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Technical Paper

China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
Technical Paper

Global Market Gasoline Range Fuel Review using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

The Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the gasoline range fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the gasoline range fuels, with good correlation agreement to PMI. In addition, the paper will cover a global assessment of a gasoline range fuel’s sooting tendency based on the PMI number and the proposed method. Areas around the globe where market gasoline range fuels are of concern will be highlighted, in coordination with the new emissions regulations. Vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuel Octane Rating and Aromatic Content on Stochastic Pre-Ignition

The effects of aromatic content and octane rating of gasoline fuels on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI) behaviors were investigated at typical operating conditions using a modern 2.0 L turbocharged engine. In-cylinder pressure time history measurements made during a speed-load test sequence designed to stimulate SPI were used to determine both the frequency of SPI occurrence and the in-cylinder peak pressure during such events. Six fuels were tested with varying levels of aromatic content (15 - 35% by vol.) and two octane rating levels (∼88 & 94 anti-knock index). The engine was operated using a production-intent calibration with equivalence ratio near one. Pressure and temperature in the intake manifold were held constant near two bar and 35°C respectively. Significant SPI activity was observed, with abnormal event frequencies up to ∼1 SPI event per 1,000 engine cycles and in-cylinder peak pressures up to ∼200 bar.
Journal Article

Fuel Octane and Volatility Effects on the Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behavior of a 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI Engine

Classic, hot-spot induced pre-ignition is a phenomenon that has been observed in gasoline spark ignited engines over the past 60-70 years. With the development of turbocharged, direct-injected (DI) gasoline engines, a new pre-ignition phenomenon occurring at low engine speeds and high loads has been encountered. Termed Stochastic Pre-ignition (SPI), it has become a significant issue to address in allowing for the full potential of gasoline turbo DI technology to improve powertrain efficiency. Many researchers are studying all aspects of the causes of Stochastic Pre-ignition, including causes by oil, fuel and engine hardware systems. The focus of this specific research was to study the relationship of fuel octane and volatility to Stochastic Pre-ignition behavior utilizing a GM 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI engine (LHU).
Journal Article

Geometric and Topological Considerations to Maximize Remotely Mounted Cylinder Pressure Transducer Data Quality

The piezoelectric cylinder pressure transducer is ubiquitous for developing and optimizing the combustion process in modern internal combustion engines. Over the past three decades, significant advances in cylinder pressure transducer technology and enormous advances in digital computing sophistication have made the acquisition and analysis of engine cylinder pressure the cornerstone diagnostic tool for today’s engine combustion community. Such improvements in the ease of acquiring cylinder pressure based metrics have, in many instances, fostered the assertion that the transducer is faithfully indicating the actual in-cylinder pressure. Careful analysis, however, can uncover anomalies in the cylinder pressure data quality resulting from thermal shock [1]. Randolph [2] laid the foundation for General Motor’s pursuit of remotely mounted piezoelectric cylinder pressure transducers, with fresh approaches to connecting passage design and the thermal protection of the transducer diaphragm.