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Journal Article

Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station (Mission 1 Through Mission 17)

2009-07-12
2009-01-2485
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-17 (since November 2, 2000, through October 23, 2008). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

The Prospects for Development of Regenerative Life Support Systems of Space and Planetary Stations

2008-06-29
2008-01-2188
Based on experience obtained in operation of the water and oxygen recovery systems installed onboard the Russian space stations Salut, Mir and the International Space Station ISS, data on the water and oxygen balance for a space station are presented as well as operational parameters and performance data of the systems. Using the data obtained design analysis of an integrated life support system for water and oxygen recovery based on physical/chemical means to be installed on a promising space station is carried out. Mandatory verification tests of new process (technologies) and recovery systems are to be conducted on ISS.
Technical Paper

srv-k Status Aboard the International Space Station During Missions 15 and 16

2008-06-29
2008-01-2191
The paper summarizes the experience gained on the ISS water management system during the missions of ISS-1 through ISS-16 (since November 2 2000, through December 31, 2007). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on a board the ISS and the need to supplement the station's water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine, water from a carbon dioxide reduction system and hygiene water is shown.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery on the International Space Station: The Perspectives of Space Stations' Water Supply Systems

2007-07-09
2007-01-3174
The paper summarizes the six years' experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-14 (since November 2, 2000 through October 31, 2006). The water supply sources, consumption structure and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery during space missions and the prospects of regenerative water supply of an interplanetary space station are discussed. The aim of this paper is to summarize the water supply experience and to provide recommendations for a perspective water supply integrated system based on water recovery.
Technical Paper

The Performance of the System for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate (SRV-K) on International Space Station, ISS Missions 1 through 11

2006-07-17
2006-01-2269
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-11 (since November 2 2000, through October 10, 2005). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is shown. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

Water Supply of the Crew of a Space Station Through Water Recovery and Water Delivery: SRV-K and SPK-U System Operation on ISS

2005-07-11
2005-01-2806
The paper summarizes the experience gained with the ISS water management system during the missions ISS-1 through ISS-10 (since November 2 2000, through November 30, 2004). The water supply sources and structure, consumption and supply balance and balance specifics at various phases of space station operation are reviewed. The performance data of the system for water recovery from humidity condensate SRV-K and urine feed and pretreatment system SPK-U in the Russian orbital segment are presented. The key role of water recovery on board the ISS and the need to supplement the station’s water supply hardware with a system for water reclamation from urine SRV-U is emphasized. The prospects of regenerative water supply system development are considered.
Technical Paper

Trace Contaminant Dynamics Simulation Model for TCRS Design Concept

2005-07-11
2005-01-2861
This paper deals with the development of the Trace Contaminant Dynamics Simulation Model (TCDSM) intended for the design concept of Trace Contaminants Removal System (TCRS) in development of a Space Vehicle Manned Pressurized Module (PM). The formalized description of the TCDSM includes the nonlinear equations of mass balance for the specific contaminants and the formalized descriptions of the contaminants sources and sinks. The crew and the PM non-metallic structural materials are main sources of contaminants. The air environments of the docking resupply (RSV) and crew-carrying space vehicles (CCSV) are the additional sources and sinks of the contaminants. The formalized description of the TCRS as the main sink of the contaminants takes into account the specific contaminants removal features based on the distribution factors defining its adsorptive capacity.
Technical Paper

Off-normal Situations Related to the Operation of the Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System aboard the International Space Station

2005-07-11
2005-01-2803
The Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS) is a main source of oxygen for crew breathing on the International Space Station (ISS) and the result of updating the Electron-V OGS that has been in successful operation for 17 years on Mir Space Station. The successful accomplishment of a manned flight program primarily has resulted in the stable operation of the system. The paper deals with analysis of off-normal situations related to the operation of the Electron-VM on board ISS. The system switching-off analysis based on the telemetry information processing and the results of the additional tests conducted under flight and ground conditions is performed. A principal cause of system switching-offs is a reduction in the pressure built by the circulating pumps due to ingress of gas bubbles into the suction pipeline. The results of the Electron-VM OGS switching-off analysis and the practical recommendations regarding its prevention are reviewed.
Technical Paper

SRV-K Status aboard the International Space Station and Water Recovery Future Prospects

2004-07-19
2004-01-2489
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda integrated water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS) as of March 31, 2004. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. It is shown that water recovery from humidity condensate has been especially important when water delivery by Space Shuttles was terminated. The SRV-K contribution in potable water supply for crew needs was up to 76%. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown. Water recovery future prospects are discussed.
Technical Paper

Operation Results Onboard the International Space Station and Development Tendency of Atmosphere Revitalization and Monitoring System

2004-07-19
2004-01-2494
The Regenerative Atmosphere Revitalization and Monitoring system (ARMS), been part of Integrated Life Support System (ILSS), is intended for maintenance in the manned modules of a necessary chemical composition of an artificial gas atmosphere (AGA) on base of the crew metabolism product transform to environment initial components. Generally, the ARMS structure includes the individual systems and units intended for: → oxygen generation; → carbon dioxide removal and it concentration; → trace contaminants removal; → carbon dioxide reduction with the goal to produce an additional quantity of water necessary to increase the degree of the oxygen loop clousure. The ARMS structure of the International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment (RS) includes the Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Vozdukh Carbon Dioxide Removal System (CDRS) and SBMP Trace Contaminants Removal Means (TCRM) installed in the Service Module.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection Abord the International Space Station

