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Technical Paper

Extended Kalman Filter Based Road Friction Coefficient Estimation and Experimental Verification

Accurate road friction coefficient is crucial for the proper functioning of active chassis control systems. However, road friction coefficient is difficult to be measured directly. Using the available onboard sensors, a model-based Extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is proposed in this paper to estimate road friction coefficient. In the development of estimation algorithm, vehicle motion states such as sideslip angle, yaw rate and vehicle speed are first estimated. Then, road friction coefficient estimator is designed using nonlinear vehicle model together with the pre-estimated vehicle motion states. The proposed estimation algorithm is validated by both simulations and tests on a scaled model vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of an Out-of-Plane Flexible Ring Tire Model Compared with Commercial FTire® Via Virtual Cleat Tests

In this paper, based on our previously preliminary out-of-plane tire model, a complete out-of-plane flexible tire model is further developed by considering the variation of dimension and parameter values among different slices of the tire model. This tire model is validated via various MSC ADAMS® FTire virtual cleat tests. Especially, the cleat tests with non-zero tire camber angles and non-symmetric cleat shapes, which can better capture the out-of-plane tire properties, are included. By comparing the predicted results of the proposed tire model with FTire for various cleat tests, it shows that the complete out-of-plane flexible ring tire model is better at fully representing the actual tire properties for some complicated cleat testing scenarios.
Journal Article

Yaw Stability Enhancement of Articulated Commercial Vehicles via Gain-Scheduling Optimal Control Approach

In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Jackknifing Prevention of Tractor-Semitrailer Combination Using Active Braking Control

Vehicle jackknifing is generally associated with the loss of yaw stability, and is one of the most common cause of serious traffic accidents involving tractor-semitrailer combinations. In this paper, an active braking control strategy is proposed for jackknifing prevention of a tractor-semitrailer combination on a low friction road. The proposed control strategy is realized via upper-level and lower-level control structures considering braking of both the units. In the upper-level control, the required corrective yaw moments for tractor and semitrailer are generated using a PID controller aiming to reduce errors between the actual yaw rates of tractor-semitrailer and the target yaw rates deduced from a reference model. The corrective yaw moments are achieved through brake torque distribution among the tractor and semitrailer axle wheels in the lower-level control.
Journal Article

Tire Model Application and Parameter Identification-A Literature Review

A tire may be one of the most critical and complex components in vehicle dynamics and road loads analyses because it serves as the only interface between the road surface and the vehicle. Extensive research and development activities about vehicle dynamics and tire models have been published in the past decades, but it is still not clear about the applications and parameter identification associated with all of these tire models. In this literature review study, various published tire models used for vehicle dynamics and road loads analyses are compared in terms of their modeling approaches, applications and parameters identification process and methodologies. It is hoped that the summary of this literature review work can help clarify and guide the future research and development direction about tire modeling.
Journal Article

Optimal Torque Control for an Electric-Drive Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors: Implementation and Experiments

This paper presents the implementation of an off-line optimized torque vectoring controller on an electric-drive vehicle with four in-wheel motors for driver assistance and handling performance enhancement. The controller takes vehicle longitudinal, lateral, and yaw acceleration signals as feedback using the concept of state-derivative feedback control. The objective of the controller is to optimally control the vehicle motion according to the driver commands. Reference signals are first calculated using a driver command interpreter to accurately interpret what the driver intends for the vehicle motion. The controller then adjusts the braking/throttle outputs based on discrepancy between the vehicle response and the interpreter command.