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Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

2009-07-12
2009-01-2354
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 – 2009

2009-07-12
2009-01-2415
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

Modification of the USOS to Support Installation and Activation of the Node 3 Element

2009-07-12
2009-01-2416
The International Space Station (ISS) program is nearing an assembly complete configuration with the addition of the final resource node module in early 2010. The Node 3 module will provide critical functionality in support of permanent long duration crews aboard ISS. The new module will permanently house the regenerative Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and will also provide important habitability functions such as waste management and exercise facilities. The ISS program has selected the Port side of the Node 1 “Unity” module as the permanent location for Node 3 which will necessitate architecture changes to provide the required interfaces. The USOS ECLSS fluid and ventilation systems, Internal Thermal Control Systems, and Avionics Systems require significant modifications in order to support Node 3 interfaces at the Node 1 Port location since it was not initially designed for that configuration.
Journal Article

Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station (Mission 1 Through Mission 17)

2009-07-12
2009-01-2485
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-17 (since November 2, 2000, through October 23, 2008). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Changes for Increasing the ISS Crew Size to Six Crew Members and for Shuttle Retirement

2008-06-29
2008-01-2178
With the long anticipated change to increase the International Space Station (ISS) crew size from three to six crew members and the retirement of the Space Shuttle, changes are in work to the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System to support the increased on-orbit crew size and their continued operations. The Space Shuttle had provided high pressure oxygen resupply, high pressure nitrogen resupply, water resupply, atmosphere gaseous make up when the Space Shuttle is docked to ISS, and logistic cargo supply/return capability to ISS. Without the Space Shuttle additional changes need to be made to the ISS ECLS System to support the six crew members post Assembly Complete (AC). This will be in addition to the changes that were needed to support doubling the nominal ISS crew size from three to six crew members.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2007 - 2008

2008-06-29
2008-01-2131
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2007 and February 2008. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.
Technical Paper

International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: February 2007-2008

2008-06-29
2008-01-2132
The International Space Station (ISS) continues to mature and operate its life support equipment. Major events occurring between February 2007 and February 2008 are discussed in this paper, as are updates from previously ongoing hardware anomalies. This paper addresses the major ISS operation events over the last year. Impact to overall ISS operations is also discussed.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Emergency Response Verification for Node 1

2008-06-29
2008-01-2136
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 Emergency Response capability, which includes nominal and off-nominal FDS operation, off-nominal ACS operation, and off-nominal THC operation. These subsystems provide the capability to help aid the crew members during an emergency cabin depressurization, a toxic spill, or a fire. The paper will also provide a discussion of the detailed Node 1 ECLS Element Verification methodologies for operation of the Node 1 Emergency Response hardware utilized during the Node 1 Element Qualification phase.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support International Partner Integration

2008-06-29
2008-01-2134
The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is continuing to be integrated with a multitude of international partner contributions. In six short months, ISS integrates ECLS systems with the Node 2, Columbus module, Japanese Logistics Module, and Automated Transfer Vehicle developed and produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The new systems provide both international unique hardware and common ISS hardware. An overview of the integrated ECLS system and the unique capabilities of each new module is provided. A spreadsheet of the common hardware and locations is provided. An overview of the on-orbit operations is provided. Adding the international partner systems makes a robust ISS ECLS system. More U.S. hardware will continue to be launched to enhance the ECLS six crew capability.
Technical Paper

srv-k Status Aboard the International Space Station During Missions 15 and 16

2008-06-29
2008-01-2191
The paper summarizes the experience gained on the ISS water management system during the missions of ISS-1 through ISS-16 (since November 2 2000, through December 31, 2007). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on a board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine, water from a carbon dioxide reduction system and hygiene water is shown.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Water Recovery and Management Subsystems

2008-06-29
2008-01-2183
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS WRM subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

2008-06-29
2008-01-2182
The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMAs 1 and 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA) 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodologies utilized for the PMAs.
Technical Paper

The Prospects for Development of Regenerative Life Support Systems of Space and Planetary Stations

