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Technical Paper

Detailed Analyses and Correlation of Fuel Effects on Stochastic Preignition

Stochastic or Low-Speed Preignition (SPI or LSPI) is an undesirable abnormal combustion phenomenon encountered in spark-ignition engines. It is characterized by very early heat release and high cylinder pressure and can cause knock, noise and ultimately engine damage. Much of the focus on mitigating SPI has been directed towards the engine oil formulation, leading to the emergence of the Sequence IX test and second-generation GM dexos® oil requirements. Engine design, calibration and fuels also contribute to the prevalence of SPI. As part of a recently completed research consortium, a series of engine tests were completed to determine the impact of fuel composition on SPI frequency. The fuel blends had varying levels of paraffins, olefins, aromatics and ethanol.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has become the preferred technology for spark-ignition engines resulting in greater specific power output and lower fuel consumption, and consequently reduction in CO2 emission. However, GDI engines face a substantial challenge in meeting new and future emission limits, especially the stringent particle number (PN) emissions recently introduced in Europe and China. Studies have shown that the fuel used by a vehicle has a significant impact on engine out emissions. In this study, nine fuels with varying chemical composition and physical properties were tested on a modern turbo-charged side-mounted GDI engine with design changes to reduce particulate emissions. The fuels tested included four fuels meeting US certification requirements; two fuels meeting European certification requirements; and one fuel meeting China 6 certification requirements being proposed at the time of this work.
Technical Paper

A Robust Preignition Rating Methodology: Evaluating the Propensity to Establish Propagating Flames under Real Engine Conditions

In this work, an experimental and analysis methodology was developed to evaluate the preignition propensity of fuels and engine operating conditions in an SI engine. A heated glow plug was introduced into the combustion chamber to induce early propagating flames. As the temperature of the glowplug varied, both the fraction of cycles experiencing these early flames and the phasing of this combustion in the engine cycle varied. A statistical methodology for assigning a single-value to this complex behavior was developed and found to have very good repeatability. The effects of engine operating conditions and fuels were evaluated using this methodology. While this study is not directly studying the so-called stochastic preignition or low-speed preignition problem, it studies one aspect of that problem in a very controlled manner.
Technical Paper

China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
Technical Paper

Global Market Gasoline Range Fuel Review using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

The Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the gasoline range fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the gasoline range fuels, with good correlation agreement to PMI. In addition, the paper will cover a global assessment of a gasoline range fuel’s sooting tendency based on the PMI number and the proposed method. Areas around the globe where market gasoline range fuels are of concern will be highlighted, in coordination with the new emissions regulations. Vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuel Octane Rating and Aromatic Content on Stochastic Pre-Ignition

The effects of aromatic content and octane rating of gasoline fuels on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI) behaviors were investigated at typical operating conditions using a modern 2.0 L turbocharged engine. In-cylinder pressure time history measurements made during a speed-load test sequence designed to stimulate SPI were used to determine both the frequency of SPI occurrence and the in-cylinder peak pressure during such events. Six fuels were tested with varying levels of aromatic content (15 - 35% by vol.) and two octane rating levels (∼88 & 94 anti-knock index). The engine was operated using a production-intent calibration with equivalence ratio near one. Pressure and temperature in the intake manifold were held constant near two bar and 35°C respectively. Significant SPI activity was observed, with abnormal event frequencies up to ∼1 SPI event per 1,000 engine cycles and in-cylinder peak pressures up to ∼200 bar.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Corrosion Inhibitors and Fuel Detergents on Powertrain Intake Valve Deposits

Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution systems used for transportation of fuel from refineries. They are also used to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of the types of inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and to show how variation in concentration of components of CIs and detergents impact intake valve deposit formation.
Journal Article

Fuel Octane and Volatility Effects on the Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behavior of a 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI Engine

Classic, hot-spot induced pre-ignition is a phenomenon that has been observed in gasoline spark ignited engines over the past 60-70 years. With the development of turbocharged, direct-injected (DI) gasoline engines, a new pre-ignition phenomenon occurring at low engine speeds and high loads has been encountered. Termed Stochastic Pre-ignition (SPI), it has become a significant issue to address in allowing for the full potential of gasoline turbo DI technology to improve powertrain efficiency. Many researchers are studying all aspects of the causes of Stochastic Pre-ignition, including causes by oil, fuel and engine hardware systems. The focus of this specific research was to study the relationship of fuel octane and volatility to Stochastic Pre-ignition behavior utilizing a GM 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI engine (LHU).
Technical Paper

Destruction of Nitric Oxide via Selective NOx Recirculation During Lean Combustion: A Comparison of Various Engines and Fuels

A series of experiments were performed using a Yanmar TS180, single cylinder, indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine, a natural gas fueled, Olympian G25F1S, spark-ignited, 25 kilowatt generator, and a two-stroke, multi-fuel, spark ignited engine to provide a diverse research platform for the study of in-cylinder NOx destruction (Conversion of NO). For each type of engine, the NOx recirculation step of the selective NOx recirculation (SNR) cycle was simulated by injecting pure nitric oxide (NO) into the intake air at various concentrations, depending on engine type and operating conditions. Previous researchers have attempted to characterize NOx destruction behavior by simulating the NOx recirculation step in both diesel and gasoline engines. Some prior work has suggested that NOx destruction behavior in diesel engines is not dependent on the amount of NO present in the intake air, and that the NOx destruction efficiency was greatly enhanced by increasing engine load.