic rollers, steel rollers and cam lobes and examined under scanning electron microscope to record the progression of surface damage and the wear mechanisms were identified.