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Technical Paper

Facilitating the Energy Optimization of Aircraft Propulsion and Thermal Management Systems through Integrated Modeling and Simulation

2010-11-02
2010-01-1787
An integrated, multidisciplinary environment of a tactical aircraft platform has been created by leveraging the powerful capabilities of both MATLAB/Simulink and Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). The overall simulation includes propulsion, power, and thermal management subsystem models, which are integrated together and linked to an air vehicle model and mission profile. The model has the capability of tracking temperatures and performance metrics and subsequently controlling characteristics of the propulsion and thermal management subsystems. The integrated model enables system-level trade studies involving the optimization of engine bleed and power extraction and thermal management requirements to be conducted. The simulation can also be used to examine future technologies and advanced thermal management architectures in order to increase mission capability and performance.
Technical Paper

A General Aviation Aircraft Retrofit with a PEM Fuel Cell

2008-11-11
2008-01-2914
As gas prices and climate change become the preeminent issues of today, more research effort is being directed towards the development of cheaper and cleaner alternative energy sources. These efforts have been further complemented with research into the applicability of these sources to air, land and sea borne vehicles. In this report a notional C-172R general aviation aircraft is retrofitted with a PEM power plant as a case-study. Lower bounds for useful load and range are set in such a way that the results can be useful in determining how much improvement in the technology would be required to power a useful general aviation vehicle. It is seen that even at the predicted 2015 fuel cell technology level (per US Department of Energy projections), PEM systems would still be infeasible for this vehicle due to low specific power. Further investigation revealed that a PEM-battery hybrid system had better chances of feasibility.
Journal Article

Superconducting Machines and Power Systems for Electric-Drive Aeropropulsion

2008-11-11
2008-01-2862
Societal demands of recent years have increasingly pressured the development of greener technologies in all sectors of the nation's transportation infrastructure, including that of civilian aviation. This study explores the concept of electric-drive aeropropulsion, aided by high-temperature superconducting technology, as an enabler for enhancing the environmental characteristics at the air-vehicle level. Potential improvements in the areas of aircraft noise, emissions, and energy efficiency are discussed in the context of supporting the latest strategic goals of leading governmental organizations.
Technical Paper

Test Results for a Fuel Cell-Powered Demonstration Aircraft

2006-11-07
2006-01-3092
A fuel cell powered airplane has been designed and constructed at the Georgia Insitute of Technology to develop an understanding of the design and implementation challenges of fuel cell-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A custom 448W net output proton exchange membrane fuel cell powerplant has been constructed and tested. A demonstrator aircraft was designed and built to accommodate this powerplant and the fuel cell powered aircraft has performed seven test flights to date. Test data show that the aircraft performance validates the models used for design and optimization and that the fuel cell aircraft is capable of longer endurance, higher performance test flights.
Technical Paper

Quiet, Clean, and Efficient, but Heavy - Concerns for Future Fuel Cell Powered Personal Air Vehicles

2006-08-30
2006-01-2436
Unfortunately, the promises of efficient, clean, quiet power that fuel cells offer are balanced by extremely low power densities and great infrastructure-related challenges. Studies by government and industry have investigated their feasibility for primary propulsion in light aircraft. These studies have produced mixed results but have tended to rely on integrating fuel cells into existing airframes, with respectably-performing light sport planes being turned into underpowered show planes with horribly compromised range and payload capabilities. Fuel cells today are in the earliest phases of technological development. As an aircraft propulsion system, they are as advanced as the Wright's reciprocating engine was a hundred years ago.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of a Multi-Gas Generator Fan to a Turbofan Engine on a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Personal Air Vehicle

2006-08-30
2006-01-2435
This paper attempts to assess the benefits of a unique distributed propulsion concept, known as the Multi-Gas Generator Fan (MGGF) system, over conventional turbofan engines on civilian vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) applications. The MGGF-based system has shown the potential to address the fundamental technical challenge in designing a VTOL aircraft: the significant mismatch between the power requirements at lift-off/hover and cruise. Vehicle-level performance and sizing studies were implemented using the Grumman Design 698 tilt-nacelle V/STOL aircraft as a notional personal air vehicle (PAV), subjected to hypothetical single engine failure (SEF) emergency landing requirements and PAV mission requirements.
Technical Paper

A System Dynamics Approach for Dynamic Uncertainty Assessment in a PAV Design Environment

2006-08-30
2006-01-2434
One the most critical barriers to the advancement of Personal Air Vehicles in today's market environment is that the technological capabilities can never seem to outweigh the risks associated with financing such an endeavor. To address such a need, a system dynamics approach with the capability to model the uncertainties in the supply chain is presented in this paper. The overall modeling framework is first presented and the modeling process of the various relevant elements, such as demand prediction and manufacturer analysis, is then described. The aim of this research is ultimately to assess the viability of a next-generation aircraft program beyond the static confines of a net present value approach, through the inclusion of dynamic events and uncertainties that can occur throughout the life-cycle of the aircraft.
Technical Paper

