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Technical Paper

Analysis and Model Validation of the Toyota Prius Prime

2019-04-02
2019-01-0369
The Toyota Prius Prime is a new generation of Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, the electric drive range of which is 25 miles. This version is improved from the previous version by the addition of a one-way clutch between the engine and the planetary gear-set, which enables the generator to add electric propulsive force. The vehicle was analyzed, developed and validated based on test data from Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility, where chassis dynamometer set temperature can be controlled in a thermal chamber. First, we analyzed and developed components such as engine, battery, motors, wheels and chassis, including thermal aspects based on test data. By developing models considering thermal aspects, it is possible to simulate the vehicle driving not only in normal temperatures but also in hot, cold, or warmed-up conditions.
Technical Paper

Validating Heavy-Duty Vehicle Models Using a Platooning Scenario

2019-04-02
2019-01-1248
Connectivity and automation provide the potential to use information about the environment and future driving to minimize energy consumption. Aerodynamic drag can also be reduced by close-gap platooning using information from vehicle-to-vehicle communications. In order to achieve these goals, the designers of control strategies need to simulate a wide range of driving situations in which vehicles interact with other vehicles and the infrastructure in a closed-loop fashion. RoadRunner is a new model-based system engineering platform based on Autonomie software, which can collectively provide the necessary tools to predict energy consumption for various driving decisions and scenarios such as car-following, free-flow, or eco-approach driving, and thereby can help in developing control algorithms.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficient Speed Optimization for Real-World Highway Cruising

2018-04-03
2018-01-0589
This paper introduces an eco-driving highway cruising algorithm based on optimal control theory that is applied to a conventionally-powered connected and automated vehicle. Thanks to connectivity to the cloud and/or to infrastructure, speed limit and slope along the future route can be known with accuracy. This can in turn be used to compute the control variable trajectory that will minimize energy consumption without significantly impacting travel time. Automated driving is necessary to the implementation of this concept, because the chosen control variables (e.g., torque and gear) impact vehicle speed. An optimal control problem is built up where quadratic models are used for the powertrain. The optimization is solved by applying Pontryagin’s minimum principle, which reduces the problem to the minimization of a cost function with parameters called co-states.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Framework for Connectivity and Automation Co-simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0607
This paper presents a unified modeling environment to simulate vehicle driving and powertrain operations within the context of the surrounding environment, including interactions between vehicles and between vehicles and the road. The goal of this framework is to facilitate the analysis of the energy impacts of vehicle connectivity and automation, as well as the development of eco-driving algorithms. Connectivity and automation indeed provide the potential to use information about the environment and future driving to minimize energy consumption. To achieve this goal, the designers of eco-driving control strategies need to simulate a wide range of driving situations, including the interactions with other vehicles and the infrastructure in a closed-loop fashion.
Technical Paper

Model Validation of the Chevrolet Volt 2016

2018-04-03
2018-01-0420
Validation of a vehicle simulation model of the Chevrolet Volt 2016 was conducted. The Chevrolet Volt 2016 is equipped with the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system introduced into the market in 2016. The second generation Volt powertrain system operates in five modes, including two electric vehicle modes and three extended-range modes. Model development and validation were conducted using the test data performed on the chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility. First, the components of the vehicle, such as the engine, motor, battery, wheels, and chassis, were modeled, including thermal aspects based on the test data. For example, engine efficiency changes dependent on the coolant temperature, or chassis heating or air-conditioning operations according to the ambient and cabin temperature, were applied.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and Performance Benefits of Electrified Powertrains for Transit Buses

2018-04-03
2018-01-0321
This study presents a process to quantify the fuel saving potential of electrified powertrains for medium and heavy duty vehicles. For this study, equivalent vehicles with electrified powertrains are designed with the underlying principle of not compromising on cargo carrying capacity or performance. Several performance characteristics, that are relevant for all types of medium and heavy duty vehicles, were identified for benchmarking based on the feedback from the industry. Start-stop hybrids, parallel pre-transmission hybrids, plug-in hybrids, and battery electric vehicles are the technology choices in this study. This paper uses one vehicle as an example, explains the component sizing process followed for each powertrain, and examines each powertrain’s fuel saving potential. The process put forth in this paper can be used for evaluating vehicles that belong to all medium and heavy duty classes.
Technical Paper

