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Technical Paper

Cavitation Initiation, Its Development and Link with Flow Turbulence in Diesel Injector Nozzles

The initiation and development of cavitation in enlarged transparent acrylic models of six-hole nozzles for direct injection Diesel engines has been visualised by a high-speed digital video camera in a purpose-built refractive index matching test rig. The obtained high temporal resolution images have allowed improved understanding of the origin of the cavitation structures in Diesel injector nozzles and clarification of the effect of sac geometry (conical mini-sac vs. VCO) on cavitation initiation and development in the nozzle holes. The link between cavitation and flow turbulence in the sac volume and, more importantly, in the injection holes has been quantified through measurements of the flow by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) at a number of planes as a function of the Reynolds and cavitation numbers.
Technical Paper

Structure of high-pressure diesel sprays

A comprehensive set of computational and experimental results for high- pressure diesel sprays are presented and discussed. The test cases investigated include injection of diesel into air under both atmospheric and high pressure/temperature chamber conditions, injection against pressurized and cross-flowing CF6 simulating respectively the density and flow conditions of a diesel engine at the time of injection, as well as injection into the piston bowl of both research and production turbocharged high-speed DI diesel engines. A variety of high-pressure injection systems and injector nozzles have been used including mechanical and electronic high-pressure pumps as well as common-rail systems connected to nozzles incorporating a varying number of holes with diameters ranging from conventional to micro-size.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Development in a Four-Valve Optical DI Diesel Engine

An optical single-cylinder four-valve high speed DI Diesel engine equipped with a high-pressure electronic fuel injection system has been used to obtain information about the spray development, combustion and exhaust emissions (NOx and smoke levels) for a range of operating conditions corresponding to engine speeds between 600 and 1800 rpm, injection pressures up to 1200 bars and fuel injection quantities from idle to full load. Two six-hole vertical mini-sac type injection nozzles with different hole sizes have been employed in order to investigate the effect of nozzle hole diameter on spray formation, combustion and exhaust emissions. Parallel to the experimental programme, a computational investigation of the fuel flow distribution inside the injection system and of the subsequent spray characteristics has been performed in order to assist in the interpretation of the results.
Technical Paper

Cavitation in Real-Size Multi-Hole Diesel Injector Nozzles

A production six-hole conical sac-type nozzle incorporating a quartz window in one of the injection holes has been used in order to visualize the flow under cavitating flow conditions. Simultaneous variation of both the injection and the back chamber pressures allowed images to be obtained at various cavitation and Reynolds numbers for two different fixed needle lifts corresponding to the first- and the second-stage lift of two-stage injectors. The flow visualization system was based on a fast and high resolution CCD camera equipped with high magnification lenses which allowed details of the various flow regimes formed inside the injection hole to be identified. From the obtained images both hole cavitation initiated at the top inlet corner of the hole as well as string cavitation formed inside the sac volume and entering into the hole from the bottom corner, were identified to occur at different cavitation and Reynolds numbers.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cavitation in a Vertical Multi-Hole Injector

An enlarged transparent model of a six-hole vertical diesel injector has been used to allow visualization of the flow at Reynolds and cavitation numbers matching those of real size injectors operating under normal Diesel engine conditions. The visualization system comprised a CCD camera, high-magnification lenses and a spark light source which allowed high-resolution images to be obtained. The flow conditions examined in terms of flow rates and pressures covered the range from low to full load of the real size injector while the needle lift position corresponded to that of full lift of the first- and second- stage in two-stage injectors. In addition, different values of needle eccentricity were tested in order to examine its effect on the cavitation structures within the injection holes.
Technical Paper

Measurements of the Lubricant Film Thickness in the Cylinder of a Firing Diesel Engine Using LIF

A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed to obtain measurements of the instantaneous lubricant film thickness in the piston-cylinder assembly of a firing single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine. Measurements were made at top-dead-centre (TDC), mid-stroke and bottom-dead-centre (BDC) position by means of three fibre optic probes inserted into the cylinder liner and mounted flush with its surface. Following extensive repeatability tests, the cycle-averaged lubricant film thickness was estimated for different multi-grade oils as a function of engine speed, load and temperature. The results quantified the dependence of the film thickness ahead, under and behind the piston rings on oil chemistry and viscometric properties, thus confirming the important role of the LIF technique in the development and formulation of new engine oils.
Technical Paper

Cold-start Measurements of the Lubricant Film Thickness in the Cylinder of a Firing Diesel Engine

Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was used in the cylinder liner of a firing single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine to characterise the development of the lubricant film during the first 200 engine cycles under cold-start conditions. The results have provided information on the rate of oil film development which has proved to be a highly unsteady process due to the complicated oil transport processes through the ring-pack.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Flow in the Nozzle of a Vertical Multi-Hole Diesel Engine Injector