2008-06-29
2008-01-2188
Based on experience obtained in operation of the water and oxygen recovery systems installed onboard the Russian space stations Salut, Mir and the International Space Station ISS, data on the water and oxygen balance for a space station are presented as well as operational parameters and performance data of the systems. Using the data obtained design analysis of an integrated life support system for water and oxygen recovery based on physical/chemical means to be installed on a promising space station is carried out. Mandatory verification tests of new process (technologies) and recovery systems are to be conducted on ISS.
Journal Article

Microgravity Evaluation of Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction for the Measurement of Total I (Iodine, Iodide, and Triiodide) in Spacecraft Drinking Water

2008-06-29
2008-01-2199
We are developing a drinking water test kit based on colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) for use onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and on future Lunar and/or Mars missions. C-SPE involves measuring the change in diffuse reflectance of indicator disks following their exposure to a water sample. We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of C-SPE in measuring iodine in microgravity. This analytical method has now been extended to encompass the measurement of total I (i.e., iodine, iodide, and triiodide). This objective was accomplished by introducing an oxidizing agent to convert iodide and triiodide to iodine, which is then measured using the indicator disks previously developed for iodine. We report here the results of a recent series of C-9 microgravity tests of this method. The results demonstrate that C-SPE technology is poised to meet the total I monitoring requirements of the international space program.
Journal Article

Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water Returned from ISS Expeditions 14 and 15

2008-06-29
2008-01-2197
The Johnson Space Center Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) performed detailed ground-based analyses of archival water samples for verification of the chemical quality of the International Space Station (ISS) potable water supplies for Expeditions 14 and 15. During the 12-month duration of both expeditions, the Space Shuttle docked with the ISS on four occasions to continue construction and deliver additional crew and supplies; however, no Shuttle potable water was transferred to the station during Expedition 14. Russian ground-supplied potable water and potable water from regeneration of humidity condensate were both available onboard the ISS for consumption by the Expeditions 14 and 15 crews. A total of 16 chemical archival water samples were collected with U.S. hardware during Expeditions 14 and 15 and returned on Shuttle flights STS-116 (12A.1), STS-117 (13A), STS-118 (13A.1), and STS-120 (10A) in December 2006, and June, August, and November of 2007, respectively.
Technical Paper

Sampling and Chemical Analysis of Potable Water for ISS Expeditions 12 and 13

2007-07-09
2007-01-3214
The crews of Expeditions 12 and 13 aboard the International Space Station (ISS) continued to rely on potable water from two different sources, regenerated humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water. The Space Shuttle launched twice during the 12-months spanning both expeditions and docked with the ISS for delivery of hardware and supplies. However, no Shuttle potable water was transferred to the station during either of these missions. The chemical quality of the ISS onboard potable water supplies was verified by performing ground analyses of archival water samples at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL). Since no Shuttle flights launched during Expedition 12 and there was restricted return volume on the Russian Soyuz vehicle, only one chemical archive potable water sample was collected with U.S. hardware and returned during Expedition 12. This sample was collected in March 2006 and returned on Soyuz 11.
Technical Paper

Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Sample Delivery Subsystem Design

2007-07-09
2007-01-3184
This paper will provide an overview of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Sample Delivery Subsystem (SDS) and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for this part of the subsystem.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem Verification for Node 1

2007-07-09
2007-01-3185
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 THC subsystem design. The paper will also provide a discussion of the detailed Element Verification methodologies for nominal operation of the Node 1 THC subsystem operations utilized during the Qualification phase.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Post-Sorbent and High Temperature Catalytic Oxidizer Beds After Long-Term On-Orbit Use

2007-07-09
2007-01-3180
Trace contaminants are produced on-orbit by human metabolic processes and equipment off-gassing. These potentially hazardous contaminants are removed by the Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS) in the US segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The TCCS has been operating since February 2001. Analysis of on-orbit telemetry data indicated a slow increase in the TCCS system flow resistance over the five years of operation. Two of the packed beds within the TCCS were replaced to return the TCCS to its nominal operation conditions: the high temperature catalytic oxidizer and the post-sorbent bed. Results from the examination of the returned beds are presented along with a discussion about changes to bed service life.
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