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Technical Paper

Study on the Pre-Chamber Fueling Ratio Effect on the Main Chamber Combustion Using Simultaneous PLIF and OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

2020-09-15
2020-01-2024
Pre-chamber combustion (PCC) enables leaner air-fuel ratio operation by improving its ignitability and extending flammability limit, and consequently, offers better thermal efficiency than conventional spark ignition operation. The geometry and fuel concentration of the pre-chamber (PC) is one of the major parameters that affect overall performance. To understand the dynamics of the PCC in practical engine conditions, this study focused on (i) correlation of the events in the main chamber (MC) with the measured in-cylinder pressure traces and, (ii) the effect of fuel concentration on the MC combustion characteristics using laser diagnostics. We performed simultaneous acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) from the side, and OH* chemiluminescence imaging from the bottom in a heavy-duty optical engine. Two different PC Fueling Ratios (PCFR, the ratio of PC fuel to the total fuel), 7%, and 13%, were investigated.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of a Multiple Fuel Injector Concept under High-Load and High-EGR Conditions

2020-09-15
2020-01-2034
A new concept utilizing multiple fuel injectors was proven effective at reducing heat transfer losses by directing spray plumes further away from the combustion chamber walls. In this concept, two injectors are mounted close to the rim of the piston bowl and point in opposite directions to generate swirling in-cylinder bulk motion. Moreover, a new flat-bowl piston design was also proposed in combination with the multiple fuel injectors for even larger improvements in thermal efficiency. However, all tests were performed at low-to-medium load conditions with no significant EGR. Modern engine concepts, such as the double compression-expansion engine (DCEE), have demonstrated higher thermal efficiency when operated at high-load conditions with a large amount of EGR for NOx control. Thus, this study aims to assess the effectiveness of the multiple-fuel-injector system under such conditions. In this study, a number of 3-D CFD simulations are performed using the RANS technique in CONVERGE.
Technical Paper

Narrow-Throat Pre-Chamber Combustion with Ethanol, a Comparison with Methane

2020-09-15
2020-01-2041
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations, the use of pre-chamber combustion systems is gaining popularity in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The advantages of pre-chambers are well established, such as improving fuel economy by increasing the lean limit and reducing emissions, particularly NOX. In pre-chamber combustion, flame jets shoot out from the pre-chamber orifices into the main chamber, generating several ignition points that promote a rapid burn rate of the lean mixture (excess-air ratio (λ) >1) in the main chamber. This work studies the effects of using two different fuels in the main chamber and assesses the lean limit, the combustion efficiency (ηc), and the emissions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine equipped with a narrow-throat active pre-chamber. Ethanol (C2H5OH) was tested in the main chamber while keeping the pre-chamber fueled with methane (CH4), and the results were then compared to using methane as the sole fuel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Knock Mechanism with Multiple Spark Plugs and Multiple Pressure Sensors

2020-09-15
2020-01-2055
Engine knock is an abnormal phenomenon, which places barriers for modern Spark-Ignition (SI) engines to achieve higher thermal efficiency and better performance. In order to trigger more controllable knock events for study while keeping the knock intensity at restricted range, various spark strategies (e.g. spark timing, spark number, spark location) are applied to investigate on their influences on knock combustion characteristics and pressure oscillations. The experiment is implemented on a modified single cylinder Compression-Ignition (CI) engine operated at SI mode with port fuel injection (PFI). A specialized liner with 4 side spark plugs and 4 pressure sensors is used to generate various flame propagation processes, which leads to different auto-ignition onsets and knock development. Based on multiple channels of pressure signals, a band-pass filter is applied to obtain the pressure oscillations with respect to different spark strategies.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Performance and Emissions of HCCI Oxy-Fuel Combustion in a CFR Engine with Recirculated Carbon Dioxide

2020-09-15
2020-01-2065
Stringent emission regulations and the anticipated climate change call for a paradigm shift in the design of the conventional internal combustion engines. One way to combat this problem is oxy-fuel combustion in which the combustion products are mainly water vapor and carbon dioxide. Water vapor can be easily separated by condensation and carbon dioxide is then easily captured and stored. However, many technical challenges are associated with this mode of combustion. There are many challenges facing oxy-fuel combustion before it find its way to commercial production especially for internal combustion engines. One such challenge is the relatively high temperature of the oxy-fuel combustion. A solution to this problem is the recirculation of the generated CO2 to moderate the in-cylinder temperature. Therefore, careful study of the effect of recirculating the CO2 back to combustion chamber is needed before the implementation of such a concept.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Negative PLIF and OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging of the Gas Exchange and Flame Jet from a Narrow Throat Pre-Chamber