A Concept Selection Method Developed from a Probabilistic Multi-Criteria Decision Making Technique Using Utility Theory

2005-10-03
2005-01-3434
In today’s aircraft design, more and more attention is paid to the conceptual and preliminary design stages in order to increase the capability of choosing a design that will be successful. Therefore, the decisions made during these design phases play a central role in determining the success of a design. Decision making techniques at these stages, must manage multiple, conflicting criteria and capture associated uncertainties. The method presented in this study was developed from Joint Probability Decision Making (JPDM), a probabilistic multiple criteria decision making technique. The proposed method eliminated the limitations that JPDM has by utilizing Utility Functions to represent the decision maker’s preference. An advanced rotorcraft concept selection problem is performed in order to demonstrate the improvements, and the results obtained from the proposed method and the JPDM technique are compared with each other.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Current Technology and Advanced Concepts for an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft

2005-10-03
2005-01-3399
A design process is formulated and implemented for the taxonomy selection and system-level optimization of an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft Current Technology Concept and an Advanced Concept. Concept space exploration of taxonomy alternatives is performed with multi-objective genetic algorithms and a Powell’s method scheme for vehicle optimization in a multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment. A dynamic sensitivity visualization analysis tool is generated for the Advanced Concept with response surface equations.
Technical Paper

Variable Cycle Optimization for Supersonic Commercial Applications

2005-10-03
2005-01-3400
Variable cycle engines (VCEs) hold promise as an enabling technology for supersonic business jet (SBJ) applications. Fuel consumption can potentially be minimized by modulating the engine cycle between the subsonic and supersonic phases of flight. The additional flexibility may also contribute toward meeting takeoff and landing noise and emissions requirements. Several different concepts have been and are currently being investigated to achieve variable cycle operation. The core-driven fan stage (CDFS) variable cycle engine is perhaps the most mature concept since an engine of this type flew in the USAF Advanced Tactical Fighter prototype program in the 1990s. Therefore, this type of VCE is of particular interest for potential commercial application. To investigate the potential benefits of a CDFS variable cycle engine, a parametric model is developed using the NASA Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS).
Technical Paper

Technology Assessment of a Supersonic Business Jet

2005-10-03
2005-01-3393
This paper presents a quantitative process to track the progress of technology developments within NASA’s Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) as implemented on a Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ). The process, called the Technology Metric Assessment and Tracking (TMAT) process, accounts for the temporal aspects of technology development programs such that technology portfolio assessments, in the form of technological progress towards VSP sector goals, may be tracked and assessed. Progress tracking of internal research and development programs is an essential element to successful strategic endeavors and justification of the pursuit of capital projects [1].
Technical Paper

Impact of Sampling Technique Selection on the Creation of Response Surface Models

2004-11-02
2004-01-3134
This paper evaluates and compares a variety of sampling techniques, including both classical and modern Designs of Experiments, to create a more structured approach to selecting the most apt DoE for a specific type of problem. Six different designs are investigated through a design analysis for a notional commercial aircraft. The appropriateness of each sampling technique is determined based on a number of criteria, including code execution time, independent variable correlation, and distribution of data points throughout the design space. Additionally, the resulting models are evaluated using a systematic procedure for checking quality to quantify the accuracy and predictive capability of a given model.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Physics-Based Decision-Making Framework for Evaluation of the Multidisciplinary Aircraft Uncertainty

2003-09-08
2003-01-3055
In today's business climate, aerospace companies are more than ever in need of rational methods and techniques that provide insights as to the best strategies which may be pursued for increased profitability and risk mitigation. However, the use of subjective, anecdotal decision-making remains prevalent due to the absence of analytical methods capable of capturing and forecasting future needs. Negotiations between airframe and engine manufacturers could benefit greatly from a structured environment that facilitates efficient, rational, decision-making. Creation of such an environment can be developed through a parametric physics-based, stochastic formulation that uses Response Surface Equations as meta-models to expedite the process.
Technical Paper

Identification and Evaluation of Technologies for the Development of a Quiet Supersonic Business Jet

2002-11-05
2002-01-2927
The success of business jets like the Citation X, the fastest civil aircraft in use after the Concorde, highlights the need for speed to improve business and globalization. Currently, developing a supersonic business jet has many technical and economical impediments. These obstacles include sonic boom, emissions and noise requirements problems that are easily meet or do not exist for subsonic aircraft. A baseline aircraft, defined by an optimization process, is the starting point for this study. However, this baseline aircraft does not meet the sonic boom, emissions and noise requirements, which are very strict. Companion studies to this one indicate that it may be possible to meet emissions and noise requirements, but it is clear that technology infusion is necessary for the future viability of this aircraft concept to succeed.
Technical Paper

