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Technical Paper

Potential to Reduce Nano-Particle Emission in SG-DISI Engine with Normal Butane

Lean stratified combustion is a mean to dilute the fuel-air mixture leaner than stoichiometric ratio, by using stratification of fuel gradient in a spark ignition engine. Under the lean stratified combustion, differed from the stoichiometric homogeneous charge combustion, flame could propagate through extremely rich air-fuel mixture, while the global air-fuel mixture is under lean condition. The rich mixture causes considerable amount of particulate matter, but, due to large effect of efficiency improvement, the attractive point is on fuel economy compare to homogeneous charge SI combustion. The easiest way to reduce particulate matter is changing fuel to gaseous hydrocarbon, to minimize evaporating and mixing period.
Technical Paper

Particle Reduction in LPG Lean Stratified Combustion by Intake Strategies

Lean stratified combustion shows high potential to reduce fuel consumption because it operates without the intervention of a throttle valve. Despite its high fuel economy potential, it emits large amounts of particulate matter (PM) because the locally rich mixture is formed at the periphery of a spark plug. Furthermore, the combustion phasing angle is not realized at MBT ignition timing, which can bring high work conversion efficiency. Since PM emission and work conversion efficiency are in a trade-off relation, this research focused on reducing PM emission through achieving high work conversion efficiency. Two intake air control strategies were examined in this research; throttle operation and late intake valve closing (LIVC). The experiment was conducted in a single cylinder spray-guided direct injection spark ignition (SG-DISI) engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The injected fuel amount was fixed so as to investigate the effect of each strategy.
Technical Paper

The Fuel Economy Improvement through the Knock Margin Expansion in a Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Knocking combustion limits the downsized gasoline engines’ potential for improvement with regard to fuel economy. The high in-cylinder pressure and temperature caused by the adaptation of a turbocharger aggravates the tendency of the end-gas to autoignite. Thus, the knocking combustion does not allow for further advancing of the combustion phase. In this research, the effects of the ignition and valve timings on knocking combustion were investigated under steady-state conditions. Moreover, the optimal ignition and valve timings for the transient operations were derived with the aim of a greater fuel economy improvement, based on the steady-state analysis. A 2.0 liter turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine with continuously variable valve timing (CVVT), was utilized for this experiment. 2, 10, and 18 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) load conditions were used to represent the low, medium, and high load operations, respectively.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Nozzle Hole Geometry on Particulate Emissions in a Downsized Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

In this study, the effect of the nozzle tip geometry on the nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions was investigated. Various designs for the injector nozzle hole were newly developed for this study, focusing on the step hole geometry to reduce the nozzle tip wetting. The laser induced fluorescence technique was applied to evaluate the fuel wetting on the nozzle tip. A vehicle test and an emissions measurement in a Chassi-Dynamo were performed to investigate the particulate emission characteristics for injector nozzle designs. In addition, the in-cylinder combustion light signal measurement by the optical fiber sensor was conducted to observe diffusion combustion behavior during the vehicle test. Results showed that the step hole surface area is strongly related to nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions characteristics. Injectors without the step hole and with a smaller step hole geometry showed significant reduction of nozzle tip wetting and number of particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion of Diesel Fuel under Simulated Cold-Start Conditions at Various Ambient Temperatures

The spray and combustion of diesel fuel were investigated to provide a better understanding of the evaporation and combustion process under the simulated cold-start condition of a diesel engine. The experiment was conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber and the engine cranking period was selected as the target ambient condition. Mie scattering and shadowgraph techniques were used to visualize the liquid- and vapor-phase of the fuel under evaporating non-combustion conditions (oxygen concentration=0%). In-chamber pressure and direct flame visualization were acquired for spray combustion conditions (oxygen concentration=21%). The fuel was injected at an injection pressure of 30 MPa, which is the typical pressure during the cranking period.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Response TiAl Turbine Wheel on Engine Performance under Transient Conditions

Transient tests in a 2.0 liter in-line 4 cylinder downsizing gasoline direct injection engine were conducted under various transient conditions in order to investigate effects of lower rotational inertia of titanium aluminide alloy (TiAl) turbine wheel on engine and turbocharger performances. As a representative result, fast boost pressure build up was achieved in case of TiAl turbocharger compared to Inconel turbocharger. This result was mainly due to lower rotational inertia of TiAl turbine wheel. Engine torque build up response was also improved with TiAl turbocharger even though engine torque response gap between both turbochargers was slightly reduced due to retarded combustion phase. In addition, with advanced ignition timing, fuel consumption became less than that of Inconel turbocharger with similar engine torque response.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hydrogen Ratio and EGR on Combustion and Emissions in a Hydrogen/Diesel Dual-Fuel PCCI Engine

The effects of hydrogen ratio and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion and emissions in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine were investigated. The control of combustion phasing could be improved using hydrogen enrichment and EGR due to the retarded combustion phasing with a higher hydrogen ratio. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) was increased with a higher hydrogen ratio because the hydrogen enrichment intensified the high temperature reactions and thus decreased the combustion duration. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced significantly in a hydrogen/diesel dual-fuel PCCI mode with a similar NOx emissions level as that of the diesel PCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Visualization of Gasoline and Diesel under Different Ambient Conditions in a Constant Volume Chamber