2020-09-15
2020-01-2080
Pre-chamber combustion (PCC) is a promising engine combustion concept capable of extending the lean limit at part load. The engine experiments in the literature showed that the PCC could achieve higher engine thermal efficiency and much lower NOx emission than the spark-ignition engine. Improved understanding of the detailed flow and combustion physics of PCC is important for optimizing the PCC combustion. In this study, we investigated the gas exchange and flame jet from a narrow throat pre-chamber (PC) by only fueling the PC with methane in an optical engine. Simultaneous negative acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and OH* chemiluminescence imaging were applied to visualize the PC jet and flame jet from the PC, respectively. Results indicate a delay of the PC gas exchange relative to the built-up of the pressure difference (△ P) between PC and the main chamber (MC). This should be due to the gas inertia inside the PC and the resistance of the PC nozzle.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Imaging of Main-Chamber Combustion of a Narrow Throat Pre-Chamber under Lean Conditions

2020-09-15
2020-01-2081
Pre-chamber combustion (PCC) allows an extension on the lean limit of an internal combustion engine (ICE). This combustion mode provides lower NOx emissions and shorter combustion durations that lead to a higher indicated efficiency. In the present work, a narrow throat pre-chamber was tested, which has a unique nozzle area distribution in two rows of six nozzle holes each. Tests were carried out in a modified heavy-duty engine for optical visualization. Methane was used as fuel for both the pre-chamber and the main chamber. Seven operating points were tested, including passive pre-chamber mode as a limit condition, to study the effect of pre- and main-chamber fuel addition on the pre-chamber jets and the main chamber combustion via chemiluminescence imaging. A typical cycle of one of the tested conditions is explained through the captured images. Observations of the typical cycle reveal a predominant presence of only six jets (from the lower row), with well-defined jet structures.
Technical Paper

Isobaric Combustion for High Efficiency in an Optical Diesel Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0301
Isobaric combustion has been proven a promising strategy for high efficiency as well as low nitrogen oxides emissions, particularly in heavy-duty Diesel engines. Previous single-cylinder research engine experiments have, however, shown high soot levels when operating isobaric combustion. The combustion itself and the emissions formation with this combustion mode are not well understood due to the complexity of multiple injections strategy. Therefore, experiments with an equivalent heavy-duty Diesel optical engine were performed in this study. Three different cases were compared, an isochoric heat release case and two isobaric heat release cases. One of the isobaric cases was boosted to reach the maximum in-cylinder pressure of the isochoric one. The second isobaric case kept the same boost levels as the isochoric case. Results showed that in the isobaric cases, liquid fuel was injected into burning gases. This resulted in shorter ignition delays and thus a poor mixing level.
Technical Paper

Effects of Geometry on Passive Pre-Chamber Combustion Characteristics

2020-04-14
2020-01-0821
Towards a fundamental understanding of the ignition characteristics of pre-chamber (PC) combustion engines, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted using CONVERGE. To assist the initial design of the KAUST pre-chamber engine experiments, the primary focus of the present study was to assess the impact of design parameters such as throat diameter, nozzle diameter, and nozzle length. The well-stirred reactor combustion model coupled with a methane oxidation mechanism reduced from GRI 3.0 was used. A homogeneous charge of methane and air with λ = 1.3 on both the PC and main chamber (MC) was assumed. The geometrical parameters were shown to affect the pre-chamber combustion characteristics, such as pressure build-up, radical formation, and heat release as well as the composition of the jets penetrating and igniting the main chamber charge. In addition, the backflow of species pushed inside the pre-chamber due to the flow reversal (FR) event was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-Chamber Enrichment on Lean Burn Pre-Chamber Spark Ignition Combustion Concept with a Narrow-Throat Geometry

