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Technical Paper

Downsizing of Common Rail D.I. Engines: Influence Of Different Injection Strategies on Combustion Evolution

This paper refers to the experimental results obtained using two different 4 cylinder diesel engines, with total displacement respectively equal to 1.9l and 1.3l, both equipped with an advanced Common Rail system. An optically accessed prototype engine, having characteristics similar to the four cylinder engine, is used to visualize the in cylinder phenomena. Multidimensional simulations of the combustion and pollutants formation processes are performed, comparing the numerical predictions with the experimental data. By this way, integrating the 3D C.F.D. computations, the visualization techniques of the injection and combustion processes and the field measurements on the real engines, different settings of the multiple injection strategy have been analyzed.
Technical Paper

Design of a small displacement transparent research engine equipped with a common-rail diesel injection system

This paper describes the project of a "small' single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine (300 cc). It is equipped with optical accesses to analyze the diesel combustion process employing the most recent optical diagnostic techniques. The injection system used is a second-generation common- rail system. The optical accesses are placed on the piston and on the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

Characterization of the sooting tendency of diesel fuels by shock tube and engine experiments

The sooting tendency of a diesel fuels matrix has been investigated in a single-cylinder DI engine and in a shock tube. Soot loading in the optically accessible was inferred using two-color pyrometry. The engine was operated at 1250 rpm and 5 bar imep. Shock tube tests were performed in pure pyrolysis conditions; in the temperature and pressure range 1600-2400 K and 7-13 bar, respectively. The soot formation process was followed by means of light extinction methods. A thorough analysis of the results provided meaningful indications of fuels' ""performances,"" allowing to assess the effect of the fuel's composition (aromatics contents, cetane number, oxygen contents) on its sooting tendency.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on High-Quality Diesel Fuels Effects in a Light Duty CR Diesel Engine

In this paper some preliminary results on the emission performance of a modern CR DI diesel engine running on reformulated diesel fuels are discussed. The engine employed in the tests was a Fiat M724 1910cc, installed on Alfa Romeo 156 1.9 JTD. Modern injection systems can modify the spray structure with respect to a spray of a classical rotary injection pump so the well-consolidated knowledge on the correlation between fuel parameters and pollutant emissions may not be valid for the new generation of DI diesel engines. Two high quality fossil fuels and a synthetic fuel were selected for the tests. Tests were directed to analyze the relative influence on exhaust emissions between injection parameters and fuel quality. One engine test point (2000 rpm × 2 bar of b.m.e.p.) was chosen, with different setting of injection pressure, EGR ratio and pilot injection activation.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Improvements by the Use of Oxygenated Synthetic Fuels

In this paper results on in-cylinder pollutant concentration evolution during combustion of six different oxygenated fuels, in comparison with tetradecane and n-octane combustion, are presented. These four fuels are: Ethylene-Glygol-Dimethylether (monoglyme-C4H10O2), Diethylene-Glygol-Dimethylether (diglyme-C6H14O2), Diethylene-Glycol-Diethylether (diethyldiglycol-C8H18O3), butylether (C8H18O). Two techniques were adopted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine: two-color pyrometry for the measurement of in-cylinder soot loading and a fast sampling valve for the measurements of in-cylinder combustion products. In addition, the sampling line downstream of the fast sampling valve was adapted for the in-cylinder aldehyde measurements. The main results obtained provide information about the mechanisms that control soot evolution during diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Calculations of DI Diesel Engine Combustion and Comparison whit In Cylinder Sampling Valve Data

A modified version of KIVA II code was used to perform three-dimensional calculations of combustion in a DI diesel engine. Both an ignition delay submodel and a different formulation of the fuel reaction rate were implemented and tested. The experiments were carried out on a single cylinder D.I. diesel of 0.75 I displacement equipped with sensors to detect injection characteristics and indicated pressure. A fast acting sampling valve was also installed in the combustion chamber to allow the measurement of main pollutants during the combustion cycle, by an ensemble average technique. Computational and experimental results are compared and the discrepancies are discussed. Today the demand for light duty engines that produce less emission and consume less fuel is increasing. Thus, if limits on CO2 emissions are established, the direct injection diesel engine for light duty applications will become an attractive option.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Testing of Light Duty Diesel Engine: Characterization of Combustion Parameters Evolution

A methodological analysis of combustion parameters and pollutant emissions measuring procedures during transient operation of a D.I. T.C. light duty diesel engine was performed. Combustion process was characterized by ignition delay time, combustion pressure peak value and heat release law measurements during the transient ECE 15 schedule on a dynamic test bed with electronic simulation of inertia. The particulate emission was measured every 0.05 s by an I.R. optical method. In addition some correlations, based on pressure cycle and injection law evolution, were implemented in order to calculate instantaneous fuel delivery and transient NOx emission. Some activities were carried out in order to asses the limits of engine configurations ranking performed with steady state measurements of performances and emissions. Strong differences were detected between carbon emission during transient operations and the value obtained by interpolation from a steady state map.
Technical Paper

The Role Of Mean Motion and Turbulence structure on Gaseous and Particulate Emissions of D. I. Diesel Combustion System

The status of the research carried out at the Istituto Motori aimed to optimize the direct injection light duty combustion system with regard to pollutant emissions is described. The influence of combustion chamber design on air flow field was investigated by means of a two colors LDA system as well as by engine test bed. Three-dimensional computer simulations of injection and in- cylinder air motion have been run in order to analyze some experimental results. In particular two configurations of axisymmetric combustion chambers were examined and, results were compared with those obtained from a four-lobe microturbulence combustion chamber. Tests showed that some improvement in the NOx-particulate trade off can be obtained at part load at both high and low speeds.