Spray and combustion of gasoline and diesel were visualized under different ambient conditions in terms of pressure, temperature and density in a constant volume chamber. Three different ambient conditions were selected to simulate the three combustion regimes of homogeneous charge compression ignition, premixed charge compression ignition and conventional combustion. Ambient density was varied from 3.74 to 23.39 kg/m3. Ambient temperature at the spray injection were controlled to the range from 474 to 925 K. Intake oxygen concentration was also modulated from 15 % to 21 % in order to investigate the effects of intake oxygen concentrations on combustion characteristics. The injection pressure of gasoline and diesel were modulated from 50 to 150 MPa to analyze the effect of injection pressure on the spray development and combustion characteristics. Liquid penetration length and vapor penetration length were measured based on the methods of Mie-scattering and Schileren, respectively.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Soot Particles in an Exhaust Gas for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with High EGR in a Heavy Duty Compression Ignition Engine

The characteristics of soot particles in an exhaust gas for low temperature diesel combustion (LTC) compared with conventional combustion in a compression ignition engine were experimentally investigated by the elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Morphology of soot particles was also studied by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the result of the TGA, the water can be evaporated until about 150°C for both combustion regimes. The soot particles for LTC contained more volatile hydrocarbons, which can be easily evaporated from 200°C to 420°C compared with conventional diesel combustion. The soot oxidation for conventional combustion occurs up to 600°C, on the other hand the particles for LTC is oxidized below 520°C. Elemental analysis showed higher oxygen weight fraction resulted from the oxygenated hydrocarbon for the soot particles in LTC. TEM has shown primary particles to be in a diameter range of 20 to 50 nm for conventional diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Parameters on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of injection parameters on the combustion and emission characteristics in a compression ignition engine fuelled with neat waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel. A single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with common-rail system was used in this research. The test was performed over two engine loads at an engine speed of 800 r/min. Injection timing was varied from −25 to 0 crank angle degree (CAD) after top dead center (aTDC) at two different injection pressures (80 and 160 MPa). Based on in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate was calculated to analyze the combustion characteristics. Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and smoke were measured to examine the emission characteristics. The results showed that the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) of WCO biodiesel was higher than that of diesel. The ISFC was increased as the injection timing was advanced and injection pressure was increased.
Journal Article

Strategy for Mode Transition between Low Temperature Combustion and Conventional Combustion in a Diesel Engine

Mode transition between low temperature combustion (LTC) and conventional combustion was performed by changing the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate from 60% to 0% or vice versa in a light duty diesel engine. The indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) before mode transition was set at 0.45 MPa, representing the maximum load of LTC in this research engine. Various engine operating parameters (rate of EGR change, EGR path length, and residual gas) were considered in order to investigate their influence on the combustion mode transition. The characteristics of combustion mode transition were analyzed based on the in-cylinder pressure and hydrocarbon (HC) emission of each cycle. The general results showed that drastic changes of power output, combustion noise, and HC emission occurred during the combustion mode transition due to the improper injection conditions for each combustion mode.
Technical Paper

Diesel Knock Visualization and Frequency Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion with a Narrow Injection Angle

In this study, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion was implemented using an injector that had a narrow injection angle of 70° and a moderately early injection timing of -40° crank angle after top dead center (CA ATDC). In-cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed direct imaging of the flame were performed in an optically accessible single-cylinder diesel engine. Frequency analysis of the acquired in-cylinder pressure data was carried out to obtain the frequency range of diesel knock. Meanwhile, image segmentation and a tracking algorithm based on YCbCr color space were implemented to determine the frequency range of diesel knock from the obtained high-speed image. The results show that the frequency of diesel knock was dominated by the range from 13 kHz to 15 kHz. Still, frequency with low power existed down until 7 kHz. The frequencies of the area movement were shown to be 13 kHz and, in some cases, 8.67 kHz.
Technical Paper

Effects of Single and Double Post Injections on Diesel PCCI Combustion

In this study, single and double post injections were applied to diesel premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion to overcome the drawbacks those are high level of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine. The operating conditions including engine speed and total injection quantity were 1200 rpm and 12 mg/cycle, which are the representative of low engine speed and low load. The main injection timing of diesel PCCI combustion was set to 28 crank angle degree before top dead center (CAD BTDC). This main injection timing showed 32% lower level of nitric oxides (NOx) level and 8 CAD longer ignition delay than those of conventional diesel combustion. However, the levels of HC and CO were 2.7 and 3 times higher than those of conventional diesel combustion due to over-lean mixture and wall wetting of fuel.
Technical Paper

Operating Characteristics of DME-Gasoline Dual-fuel in a Compression Ignition Engine at the Low Load Condition