2003-07-07
2003-01-2622
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply and urine collection systems of the International Space Station (ISS) as of December 31, 2002. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

The Concept of an Ecotechnical System and Its Application to the Synthesis of the Structure of Integrated Life Support System

2002-07-15
2002-01-2390
This paper describes the concept of Ecotechnical System (ETS) based on the analysis of mass, power and data flow exchange within a biocenosis and between a biocenosis and technical systems that support life and activity of any biological entity in isolated environment of space vehicle. A biocenosis is considered to be a gathering of live organisms (generally people, animals, plants and micro-organisms) in an artificial habitat of the isolated environment. An Ecotechnical System is defined and it is shown that the given concept brings together different life support systems based on physical-chemical and biological means of regeneration of crew metabolic products. The existing limitations to the ETS development are reviewed in the paper in respect to limited volumes of space vehicles based on the vehicle characteristics and particular space program tasks. Three step analysis approach proposed for ETS effectiveness evaluation.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Oxygen Generation by Electrolysis Aboard the International Space Station

2002-07-15
2002-01-2358
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water and oxygen supply systems of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at the first 14 months of manned station functioning are provided. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The system of oxygen generation “Electron-VM” and its functioning results are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery and Urine Collection in the Service Module of the International Space Station

2001-07-09
2001-01-2355
The paper deals with the construction and performance data of the service module Zvezda water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS). The performance data at an initial phase of manned station functioning are provided. The data on humidity condensate and recovered water composition are reviewed. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. The effective cooperation of international partners on part of water supply for the crew is shown.
Technical Paper

Operation Simulation Modeling of Atmosphere Revitalization Systems for International Space Station Russian Segment

2000-07-10
2000-01-2367
This paper reviews Air Revitalization System (ARS) for Russian Segment of International Space Station software simulation development and implementation by the example the Service Module (SM) ARS. This simulation is designed for the ARS ground test functional analysis and in-flight support Individual ARS complex systems formal description is based on each system description as a unit, using information received from experiments and detailed simulations. Failure can be introduced for contingency simulation.
Technical Paper

Simulation Model of Crew for Operation Research of Integrative Life Support Systems

2000-07-10
2000-01-2368
This paper reviews a Crew Simulation Model (CSM) for Space Vehicle Integrative Life Support System (ILSS) operation study. It is designed to simulate crew metabolic reaction mass and energy flows in accelerated time mode with each crew member specifics consideration. This CSM formally is based on human body general simulation, which includes main functional systems like: the cardiac-vascular, external respiration, thermal regulation and water/mineral balance. Work and rest time schedules are also considered as well as each crew member presence in a particular module. The CSM considers trace contaminants in metabolic products due to nutrition and environment temperature. This simulations' formal review is shown in the paper as well as formal implementation with computed experiment results. Some of the possible applications are also approached.
Technical Paper

A Regenerative Water Supply System for the ISS Russian Segment

1999-07-12
1999-01-1951
This paper reviews the design and properties of the Water Supply System (WSS). It also discusses the water balance and its delivery amounts, as well as it presents diagrams and properties of water recovery system from humidity condensate WRS-CM and regeneration from urine WRS-UM which are the part of WSS. Some results of activities conducted for provision of water intake in a system of WRS-CM from different modules of station are shown and the problems of WSS interaction of Russian segment (RS) and American segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development and Testing of a Vacuum Distillation Subsystem for Water Reclamation from Urine

1999-07-12
1999-01-1993
This paper reviews the development and testing of the distillation subsystem of water regeneration system from urine (WRS-UM) based on a method of vacuum distillation with a rotary multistage vacuum distiller and a thermal pump. Test results show that with relatively small power consumption the subsystem using rotary three-stage vacuum distiller provides high rates of heat and mass transfer processes, useful productivity and distillate quality. The conducted tests have confirmed that it will be efficient to use the presented system as a part of WRS-UM system in Russian segment of the International Space Station.
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis and Water Recovery Testing of Shuttle-Mir Humidity Condensate

1999-07-12
1999-01-2029
Humidity condensate collected and processed in-flight is an important component of a space station drinking water supply. Water recovery systems in general are designed to handle finite concentrations of specific chemical components. Previous analyses of condensate derived from spacecraft and ground sources showed considerable variation in composition. Consequently, an investigation was conducted to collect condensate on the Shuttle while the vehicle was docked to Mir, and return the condensate to Earth for testing. This scenario emulates an early ISS configuration during a Shuttle docking, because the atmospheres intermix during docking and the condensate composition should reflect that. During the STS-89 and STS-91 flights, a total volume of 50 liters of condensate was collected and returned. Inorganic and organic chemical analyses were performed on aliquots of the fluid.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Total Organic Carbon Analyzer in Testing of Water Recovery Systems for a Space Station

1999-07-12
1999-01-2034
The paper reviews the results obtained with a Sievers-820 total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer during ground tests of the Mir water recovery system (WRS). Calibration analysis results for water solution samples of individual compounds, typical of spacecraft atmospheric humidity condensate, and their mixtures are provided. Comparison of the test results to the calculated data and laboratory analyses performed by other methods are made. Analyzer readings are in good agreement with the chemical analyses of initial condensate and recovered water. The analyzer shows promise as an instrument for ground and future onboard spacecraft testing.
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