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Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency Impact of Localized Cooling/Heating for Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0352
The present paper reports on a study of the HVAC energy usage for an EREV (extended range electric vehicle) implementation of a localized cooling/heating system. Components in the localized system use thermoelectric (TE) devices to target the occupant's chest, face, lap and foot areas. A novel contact TE seat was integrated into the system. Human subject comfort rides and a thermal manikin in the tunnel were used to establish equivalent comfort for the baseline and localized system. The tunnel test results indicate that, with the localized system, HVAC energy savings of 37% are achieved for cooling conditions (ambient conditions greater than 10 °C) and 38% for heating conditions (ambient conditions less than 10 °C), respectively based on an annualized ambient and vehicle occupancy weighted method. The driving range extension for an electric vehicle was also estimated based on the HVAC energy saving.
Journal Article

Localized Cooling for Human Comfort

2014-04-01
2014-01-0686
Traditional vehicle air conditioning systems condition the entire cabin to a comfortable range of temperature and humidity regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle. The A/C system is designed to have enough capacity to provide comfort for transient periods when cooling down a soaked car. Similarly for heating, the entire cabin is typically warmed up to achieve comfort. Localized heating and cooling, on the other hand, focuses on keeping the passenger comfortable by forming a micro climate around the passenger. This is more energy efficient since the system only needs to cool the person instead of the entire cabin space and cabin thermal mass. It also provides accelerated comfort for the passenger during the cooling down periods of soaked cars. Additionally, the system adapts to the number of passengers in the car, so as to not purposely condition areas that are not occupied.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency Impact of Localized Cooling

2014-04-01
2014-01-0695
Traditional vehicle air conditioning systems are designed to cool the entire cabin to provide passenger comfort. Localized cooling, on the other hand, focuses on keeping the passenger comfortable by creating a micro climate around the passenger. Such a system also easily adapts to the number of passengers in the car and enables zonal control. The net impact of the localized cooling is that equivalent comfort can be achieved at reduced HVAC energy consumption rate. The present paper reports on a vehicle implementation of localized cooling using Thermoelectric Devices and the resulting energy saving.
Technical Paper

PCM Evaporator with Thermosiphon

2014-04-01
2014-01-0634
With more vehicles adopting fuel-saving engine start-stop routines and with the number of hybrid and electric vehicles on the rise, automotive A/C (air conditioning) systems are facing a challenge to maintain passenger comfort during the time when the compressor is inactive due to engine shut down. Using PCM (Phase Change Material) in the evaporator enables it to store cold when the compressor is active and release it to the cooling air stream when the compressor is not running. A unique feature of Delphi's design is that a refrigerant thermosiphon mechanism inside the evaporator drives the energy transport between the PCM and air stream. Delphi's PCM evaporator extends comfort for short duration idle stops, reduces emissions, and increases fuel economy and electric drive range. In this paper, the design aspects of a thermosiphon based PCM cold storage evaporator are described and the performance and operation of the PCM evaporator in a MAC (Mobile Air Conditioning) system discussed.
Journal Article

Energy Efficient HVAC System with Spot Cooling in an Automobile - Design and CFD Analysis

2012-04-16
2012-01-0641
Spot, or distributed, cooling and heating is an energy efficient way of delivering comfort to an occupant in the car. This paper describes an approach to distributed cooling in the vehicle. A two passenger CFD model of an SUV cabin was developed to obtain the solar and convective thermal loads on the vehicle, characterize the interior thermal environment and accurately evaluate the fluid-thermal environment around the occupants. The present paper focuses on the design and CFD analysis of the energy efficient HVAC system with spot cooling. The CFD model was validated with wind tunnel data for its overall accuracy. A baseline system with conventional HVAC air was first analyzed at mid and high ambient conditions. The airflow and cooling delivered to the driver and the passenger was calculated. Subsequently, spot cooling was analyzed in conjunction with a much lower conventional HVAC airflow.
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