Combustion and emission characteristics were investigated in a compression ignition engine with dual-fuel strategy using dimethyl ether (DME) and gasoline. Experiments were performed at the low load condition corresponding to indicated mean effective pressure of 0.45 MPa. DME was directly injected into the cylinder and gasoline was injected into the intake manifold during the intake stroke. The proportion of DME in the total input energy was adjusted from 10% to 100%. DME DME injection timing was widely varied to investigate the effect of injection timing on the combustion phase. Injection pressure of DME was varied from 20 MPa to 60 MPa. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was controlled from 0% to 60% to explore the effect of EGR on the combustion and emission characteristics. As DME proportion was decreased with the increased portion of gasoline, the combustion efficiency was decreased but thermal efficiency was increased.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Injection Pressure and Intake Pressure on Conventional and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

The influence of fuel injection pressure and intake pressure on conventional and low temperature diesel combustion was investigated in a light duty diesel engine. The in-cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions were measured and analyzed in each operating condition. The two combustion regimes were classified in terms of intake oxygen concentrations, which were adjusted by varying the amount of exhaust gas recirculation. The fuel injection quantity and injection timing were fixed in order to minimize the influencing factors. Fuel injection pressures of 40 MPa and 120 MPa were used to verify the effect of the fuel injection pressure in both combustion regimes. The injection pressure significantly affected the combustion phase in the low temperature diesel combustion regime due to the longer premixing time relative to the conventional diesel combustion regime.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Spark Timing and Equivalence Ratio on Spark-Ignition Linear Engine Operation with Liquefied Petroleum Gas

A prototype of a small, spark-ignition free-piston engine combined with a linear alternator was designed to produce electric power for portable usage. It has a bore size of 25 mm and maximum stroke of 22 mm. The engine was fueled with liquefied petroleum gas consisting of 98% propane. The electric power generated by the linear alternator is a function of the piston dynamics and the electric conductance. Therefore, the purpose of current research is to investigate the effects of the basic engine controlling parameters such as the equivalence ratio of the mixture and the spark timing on the piston dynamics and study the relationship with the electric power generation performance. The equivalence ratio of the mixture was varied from 1.0 to 1.72, while the spark timing was varied at 3, 4, and 5 mm away from the maximum top dead center. Operating characteristics, namely, indicated mean effective pressure, electric power output, operating frequency and piston stroke were analyzed.
Technical Paper

Effect of the Multiple Injection on Stratified Combustion Characteristics in a Spray-Guided DISI Engine

In this study, the single-cylinder engine experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of multiple injections on stratified combustion characteristics in a spray-guided direct injection spark ignition engine. The engine was operated at 1200 rpm. The total injection quantity applied was 11 mg/stroke to represent a low-load condition. Single injection and multiple injection were tested. Split ratio of each multiple strategies were 1:1 for double injection and 1:1:1 for the triple injection respectively. Dwell time between each injection was set to 200 μs. In the result of engine experiment with the single injection, indicated mean effective pressure was increased as injection timing was retarded to top dead center due to the increased effective work. However, the retardation of the injection timing was limited by the misfire occurrence resulted from the locally rich mixture generation under the high ambient pressure.
Technical Paper

Influence of EGR and Pilot Injection on PCCI Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

The effect of pilot injection and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion was investigated in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with low engine speed and low load. The injection timing of PCCI combustion was fixed at 25 ~ 30 crank angle degree before top dead center (°CA BTDC) based on the ignition delay and power output. The level of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of PCCI combustion was 68% lower than that of conventional diesel combustion owing to the reduction of near-stoichiometric region which is well known as the main source of NOx formation. However, the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), hydrocarbon (HC), particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions deteriorated compared with conventional diesel combustion because of early injection, advanced combustion phase and lowered combustion temperature. EGR has been applied to PCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and DME Injection Strategy in Hydrogen-DME Compression Ignition Engine

The compression ignition combustion fuelled with hydrogen and dimethyl-ether was investigated. Exhaust gas recirculation was applied to reduce noise and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission. When dimethyl-ether was injected earlier, combustion showed two-stage ignitions known as low temperature reaction and high temperature reaction. With advanced dimethyl-ether injection, combustion temperature and in-cylinder pressure rise were lowered which resulted in high carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. However, NOx emission was decreased due to relatively low combustion temperature. The engine combustion showed only high temperature reaction when dimethyl-ether was injected near top dead center. When exhaust gas recirculation gas was added, the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate were decreased. However, it retarded combustion phase resulting in higher indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Premixed Compression Ignition Combustion using Various Injector Configurations

Premixed compression ignition (PCI) combustion was implemented using advanced injection strategy and exhaust gas recirculation in a direct-injection single-cylinder diesel engine. The injection timing swept experiment using a baseline injector, which had an injection angle of 146° and 8 nozzle holes, obtained three types of combustion regime: conventional diesel combustion for an injection timing of 10° CA (crank angle) BTDC (before top dead center), PCI combustion for an injection timing of 40° CA BTDC and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion for an injection timing of 80° CA BTDC. PCI combustion can be verified by burn duration analysis. The burn duration, which was defined as the period from 10% to 90% of the accumulated heat release, was very short in PCI combustion but not in the others. PCI combustion with an injection timing of 40° CA BTDC was achieved in a range of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate from 0% to around 40%.