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Technical Paper

Predicting the Radius of a Sheet Bent Around Drawbeads

Drawbeads in production stamping dies often have insufficient penetration of the male bead into the female cavity. With insufficient penetration, the actual bending radii of the sheet metal are larger than the geometrical radii of the drawbead. The actual bending radii in the sheet directly affect the force that restrains sheet movement. To predict the restraining stress due to a drawbead, it is necessary to know the actual bending radii in the sheet as it passes though the drawbead. Data from a previous study are used to develop empirical regression equations for predicting measured radii of the sheet that is bent around the radii in a drawbead. A physical model for the evolution of the sheet radii as the drawbead closes is proposed. This model is consistent with the empirical equations and the mechanics of the sheet bending process.
Technical Paper

Sheet Thinning during Plane-Strain Bending

Knowledge of the net thinning strain that occurs in a sheet as it is bent over a single radius is an important component in understanding sheet metal formability. The present study extends the initial work of Swift on thinning during plane-strain bending to sheet steels with power law stress-strain behavior and with the inclusion of friction. The experimental data come from studies on the enhanced forming limit curve on DQSK steel and analysis of the curl behavior of 590R and DP600 steels. Results for single radius bending from these studies are used in the present investigation. It has been found that the amount of net thinning strain depends on back tension, initial plane-strain yield strength, and the maximum true bending strain calculated for the neutral plane at the mid-thickness of the sheet.
Technical Paper

Effect of Draw Beads on the Mechanical Properties of Sheel Sheet

Draw beads are used in many stamping dies to control the flow of metal into a die cavity. The multiple bends imposed by the draw beads cause a change in the mechanical properties of the sheet before it enters the die cavity. Since the necessary data to completely characterize the full deformation history of a sheet passing through draw beads are not available, it is not possible to use a fundamental approach to determine the effect on subsequent mechanical properties. In the present investigation data from a prior study [1] are used to develop empirical relationships to predict the yield strength, uniform elongation and tensile strength as a function of the cumulative maximum effective bending strain (ε̅max-cum) due to draw beads and the entry radius to a die cavity.
Technical Paper

The Effective Unloading Modulus for Automotive Sheet Steels

In stamping advanced high strength steels (AHSS), the deviations from desired part geometry caused by springback from a radius, curl, twist, and bow are major impediments to successfully producing AHSS parts. In general, the conventional elastic modulus is used to quantify the strain that occurs on unloading. This unloading strain causes deviations from desired part geometry. Considerable evidence in the literature indicates that for tensile testing, the conventional elastic modulus does not accurately describe the unloading strain. The present study uses new data and results from the literature to examine the average slope of tensile stress strain curves on unloading. This slope is termed the effective unloading modulus. The results from this study quantitatively describe how the effective unloading modulus decreases with increasing strength, prestrain, and unloading time.
Technical Paper

Bauschinger Effect Response of Automotive Sheet Steels

In a study of the Bauschinger effect, data were collected from three sources in the published literature. Quantitative stress-strain data were taken from these papers, and the results re-analyzed. The resulting database has 44 lots of sheet steels, including drawing quality, interstitial free, bake hardening, HSLA (and related grades), dual phase, TRIP, recovery annealed, and martensitic grades. In analyzing the data, it is found that use of the 0.05% yield strength on reversal instead of the conventional 0.2% yield strength provides more generality in explaining the results. In this analysis, the Bauschinger effect is characterized by a term (BE), which is the difference between the steel strength just prior to reversal and the 0.05% yield strength on reversal normalized by the strength just prior to reversal. An initial prestrain of 2% is needed to establish a dislocation morphology that can be generalized across many of the steel grades.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Curl and Tensile Properties of Advanced High Strength Sheet Steels

The response of HSLA steel, 590R, and dual-phase steel, DP-600, to non-uniform deformation imposed in a laboratory Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) test apparatus was evaluated. Samples were deformed with both low and high back tension forces at bend angles of 45 and 90 degrees, and evaluated to determine the “side-wall curl”, i.e. the curvature in the sheet section in contact with the die. The results indicate that there are no consistent differences between the two steels, 590R and DP-600. It was found that back tension, tensile strength and sheet thickness were the primary factors affecting curl. The bend angle has an influence on curl, with the curl radius at a 90° bend angle being greater than the curl radius at a 45° bend angle.
Technical Paper

Tensile Properties of Steel Tubes for Hydroforming Applications

With the increased use of tubular steel products, especially for automotive hydroforming applications, there is increased interest in understanding the mechanical properties measured by tensile tests from specimens of different orientations in the tube. In this study, two orientations of tensile specimens were evaluated -- axial specimens with and without flattening and flattened circumferential specimens. Three steels were evaluated -- two thicknesses of aluminum killed drawing quality (AKDQ) steel and one thickness of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel. Mechanical property data were obtained from the flat stock, conventional production tubes and quasi tubes. Quasi tubes were produced from the flat stock on a 3-roll bender, but the quasi tube was not welded or sized.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Strain Rate on the Sheet Tensile Properties and Formability of Ferritic Stainless Steels

