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Technical Paper

Development of an Alternative Predictive Model for Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter and Particulate Number

2019-04-02
2019-01-1184
The Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the gasoline fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the gasoline range fuels, called the Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI), and provide the detailed equation in its initial form. In addition, the PEI will be shown to have a good correlation agreement to PMI. The paper will then give a detailed explanation of the data used to develop it. Initial vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
Technical Paper

Fast Gas Analyzer Observations of Stochastic Preignition Events

2019-04-02
2019-01-0254
The goal of this study was to generate exhaust fast gas data that could be used to identify phenomena that occur before, during, and after stochastic preignition (SPI), also called low-speed preignition (LSPI), events. Crank angle resolved measurement of exhaust hydrocarbons, NO, CO, and CO2 was performed under engine conditions prone to these events. Fuels and engine operating strategies were varied in an attempt to understand similarities and differences in SPI-related behavior that may occur between them. Several different uncommon (typically occurring in less than 1% of engine cycles) features of the fast gas data were identified, and the correlations between them and SPI events were explored. Although the thresholds used to define and identify these observations were arbitrary, they provided a practical means of identifying behavior in the fast gas data and correlating it to SPI occurrence.
Journal Article

Fuel & Lubricant Effects on Stochastic Preignition

2019-01-15
2019-01-0038
In this multi-phase study, fuel and lubricant effects on stochastic preignition (SPI) were examined. First, the behavior of fuels for which SPI data had previously been collected were characterized in terms of their combustion and emissions behavior, and correlations between these characteristics and their SPI behavior were examined. Second, new SPI data was collected for a matrix of fuels that was constructed to test and confirm hypotheses that resulted from interpretation of the earlier data in the study and from data in open literature. Specifically, the extent to which the presence of heavy components in the fuel affected SPI propensity, and the extent to which flame initiation propensity affected SPI propensity, were examined. Finally, the interaction of fuels with lubricants expected to exhibit a range of SPI propensities was examined.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0358
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has become the preferred technology for spark-ignition engines resulting in greater specific power output and lower fuel consumption, and consequently reduction in CO2 emission. However, GDI engines face a substantial challenge in meeting new and future emission limits, especially the stringent particle number (PN) emissions recently introduced in Europe and China. Studies have shown that the fuel used by a vehicle has a significant impact on engine out emissions. In this study, nine fuels with varying chemical composition and physical properties were tested on a modern turbo-charged side-mounted GDI engine with design changes to reduce particulate emissions. The fuels tested included four fuels meeting US certification requirements; two fuels meeting European certification requirements; and one fuel meeting China 6 certification requirements being proposed at the time of this work.
Technical Paper

China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

2017-10-08
2017-01-2401
The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuel Property Correlations to the Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI)

2016-10-17
2016-01-2250
The Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a very helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and vehicle OEMs as a metric to understand a fuels impact on automotive engine sooting, in preparation for new global emissions regulations. The calculation of the index involves generating detailed hydrocarbon analysis (hydrocarbon molecular speciation) using gas chromatography laboratory equipment and the PMI calculation requires the exact list of compounds and correct naming conventions to work properly. The analytical methodology can be cumbersome, when the gas chromatography methodology has to be adjusted for new compounds that are not in the method, or if the compounds are not matching the list for quantification. Also, the method itself is relatively expensive, and not easily transferrable between labs.
Technical Paper

Global Market Gasoline Range Fuel Review using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

2016-10-17
2016-01-2251
The Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the gasoline range fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the gasoline range fuels, with good correlation agreement to PMI. In addition, the paper will cover a global assessment of a gasoline range fuel’s sooting tendency based on the PMI number and the proposed method. Areas around the globe where market gasoline range fuels are of concern will be highlighted, in coordination with the new emissions regulations. Vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuel Octane Rating and Aromatic Content on Stochastic Pre-Ignition

2016-04-05
2016-01-0721
The effects of aromatic content and octane rating of gasoline fuels on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI) behaviors were investigated at typical operating conditions using a modern 2.0 L turbocharged engine. In-cylinder pressure time history measurements made during a speed-load test sequence designed to stimulate SPI were used to determine both the frequency of SPI occurrence and the in-cylinder peak pressure during such events. Six fuels were tested with varying levels of aromatic content (15 - 35% by vol.) and two octane rating levels (∼88 & 94 anti-knock index). The engine was operated using a production-intent calibration with equivalence ratio near one. Pressure and temperature in the intake manifold were held constant near two bar and 35°C respectively. Significant SPI activity was observed, with abnormal event frequencies up to ∼1 SPI event per 1,000 engine cycles and in-cylinder peak pressures up to ∼200 bar.
Journal Article

Fuel Octane and Volatility Effects on the Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behavior of a 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1226
Classic, hot-spot induced pre-ignition is a phenomenon that has been observed in gasoline spark ignited engines over the past 60-70 years. With the development of turbocharged, direct-injected (DI) gasoline engines, a new pre-ignition phenomenon occurring at low engine speeds and high loads has been encountered. Termed Stochastic Pre-ignition (SPI), it has become a significant issue to address in allowing for the full potential of gasoline turbo DI technology to improve powertrain efficiency. Many researchers are studying all aspects of the causes of Stochastic Pre-ignition, including causes by oil, fuel and engine hardware systems. The focus of this specific research was to study the relationship of fuel octane and volatility to Stochastic Pre-ignition behavior utilizing a GM 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI engine (LHU).
Technical Paper

Destruction of Nitric Oxide via Selective NOx Recirculation During Lean Combustion: A Comparison of Various Engines and Fuels

2006-10-16
2006-01-3369
A series of experiments were performed using a Yanmar TS180, single cylinder, indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine, a natural gas fueled, Olympian G25F1S, spark-ignited, 25 kilowatt generator, and a two-stroke, multi-fuel, spark ignited engine to provide a diverse research platform for the study of in-cylinder NOx destruction (Conversion of NO). For each type of engine, the NOx recirculation step of the selective NOx recirculation (SNR) cycle was simulated by injecting pure nitric oxide (NO) into the intake air at various concentrations, depending on engine type and operating conditions. Previous researchers have attempted to characterize NOx destruction behavior by simulating the NOx recirculation step in both diesel and gasoline engines. Some prior work has suggested that NOx destruction behavior in diesel engines is not dependent on the amount of NO present in the intake air, and that the NOx destruction efficiency was greatly enhanced by increasing engine load.
Technical Paper

Penn State FutureTruck Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Light-Duty Diesel Exhaust Emission Control System to Meet ULEV Emissions Standard

2005-10-24
2005-01-3877
Two of the goals of the Penn State FutureTruck project were to reduce the emissions of the hybrid electric Ford Explorer to ULEV or lower, and improve the fuel economy by 25% over the stock vehicle. The hybrid electric vehicle system is powered with a 103kW 2.5L Detroit Diesel engine which operates with a fuel blend consisting of ultra-low-sulfur diesel and biodiesel (35%). Lower emissions are inherently achieved by the use of biodiesel. Additionally, the engine was fitted with a series of aftertreatment devices in an effort to achieve the low emissions standards. Vehicle testing has shown a gasoline-equivalent fuel economy improvement of approximately 22%, a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 38%, and meeting or exceeding stock emissions numbers in all other categories through the use of an advanced catalyst and control strategy.
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