Control Analysis and Model Validation for BMW i3 Range Extender

2017-03-28
2017-01-1152
The control analysis and model validation of a 2014 BMW i3-Range Extender (REX) was conducted based on the test data in this study. The vehicle testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer set within a thermal chamber at the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The BMW i3-REX is a series-type plug-in hybrid range extended vehicle which consists of a 0.65L in-line 2-cylinder range-extending engine with a 26.6kW generator, 125kW permanent magnet synchronous AC motor, and 18.8kWh lithium-ion battery. Both component and vehicle model including thermal aspects, were developed based on the test data. For example, the engine fuel consumption rate, battery resistance, or cabin HVAC energy consumption are affected by the temperature. Second, the vehicle-level control strategy was analyzed at normal temperature conditions (22°C ambient temperature). The analysis focuses on the engine on/off strategy, battery SOC balancing, and engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Fuel Economy Technology Assessment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0532
Many leading companies in the automotive industry have been putting tremendous amount of efforts into developing new designs and technologies to make their products more energy efficient. It is straightforward to evaluate the fuel economy benefit of an individual technology in specific systems and components. However, when multiple technologies are combined and integrated into a whole vehicle, estimating the impact without building and testing an actual vehicle becomes very complex, because the efficiency gains from individual components do not simply add up. In an early concept phase, a projection of fuel efficiency benefits from new technologies will be extremely useful; but in many cases, the outlook has to rely on engineer’s insight since it is impractical to run tests for all possible technology combinations.
Journal Article

Automated Model Initialization Using Test Data

2017-03-28
2017-01-1144
Building a vehicle model with sufficient accuracy for fuel economy analysis is a time-consuming process, even with the modern-day simulation tools. Obtaining the right kind of data for modeling a vehicle can itself be challenging, given that while OEMs advertise the power and torque capability of their engines, the efficiency data for the components or the control algorithms are not usually made available for independent verification. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds the testing of vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory, and the test data are publicly available. Argonne is also the premier DOE laboratory for the modeling and simulation of vehicles. By combining the resources and expertise with available data, a process has been created to automatically develop a model for any conventional vehicle that is tested at Argonne. This paper explains the process of analyzing the publicly available test data and computing the parameters of various components from the analysis.
Technical Paper

Model Validation of the Honda Accord Plug-In

2016-04-05
2016-01-1151
This paper presents the validation of an entire vehicle model of the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), which has a new powertrain system that can be driven in both series and parallel hybrid drive using a clutch, including thermal aspects. The Accord PHEV is a series-parallel PHEV with about 21 km of all-electric range and no multi-speed gearbox. Vehicle testing was performed at Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility on a chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber. First, components (engine, battery, motors and wheels) were modeled using the test data and publicly available assumptions. This includes calibration of the thermal aspects, such as engine efficiency as a function of coolant temperature. In the second phase, the vehicle-level control strategy, especially the energy management, was analyzed in normal conditions in both charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes.
Technical Paper

Impact of Connectivity and Automation on Vehicle Energy Use

2016-04-05
2016-01-0152
Connectivity and automation are increasingly being developed for cars and trucks, aiming to provide better safety and better driving experience. As these technologies mature and reach higher adoption rates, they will also have an impact on the energy consumption: Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) may drive more smoothly, stop less often, and move at faster speeds, thanks to overall improvements to traffic flows. These potential impacts are not well studied, and any existing studies tend to focus solely on conventional engine-powered cars, leaving aside electrified vehicles such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). This work intends to address this issue by analyzing the energy impact of various CAV scenarios on different types of electric vehicles using high-fidelity models. The vehicles-all midsize, one HEV, one BEV, and a conventional-are modeled in Autonomie, a high-fidelity, forward-looking vehicle simulation tool.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0903
The energy density and power density comparison of conventional fuels and batteries is often mentioned as an advantage of conventional vehicles over electric vehicles. Such an analysis often shows that the batteries are at least an order of magnitude behind fuels like gasoline. However this incomplete analysis ignores the impact of powertrain efficiency and mass of the powertrain itself. When we compare the potential of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative for conventional vehicles, it is important to include the energy in the fuel and their storage as well as the eventual conversion to mechanical energy. For instance, useful work expected out of a conventional vehicle as well as a BEV is the same (to drive 300 miles with a payload of about 300 lb). However, the test weight of a Conventional vehicle and BEV will differ on the basis of what is needed to convert their respective stored energy to mechanical energy.
Technical Paper