High strain rate sheet tensile tests (up to 300s-1) and Ohio State University (OSU) formability tests (up to an estimated strain rate of 10s-1) were performed to examine the effect of strain rate on the mechanical properties and formability of five ferritic stainless steels: HIGH PERFORMANCE-10™ 409 (HP-10 409), ULTRA FORM® 409 (UF 409), HIGH PERFORMANCE-10™ 439 (HP-10 439), two thicknesses of 18 Cr-Cb™ stainless steel, all supplied by AK Steel, and Duracorr®, a ferrite-tempered martensite dual-phase stainless steel supplied by Bethlehem Steel Corporation. Tensile results show that increasing strain rate resulted in increases in yield stress, flow stress, and stress at instability for all alloys tested. In addition, increases in uniform and total elongation were also found for each of the five alloys.
Technical Paper

Response to Hydrogen Charging in High Strength Automotive Sheet Steel Products

The influences of laboratory-induced hydrogen on the tensile deformation and fracture behavior of selected sheet steels including conventional DQSK and HSLA steels as well as newer DP and TRIP grades were evaluated. The effects of cold work, simulated paint baking, and natural aging were considered. Hydrogen effects were observable by increased flow stress, decreased ductility, altered neck geometry, and altered fracture mechanisms. Differences among the steels and conditions were observed and interpreted on the basis of microstructure, fracture behavior, and theories of hydrogen embrittlement.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Room Temperature Aging on Subsequent Bake-Hardening of Automotive Sheet Steels

Bake-hardening steels used for exposed auto-body panels provide low yield strengths before forming, and increased strength and dent resistance after the forming and paint-baking processes. Room temperature aging can alter the sheet properties before forming, after forming, or after baking. Knowledge of the evolution of mechanical properties is important, and the effects of room temperature and simulated room temperature aging (at 50°C and 100°C) on the yielding behavior and the bake hardening response of two different bake-hardening steel grades were studied. The steels included a low strength ultra-low carbon steel and a dual-phase steel with higher strength and greater bake-hardening index. Neither steel exhibited a substantial response to aging prior to tensile pre-straining, although both steels exhibited strength increases after either aging or baking following straining.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Surface Morphology Change Due to Forming of Zinc-Coated Sheet Steels for Automotive Panel Applications

A three-dimensional surface profilometer has been used to examine the surface morphology in various regions of stamped automotive steel parts. This analysis provides insight into the nature of the surface morphology development during stamping. For this work, four stamped zinc-coated sheet steel sections were considered. Each of the sections was examined with the 3-D surface profilometer in a variety of regions suspected to show different surface morphology due to differences in forming. Upon analysis of the surface height frequency histograms, different modes of deformation on the part surface were identified and categorized. Three modes of surface deformation were observed - “simple pressing”, “pressing with small scale sliding and bending” and “pressing with gross sliding, stretching and bending”. Each mode had a distinctive set of characteristics in the frequency height histograms. These modes were observed in both galvannealed steel sheet and hot-dipped galvanized steel sheet.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Single Gear Tooth and Cantilever Beam Bending Fatigue Testing of Carburized Steel

The bending fatigue performance of gears, cantilever beam specimens, and notched-axial specimens were evaluated and compared. Specimens were machined from a modified SAE-4118 steel, gas-carburized, direct-quenched and tempered. Bending fatigue specimens were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and prior austenite grain size, x-ray analysis for residual stress and retained austenite measurements, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate fatigue crack initiation, propagation and overload. The case and core microstructures, prior austenite grain sizes and case hardness profiles from the various types of specimens were similar. Endurance limits were determined to be about 950 MPa for both the cantilever beam and notched-axial fatigue specimens, and 1310 MPa for the single gear tooth specimens.
Technical Paper

Carbon and Sulfur Effects on Performance of Microalloyed Spindle Forgings

Five heats of vanadium-microalloyed steel with carbon contents from 0.29% to 0.40% and sulfur contents from 0.031% to 0.110% were forged into automotive spindles and air cooled. Three of the steels were continuously cast whereas the other two were ingot cast. The forged spindles were subjected to microstructural analysis, mechanical property testing, full component testing and machinability testing. The microstructures of the five steels consisted of pearlite and ferrite which nucleated on prior austenite grain boundaries and predominantly on intragranularly dispersed sulfide inclusions of the resulfurized grades. Ultimate tensile strengths and room temperature Charpy V-notch impact toughness values were relatively insensitive to processing and compositional variations. The room temperature tensile and room-temperature impact properties ranged from 820 MPa to 1000 MPa (120 to 145 ksi) and from 13 Joules to 19 Joules (10 to 14 ft-lbs), respectively, for the various steels.
Technical Paper

Formability of Type 304 Stainless Steel Sheet

Punch-stretch tests to determine formability of type 304 stainless steel sheet were conducted using a hemispherical dome test. Sheets of 19.1 mm width and 177.8 mm width were stretched on a 101.6 mm diameter punch at punch rates between 0.042 to 2.12 mm/sec with three lubricant systems: a mineral seal oil, thin polytetrafluoroethelyne sheet with mineral seal oil, and silicone rubber with mineral seal oil. The resulting strain distributions were measured and the amount of martensite was determined by magnetic means. Increasing lubricity resulted in more uniform strain distributions while increased punch rates tended to decrease both strain and transformation distributions. High forming limit values were related to the formation of high and uniformly distributed martensite volume fractions during deformation. The results of this study are interpreted with an analysis of the effects of strain and temperature on strain induced martensite formation in metastable austenitic stainless steels.