An enlarged transparent model of a six-hole vertical diesel injector has been manufactured in order to allow flow measurements inside the sac volume and the injection holes to be obtained using a combination of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and the refractive index matching technique under steady state conditions. The measurement points were concentrated in the sac volume close to the entrance of the injection holes as well as inside them on a vertical plane passing through the axis of two injection holes for two different needle lifts. The velocity flow field was characterized in terms of the mean velocity and the turbulent intensity. The results revealed that, under certain conditions, cavitation may occur in the recirculation zone formed at the entrance to the hole since the pressure in this region can reach the value of the vapor pressure of the flowing liquid; this was found to strongly depend on the needle lift and eccentricity.
Technical Paper

Mixed Lubrication Modelling of Newtonian and Shear Thinning Liquids in a Piston-Ring Configuration

Mixed-lubrication models comprising of Patir and Cheng's [1,2] average Reynolds equation and Greenwood and Tripp's [3] asperity interaction formulations have hitherto been widely used in predicting piston-ring performance. In this paper a number of models have been developed to allow mixed-lubrication of both Newtonian and shear thinning fluids to be simulated. Lubricating action usually involves two anisotropic solid surfaces of statistically different profiles. Various forms of the average Reynolds equation and the asperity interaction models require parameters representing the composite surface roughness and profile parameters at the contact. Here a strategy for determining these equivalent composite parameters is presented. Mathematical simulations indicate that when the composite RMS and composite summit RMS roughness of the contact approach the same value, the performance of the mix-lubrication model becomes dominated by the asperity interaction formulation.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion in the Dl Diesel Engine

The diesel engine is the most efficient user of fossil fuels for vehicle propulsion and seems to best fulfill the requirements of the future. It is for this reason that Volkswagen has initiated a very broad research programme for diesels. The purpose of this paper is to build a bridge between fundamental research and technical developments which could allow evaluation of the prospects of direct- injection diesels as powerplants of choice for passenger cars in the turn of the century. The current knowledge on mixture formation, combustion and pollutant formation in diesel engines is presented and discussed with special emphasis given to the concept of the direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Application of a FIE Computer Model to an In-Line Pump-Based Injection System for Diesel Engines

A computer model simulating the flow in fuel injection systems has been used in order to investigate the fuel injection processes in an in-line pump-based fuel injection system for direct-injection diesel engines. The model is one-dimensional and it is based on the mass and momentum conservation equations for the simulation of the fuel flow and on the equilibrium of forces for the simulation of the mechanical movements of the valves present in the system. The fuel injection system tested comprised an in-line pump whose characteristics were examined by using as input the measured line pressure signal and by modeling the pump operation itself as well as the fuel flow through single- and two-stage injectors. For the validation of the model, extensive comparison with experimental data has been performed for a wide range of pump operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR on Spray Development, Combustion and Emissions in a 1.9L Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

The spray development, combustion and emissions in a 1.9L optical, four-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine were investigated by means of pressure analysis, high-speed cinematography, the two-colour method and exhaust gas analysis for various levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), three EGR temperatures (uncontrolled, hot and cold) and three fuels (diesel, n-heptane and a two-component fuel 7D3N). Engine operating conditions included 1000 rpm/idle and 2000 rpm/2bar with EGR-rates ranging from 0 to 70%. Independent of rate, EGR was found to have a very small effect on spray angle and spray tip penetration but the auto-ignition sites seemed to increase in size and number at higher EGR-rates with associated reduction in the flame luminosity and flame temperature, by, say, 100K at 50% EGR.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Pump Design Parameters in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

A computer model solving the 1-D flow in a typical fuel injection system for direct-injection diesel engines is presented. A Bosch distributor - type VE pump connected to four Stanadyne pencil - type nozzles has been used to validate the computer model over a wide range of operating conditions. Validation of the developed computer code has been performed for eight representative test cases. The predicted values which were compared with the experimental ones include the pumping chamber pressure, the line pressure, the needle lift and the injection rate. Results using as input the measured pumping chamber pressure are also presented in order to identify the error in the injection rate signal attributed to the difference between the simulated and the experimental pumping chamber pressure. In addition, the total fuel injection quantity for pump speeds between 500 and 2000 rpm and lever positions between 20% to 100% was calculated and compared with measurements.
Technical Paper

Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Impinging Diesel Sprays Under Cross-Flow Conditions