A Technique for Selecting Emerging Technologies for a Fleet of Commercial Aircraft to Maximize R&D Investment

2001-09-11
2001-01-3018
A solid business case is highly dependent upon a strategic technology research and development plan in the early phases of product design. The embodiment of a strategic technology development plan is the identification and subsequent funding of high payoff technology programs that can maximize a company’s return on investment, which entails both performance and economic objectives. This paper describes a technique whereby the high payoff technologies may be identified across multiple platforms to quantitatively justify resource allocation decisions and investment opportunities. A proof of concept investigation was performed on a fleet of subsonic, commercial aircraft.
Technical Paper

Development of an Object Oriented Vehicle Library for Automated Design Analysis

2001-09-11
2001-01-3034
In today’s emerging parametric and probabilistic design environments, disciplinary or multidisciplinary analysis data are represented efficiently with the use of metamodels. Each metamodel is an efficient replacement for a particular design analysis tool. An object oriented library is developed in this paper to represent vehicle configuration in a generic manner and assist the analysis data collection for the metamodeling process. The library is used to produce input files for design analysis tools. It can also be used to create preprocessors for integration environments used in the design process. This allows for smoother integrations of analysis programs within such environments as the environment now needs only replace data in one central input file rather than a file for each analysis tool.
Technical Paper

A Bayesian Approach to Non-Deterministic Hypersonic Vehicle Design

2001-09-11
2001-01-3033
Affordable, reliable endo- and exoatmospheric transportation, for both the military and commercial sectors, grows in importance as the world grows smaller and space exploration and exploitation increasingly impact our daily lives. However, the impact of disciplinary, operational, and technological uncertainties inhibit the design of the requisite hypersonic vehicles, an inherently multidisciplinary and non-deterministic process. Without investigation, these components of design uncertainty undermine the designers’ decision-making confidence. In this paper, the authors propose a new probabilistic design method, using Bayesian Statistics techniques, which allows assessment of the impact of disciplinary uncertainty on the confidence in the design solution. The proposed development of a two-stage reusable launch vehicle configuration highlights the means to first quantify the fidelity of the disciplinary analysis tools utilized, then propagate such to the vehicle system level.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Mission Sizing Methodology Applied to the Common Support Aircraft

2001-09-11
2001-01-3014
A methodology is developed for the rapid quantification and exploration of the design space of a multi-mission vehicle. This method is applied to the Common Support Aircraft, a vehicle with four separate missions, to determine which is most critical to size the vehicle. The Airborne Early Warning mission is shown to be critical for sizing the Common Support Aircraft. Furthermore, the method developed gives a feel for the excess capability of the aircraft in its other support roles. Finally, this methodology is shown to be useful in the creation of balanced requirements for multi-mission vehicles.
Technical Paper

An Improved Procedure for Prediction of Drag Polars of a Joined Wing Concept Using Physics-Based Response Surface Methodology

2001-09-11
2001-01-3015
Creation and utilization of accurate drag polars is essential in the aircraft sizing and synthesis process. Existing sizing and synthesis codes are based on historical data and cannot capture the aerodynamics of a non-conventional aircraft at the conceptual design phase. The fidelity of the aerodynamic analysis should be enhanced to increase the designer’s confidence in the results. Hence, there is need for a physics-based approach to generate the drag polars of an aircraft lying outside the conventional realm. The deficiencies of the legacy codes should be removed and replaced with higher fidelity meta-model representations. This is facilitated with response surface methodology (RSM), which is a mathematical and statistical technique that is suited for the modeling and analysis of problems in which the responses, the drag coefficients in this case, are influenced by several variables. The geometric input variables are chosen so that they represent a multitude of configurations.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Assessing Survivability Tradeoffs in the Preliminary Design Process

2000-10-10
2000-01-5589
Aircraft survivability is a key metric that contributes to the overall system effectiveness of military aircraft as well as to a lower life cycle cost. The aircraft designer, thus, must have a complete and thorough understanding of the interrelationships between the components of survivability and the other traditional disciplines as well as how they affect the overall life cycle cost of the aircraft. If this understanding occurs, the designer can then evaluate which components and technologies will create the most robust aircraft system with the best system effectiveness at the lowest cost. A synthesis and modeling environment is formulated and presented that will allow trade-off studies and analysis of survivability concepts to be conducted. This environment then becomes the testbed used to develop a comprehensive and structured probabilistic methodology, called the Probabilistic System of System Effectiveness Methodology (POSSEM), that will allow these trades to be conducted.
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