Impact of Advanced Engine and Powertrain Technologies on Engine Operation and Fuel Consumption for Future Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0978
Near-term advances in spark ignition (SI) engine technology (e.g., variable value lift [VVL], gasoline direct injection [GDI], cylinder deactivation, turbo downsizing) for passenger vehicles hold promise of delivering significant fuel savings for vehicles of the immediate future. Similarly, trends in transmissions indicate higher (8-speed, 9-speed) gear numbers, higher spans, and a focus on downspeeding to improve engine efficiency. Dual-clutch transmissions, which exhibit higher efficiency in lower gears, than the traditional automatics, and are being introduced in the light-duty vehicle segment worldwide. Another development requiring low investment and delivering immediate benefits has been the adaptation of start-stop (micro hybrids or idle engine stop technology) technology in vehicles today.
Technical Paper

Impact of TEGs on the Fuel Economy of Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1712
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) can be used for a variety of applications in automobiles. There is a lot of interest in using them for waste heat recovery from a fuel economy point of view. This paper examines the potential of TEGs to provide cost-effective improvements in the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Simulation analysis is used to quantify fuel economy benefits. The paper explains how a TEG is used in a vehicle and explores the idea of improving the TEG design by introducing a thermal reservoir in the TEG model to improve the waste heat recovery. An effort is made to identify the technological and economic barriers (and their thresholds) that could prevent TEGs from becoming an acceptable means of waste heat recovery in automobiles.
Journal Article

Fuel Consumption and Cost Potential of Different Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-1160
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have demonstrated the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel use across a wide range of dynamometer test driving cycles. Companies and research organizations are involved in numerous research activities related to PHEVs. One of the current unknowns is the impact of driving behavior and standard test procedure on the true benefits of PHEVs from a worldwide perspective. To address this issue, five different PHEV powertrain configurations (input split, parallel, series, series-output split and series-parallel), implemented on vehicles with different all-electric ranges (AERs), were analyzed on three different standard cycles (i.e., Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, Highway Fuel Economy Test, and New European Driving Cycle). Component sizes, manufacturing cost, and fuel consumption were analyzed for a midsize car in model year 2020 through the use of vehicle system simulations.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Ford Focus Battery Electric Vehicle Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-1809
This paper presents the vehicle model development and validation process for the Ford Focus battery electric vehicles (BEVs) using Autonomie and test results from Advanced Powertrain Research Facility in Argonne National Laboratory. The parameters or characteristic values for the important components such as the electric machine and battery pack system are estimated through analyzing the test data of the multi cycle test (MCT) procedure under the standard ambient condition. A novel process was used to import vehicle test data into Autonomie. Through this process, a complete vehicle model of the Ford Focus BEV is developed and validated under ambient temperature for different drive cycles (UDDS, HWFET, US06 and Steady-State). The simulation results of the developed vehicle model show coincident results with the test data within 0.5% ∼ 4% discrepancies for electrical consumption.
Technical Paper

Advanced Automatic Transmission Model Validation Using Dynamometer Test Data

2014-04-01
2014-01-1778
As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie. Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data.
Journal Article

Control Analysis under Different Driving Conditions for Peugeot 3008 Hybrid 4

2014-04-01
2014-01-1818
This paper includes analysis results for the control strategy of the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, a diesel-electric hybrid vehicle, under different thermal conditions. The analysis was based on testing results obtained under the different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives were to determine the principal concepts of the control strategy for the vehicle at a supervisory level, and to understand the overall system behavior based on the concepts. Control principles for complex systems are generally designed to maximize the performance, and it is a serious challenge to determine these principles without detailed information about the systems. By analyzing the test results obtained in various driving conditions with the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, we tried to figure out the supervisory control strategy.
Journal Article

Impact of Electric Drive Vehicle Technologies on Fuel Efficiency to Support 2017-2025 CAFE Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1084
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some of the most promising technologies are related to vehicle electrification. To evaluate the benefits of vehicle electrification to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the most common electric drive powertrains currently available on the market: 12V Micro Hybrid Vehicle (start/stop systems), Belt-integrated starter generator (BISG), Crank-integrated starter generator (CISG), Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), PHEV with 20-mile all-electric range (AER) (PHEV20), PHEV with 40-mile AER (PHEV40), Fuel-cell HEV and Battery Electric vehicle with 100-mile AER (EV100). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each powertrain across vehicle classes.
Technical Paper

Impact of Transmission Technologies on Fuel Efficiency to Support 2017-2025 CAFE Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1082
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. One of the most cost effective technology is related to advanced transmissions. To evaluate the benefits of transmission technologies and control to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the many types of transmissions: Automatic transmissions, Manual Transmission as well as Dual Clutch Transmissions including the most commonly used number of gears in each of the technologies (5-speeds, 6-speeds, and 8-speeds). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each advanced transmission across vehicle classes.
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