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Technical Paper

Detailed Analyses and Correlation of Fuel Effects on Stochastic Preignition

2020-04-14
2020-01-0612
Stochastic or Low-Speed Preignition (SPI or LSPI) is an undesirable abnormal combustion phenomenon encountered in spark-ignition engines. It is characterized by very early heat release and high cylinder pressure and can cause knock, noise and ultimately engine damage. Much of the focus on mitigating SPI has been directed towards the engine oil formulation, leading to the emergence of the Sequence IX test and second-generation GM dexos® oil requirements. Engine design, calibration and fuels also contribute to the prevalence of SPI. As part of a recently completed research consortium, a series of engine tests were completed to determine the impact of fuel composition on SPI frequency. The fuel blends had varying levels of paraffins, olefins, aromatics and ethanol.
Technical Paper

Fast Gas Analyzer Observations of Stochastic Preignition Events

2019-04-02
2019-01-0254
The goal of this study was to generate exhaust fast gas data that could be used to identify phenomena that occur before, during, and after stochastic preignition (SPI), also called low-speed preignition (LSPI), events. Crank angle resolved measurement of exhaust hydrocarbons, NO, CO, and CO2 was performed under engine conditions prone to these events. Fuels and engine operating strategies were varied in an attempt to understand similarities and differences in SPI-related behavior that may occur between them. Several different uncommon (typically occurring in less than 1% of engine cycles) features of the fast gas data were identified, and the correlations between them and SPI events were explored. Although the thresholds used to define and identify these observations were arbitrary, they provided a practical means of identifying behavior in the fast gas data and correlating it to SPI occurrence.
Journal Article

Fuel & Lubricant Effects on Stochastic Preignition

2019-01-15
2019-01-0038
In this multi-phase study, fuel and lubricant effects on stochastic preignition (SPI) were examined. First, the behavior of fuels for which SPI data had previously been collected were characterized in terms of their combustion and emissions behavior, and correlations between these characteristics and their SPI behavior were examined. Second, new SPI data was collected for a matrix of fuels that was constructed to test and confirm hypotheses that resulted from interpretation of the earlier data in the study and from data in open literature. Specifically, the extent to which the presence of heavy components in the fuel affected SPI propensity, and the extent to which flame initiation propensity affected SPI propensity, were examined. Finally, the interaction of fuels with lubricants expected to exhibit a range of SPI propensities was examined.
Technical Paper

A Robust Preignition Rating Methodology: Evaluating the Propensity to Establish Propagating Flames under Real Engine Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2241
In this work, an experimental and analysis methodology was developed to evaluate the preignition propensity of fuels and engine operating conditions in an SI engine. A heated glow plug was introduced into the combustion chamber to induce early propagating flames. As the temperature of the glowplug varied, both the fraction of cycles experiencing these early flames and the phasing of this combustion in the engine cycle varied. A statistical methodology for assigning a single-value to this complex behavior was developed and found to have very good repeatability. The effects of engine operating conditions and fuels were evaluated using this methodology. While this study is not directly studying the so-called stochastic preignition or low-speed preignition problem, it studies one aspect of that problem in a very controlled manner.
Technical Paper

China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

2017-10-08
2017-01-2401
The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
Technical Paper

Global Market Gasoline Range Fuel Review using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

2016-10-17
2016-01-2251
The Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the gasoline range fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the gasoline range fuels, with good correlation agreement to PMI. In addition, the paper will cover a global assessment of a gasoline range fuel’s sooting tendency based on the PMI number and the proposed method. Areas around the globe where market gasoline range fuels are of concern will be highlighted, in coordination with the new emissions regulations. Vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuel Octane Rating and Aromatic Content on Stochastic Pre-Ignition

2016-04-05
2016-01-0721
The effects of aromatic content and octane rating of gasoline fuels on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI) behaviors were investigated at typical operating conditions using a modern 2.0 L turbocharged engine. In-cylinder pressure time history measurements made during a speed-load test sequence designed to stimulate SPI were used to determine both the frequency of SPI occurrence and the in-cylinder peak pressure during such events. Six fuels were tested with varying levels of aromatic content (15 - 35% by vol.) and two octane rating levels (∼88 & 94 anti-knock index). The engine was operated using a production-intent calibration with equivalence ratio near one. Pressure and temperature in the intake manifold were held constant near two bar and 35°C respectively. Significant SPI activity was observed, with abnormal event frequencies up to ∼1 SPI event per 1,000 engine cycles and in-cylinder peak pressures up to ∼200 bar.
Journal Article

Fuel Octane and Volatility Effects on the Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behavior of a 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1226
Classic, hot-spot induced pre-ignition is a phenomenon that has been observed in gasoline spark ignited engines over the past 60-70 years. With the development of turbocharged, direct-injected (DI) gasoline engines, a new pre-ignition phenomenon occurring at low engine speeds and high loads has been encountered. Termed Stochastic Pre-ignition (SPI), it has become a significant issue to address in allowing for the full potential of gasoline turbo DI technology to improve powertrain efficiency. Many researchers are studying all aspects of the causes of Stochastic Pre-ignition, including causes by oil, fuel and engine hardware systems. The focus of this specific research was to study the relationship of fuel octane and volatility to Stochastic Pre-ignition behavior utilizing a GM 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI engine (LHU).
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