2020-04-14
2020-01-0825
Pre-chamber spark ignition (PCSI) combustion is an emerging lean-burn combustion mode capable of extending the lean operation limit of an engine. The favorable characteristic of short combustion duration at the lean condition of PCSI results in high efficiencies compared to conventional spark ignition combustion. Since the engine operation is typically lean, PCSI can significantly reduce engine-out NOx emissions while maintaining short combustion durations. In this study, experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty engine at lean conditions at mid to low load. Two major studies were performed. In the first study, the total fuel energy input to the engine was fixed while the intake pressure was varied, resulting in varying the global excess air ratio. In the second study, the intake pressure was fixed while the amount of fuel was changed to alter the global excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Isobaric Combustion at a Low Compression Ratio

2020-04-14
2020-01-0797
In a previous study, it was shown that isobaric combustion cycle, achieved by multiple injection strategy, is more favorable than conventional diesel cycle for the double compression expansion engine (DCEE) concept. In spite of lower effective expansion ratio, the indicated efficiencies of isobaric cycles were approximately equal to those of a conventional diesel cycle. Isobaric cycles had lower heat transfer losses and higher exhaust losses which are advantageous for DCEE since additional exhaust energy can be converted into useful work in the expander. In this study, the performance of low-pressure isobaric combustion (IsoL) and high-pressure isobaric combustion (IsoH) in terms of gross indicated efficiency, energy flow distribution and engine-out emissions is compared to the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) but at a relatively lower compression ratio of 11.5. The experiments are conducted in a Volvo D13C500 single-cylinder heavy-duty engine using standard EU diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Validation of Computational Models for Isobaric Combustion Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-0806
The focus of this study is to aid the development of the isobaric combustion engine by investigating multiple injection strategies at moderately high pressures. A three-dimensional (3D) commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, was used to conduct simulations. The validation of the isobaric combustion case was carried out through the use of a single injector with multiple injections. The computational simulations were matched to the experimental data using methods outlined in this paper for different multiple injection cases. A sensitivity analysis to understand the effects of different modeling components on the quantitative prediction was carried out. First, the effects of the kinetic mechanisms were assessed by employing different chemical mechanisms, and the results showed no significant difference in the conditions under consideration.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Ignition of Lean CH4/Air Mixture by a Pre-Chamber-Initiated Turbulent Jet

2020-04-14
2020-01-0820
To provide insights into the fundamental characteristics of pre-chamber combustion engines, the ignition of lean premixed CH4/air due to hot gas jets initiated by a passive narrow throated pre-chamber in a heavy-duty engine was studied computationally. A twelve-hole pre-chamber geometry was investigated using CONVERGETM software. The numerical model was validated against the experimental results. To elucidate the main-chamber ignition mechanism, the spark plug location and spark timing were varied, resulting in different pressure gradient during turbulent jet formation. Different ignition mechanisms were observed for turbulent jet ignition of lean premixed CH4/air, based on the geometry effect. Ignition behavior was classified into the flame and jet ignition depending on the significant presence of hot active radicals. The jet ignition, mainly due to hot product gases was found to be advanced by the addition of a small concentration of radicals.
Technical Paper

On Maximizing Argon Engines' Performance via Subzero Intake Temperatures in HCCI Mode at High Compression Ratios

2020-04-14
2020-01-1133
The improvement of the indicated thermal efficiency of an argon power cycle (replacing nitrogen with argon in the combustion reaction) is investigated in a CFR engine at high compression ratios in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode. The study combines the two effects that can increase the thermodynamic efficiency as predicted by the ideal Otto cycle: high specific heat ratio (provided by argon), and high compression ratios. However, since argon has relatively low heat capacity (at constant volume), it results in high in-cylinder temperatures, which in turn, leads to the occurrence of knock. Knock limits the feasible range of compression ratios and further increasing the compression ratio can cause serious damage to the engine due to the high pressure rise rate caused by advancing the combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Optical Study on the Fuel Spray Characteristics of the Four-Consecutive-Injections Strategy Used in High-Pressure Isobaric Combustion

2020-04-14
2020-01-1129
High-pressure isobaric combustion used in the double compression expansion engine (DCEE) concept was proposed to obtain higher engine brake thermal efficiency than the conventional diesel engine. Experiments on the metal engines showed that four consecutive injections delivered by a single injector can achieve isobaric combustion. Improved understanding of the detailed fuel-air mixing with multiple consecutive injections is needed to optimize the isobaric combustion and reduce engine emissions. In this study, we explored the fuel spray characteristics of the four-consecutive-injections strategy using high-speed imaging with background illumination and fuel-tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging in a heavy-duty optical engine under non-reactive conditions. Toluene of 2% by volume was added to the n-heptane and served as the tracer. The fourth harmonic of a 10 Hz Nd:YAG laser was applied for the excitation of toluene.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics of Isooctane and n-Heptane Isobaric Combustion