The spray/wall interaction in small direct-injection diesel engines employing swirl was simulated in a bench-type experiment by a steady cross-flow of air acting on a transient diesel spray impinging normally onto a heated and unheated flat plate under atmospheric conditions. The droplet size and velocity characteristics in the radial wall-jet formed on the plate after spray impingement were investigated by phase-Doppler anemometry and the spray/wall heat transfer during impingement was measured using fast-response thermocouples. The results showed that the mechanism of secondary atomisation of the impinging droplets was altered as droplets from the approaching spray were entrained by the cross-flow, while the spray/wall heat transfer was reduced due to the lower droplet flux reaching the wall. Based on the approaching droplet velocity and size characteristics and wall temperature, an empirical correlation has been derived between the flow and heat transfer parameters.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR on Combustion Development in a 1.9L DI Diesel Optical Engine

The effect of various levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the combustion characteristics has been investigated in the four-cylinder 1.9L direct-injection optical VW diesel engine in terms of the cylinder pressure, flame development, temperature and KL-factor distributions. Images of the developing flame under twelve engine operating conditions including 1000rpm/idle, 2000rpm/2 bar bmep and 2000rpm/10 bar bmep at 0%, 30% and 50% EGR-rates were obtained by means of two CCD cameras, in the absence of external illumination, with and without interference filters in the optical path. Analysis of these images has revealed that increased EGR rates lead to increased cyclic pressure variations during the warm-up period of the engine, reduced and more fragmented high-temperature regions, reduced flame core temperatures, generally reduced soot oxidation rates but similar ignition delay times.
Technical Paper

Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Impinging Transient Diesel Sprays

The spatial and temporal characteristics of transient diesel sprays impinging on unheated and heated walls were investigated by phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) and the heat-transfer distribution in the vicinity of the impingement region was determined by fast response thermocouples. The results have provided quantitative evidence about the effect that the presence of the flat wall exerts on the spray characteristics. For example, independent of the thickness of the liquid film, the wall rearranges the droplet size distribution of the free spray with droplet collision and coalescence playing an important role in both the droplet redistribution and in the development of the wall-jet. Droplet sizes were reduced and mean tangential velocities increased with wall temperature at the upstream side and at the front of the wall-jet, respectively.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Single- and Two-Spring Diesel Fuel Injectors

The spatial and temporal characteristics of the non-evaporating diesel sprays injected into the atmosphere through two pump-pipe-nozzle systems used in small DI diesel engines have been investigated by laser-single-beam deflection and phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA). The injectors used for these tests comprised a single-spring and a prototype two-spring multihole-type nozzle. The results provided quantitative information about the effect that the second spring exerts on injection duration and spray characteristics, i.e. it increases injection duration and, at the same time, improves fuel atomisation during the main injection period.
Technical Paper

Flow and Combustion in a Hydra Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

Measurements of flow, spray, combustion and performance characteristics are reported for a Hydra direct-injection diesel, based on the Ford 2.5 L, engine and equipped with a variable-swirl port, a unit fuel injector and optical access through the liner and piston. The results provide links between the pre-combustion and combustion flow and, at the same time, between purpose-built single-cylinder optical engines and multi-cylinder production engines of nearly identical combustion chamber geometry. In particular, the spray penetration was found to depend on engine speed, rather than load, with velocities up to around 260 m/s at atmospheric pressure and temperature which are reduced by a factor of 2.5 under operating conditions and seem to be unaffected by swirl. The duration of combustion was reduced with increasing swirl and ignition delay increased linearly with engine speed.
Technical Paper

Transient Characteristics of Multi-Hole Diesel Sprays

The spatial and temporal characteristics of a diesel spray injected into the atmosphere through a multi-hole nozzle used in small DI Diesel engines have been investigated by laser techniques as a function of pump speed and load. The results showed that spray tip penetration and velocity depend on injection frequency rather than injected volume and the spray is asymmetric during the early and main part of the injection period. In the time/space domain different structures have been identified within the injection period, with the early injection period characterized by a well atomized cloud of droplets, the main period by the spray head and a dense core and the late injection period by the disintegrating dense core and the spray tail. IN DIRECT-INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES for passenger cars, fuel is injected through multi-hole nozzles at high pressure to promote mixing with the rapidly swirling air inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Gaseous Simulation of Diesel-Type Sprays in a Motored Engine

The effect of fuel injection on the flow and the spray/swirl and spray/piston interactions in direct-injection diesel engines have been investigated by simulating diesel sprays with gaseous jet(s) injected through centrally located, single- and multi-hole nozzles into the quiescent and swirling air of a motored engine running at 200rpm and incorporating a flat piston and a re-entrant piston-bowl. The axisymmetric velocity field with and without ‘fuel’ injection was characterised by laser velocimetry near TDC of compression in terms of spatially-resolved ensemble-averaged axial and swirl velocities, the ‘fuel’ concentration field was quantified by laser Rayleigh scattering and the two-dimensional flow was visualised by gated still photography using hollow microballoons as light scatterers.