2020-04-14
2020-01-1126
Isobaric combustion has demonstrated a great potential to reach high thermodynamic efficiency in the advanced Double Compression Expansion Engine (DCEE) concept. It appears as one of few viable choices for applications with high-pressure combustion. At these conditions, releasing heat at a constant pressure minimizes the peak in-cylinder pressure and, hence, mitigates excessive mechanical stress on the engine. This study focuses on the effect of fuels on the multiple-injection isobaric combustion. A single-cylinder heavy-duty engine was utilized to test and compare the isobaric combustion with pure isooctane and n-heptane fuels. The engine was equipped with an optical piston to allow a bottom-view of the combustion chamber. The interactions of multiple injections and the combustion behavior were studied using high-speed acquisition of chemiluminescence. The examined isobaric cases have a peak pressure of 70 bar.
Technical Paper

Fuel Flexibility Study of a Compression Ignition Engine at High Loads

2019-12-19
2019-01-2193
Engine experiments were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine at relatively high loads to investigate the regions where the combustion characteristics are unchanged regardless of the fuel octane number. Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) and three different commercial fuels with RON values ranging from 0 to 100 were tested in this study. A sweep of net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPNet) of 5 to 20 bar, absolute intake pressure of 1.5 to 2.8 bar, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) of 0 to 40%, and fuel injection pressure of 700 to 1400 bar were performed to investigate the combustion characteristics, ignition delay time, combustion duration, efficiency, and emissions. At the highest load point (IMEPNet = 20 bar), all the fuels burn as in conventional diesel combustion. Despite the wide range of octane numbers, all fuels had similar ignition delay time, combustion duration, indicated efficiency, and emissions at 10 to 20 bar IMEPNet.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategies for Isobaric Combustion

2019-12-19
2019-01-2267
In a previous study, we demonstrated that the isobaric combustion cycle, achieved with a split injection strategy, can be more suitable for the double compression expansion engine concept than the conventional diesel combustion cycle. The present work is focused on understanding the effect of different injection strategies on the heat release, efficiency, and emissions of isobaric combustion at the peak cylinder pressure of 150 bar. In situ injection rate measurements are performed to improve our understanding of the heat release rate shape and pollutant formation. A variation of load is performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the isobaric combustion cycle at higher loads, and the means of achieving them. The thermal efficiency reduces at lower loads because of heat losses. It peaks at a medium load point before reducing again at higher loads because of exhaust losses.
Technical Paper

Oxy-Fuel HCCI Combustion in a CFR Engine with Carbon Dioxide as a Thermal Buffer

2019-09-09
2019-24-0119
Global warming and the increasingly stringent emission regulations call for alternative combustion techniques to reduce CO2 emissions. Oxy-fuel combustion is one of those techniques since the combustion products are easily separated by condensing the water and storing CO2. A problem associated with the burning of fuel using pure oxygen as an oxidant is that it results in high adiabatic flame temperature. This high flame temperature is decreased by introducing a thermal buffer to the system. A thermal buffer in this context is any gas that does not participate in combustion but at the same time absorbs some of the released heat and thus decreases the temperature of the medium. Many experiments have been conducted to study oxy-fuel combustion in ICE using noble gases as thermal buffers. However, those experiments focused on using hydrogen as a fuel to avoid any build-up of CO2 in the system.
Technical Paper

Thermal Efficiency Comparison of Different Injector Constellations in a CI Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0172
More stringent emission regulations call for high-efficiency engines in the heavy-duty vehicle sector. Towards this goal, reduced heat losses, as well as increased work output, are needed. In this study, a multiple injector concept to control the combustion as well as reduce the hot boundary zones is proposed. Earlier studies have proven that multiple injectors experience lower heat losses and higher efficiency. However, a comprehensive investigation of the causes for experimental heat loss was not performed in depth. Experiments in a heavy-duty CI engine equipped with three injectors were thus performed. Engine configurations of single, dual and triple injectors were compared for a single-injection case as well as a multi-injection (Sabathe-cycle) case. Heat losses, efficiency and the emission levels were quantified and investigated. Optical experiments were performed to investigate the temperature field as well as flame behavior.
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